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Rochester, MN, United States

Iankov I.D.,Mayo Medical School | Haralambieva I.H.,Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group | Galanis E.,Mayo Medical School
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped microorganism associated with acute and chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphomas in humans. H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein (NAP) is a major virulence factor playing a central role in pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation by immune cell attraction and Th1 cytokine response polarization. NAP is protective antigen and promising vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection. Here we present the development of measles virus (MV) vaccine strain encoding the NAP antigen. In order to facilitate the extracellular transport and detection, NAP was inserted in the human lambda immunoglobulin chain replacing a major part of the variable domain. We generated two MV vectors expressing secretory NAP forms: MV-lambda-NAP encoding the full-length constant lambda light chain domain and MV-s-NAP encoding only the N-terminus of the lambda light chain with the leader peptide. Immunization of MV permissive Ifnarko-CD46Ge transgenic mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of the NAP-expressing strains induced a robust, long-term humoral and cellular immune response against MV. Nine months post vaccination measles-neutralizing antibody titers were above the serum level considered protective for humans. Furthermore, all animals immunized with MV strains expressing the secretory NAP antigen developed strong humoral immunity against NAP, reaching titers >1:10,000 within 2-4 weeks. IFN-γ ELISpot assay confirmed that NAP-encoding MV vectors can also stimulate NAP-specific cell-mediated immunity. Our data demonstrate that MV is an excellent vector platform for expression of bacterial antigens and development of vaccines for H. pylori immunoprophylaxis in humans. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Maltezou H.C.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Poland G.A.,Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for acquisition of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and vaccination is justified in order to protect them from occupational exposure and to prevent the spread of VPDs that pose a threat to susceptible patients. Review of European vaccination policies for HCWs revealed significant differences between countries in terms of recommended vaccines, implementation frame (mandatory or recommendation), target HCW groups and health-care settings. Further, the few published studies available identified indicate significant immunity gaps among HCWs against VPDs in Europe. In order to achieve higher vaccination coverage against VPDs stronger recommendations are needed. The issue of mandatory vaccination should be considered for diseases that can be transmitted to susceptible patients (influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, pertussis, varicella). The acceptance of vaccinations and of mandatory vaccinations by HCWs is a challenge and appears to be VPD-specific. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ottenberg A.L.,Bioethics Research Program | Wu J.T.,Bioethics Research Program | Poland G.A.,Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group | Jacobson R.M.,Mayo Medical School | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Despite improvements in clinician education, symptom awareness, and respiratory precautions, influenza vaccination rates for health care workers have remained unacceptably low for more than three decades, adversely affecting patient safety. When public health is jeopardized, and a safe, low-cost, and effective method to achieve patient safety exists, health care organizations and public health authorities have a responsibility to take action and change the status quo. Mandatory influenza vaccination for health care workers is supported not only by scientific data but also by ethical principles and legal precedent. The recent influenza pandemic provides an opportunity for policymakers to reconsider the benefits of mandating influenza vaccination for health care workers, including building public trust, enhancing patient safety, and strengthening the health care workforce. Source

Maltezou H.C.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wicker S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Borg M.,Materials Dei Hospital | Heininger U.,University of Basel | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to evaluate existing policies regarding recommended and mandatory occupational vaccinations for health-care workers (HCWs) in Europe. A standardized questionnaire was sent to experts in Infection Control or Occupational Health in all 27 European Union Member States, as well as Norway, Russia, and Switzerland. All 30 countries have established policies about HCW vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases. However significant gaps and considerable country-to-country variation were found, in terms of number of recommended vaccines and target subgroups of HCWs and health-care settings. Vaccination against hepatitis B and annual vaccination against seasonal influenza are almost universally recommended for HCWs in Europe (29 countries each, including eight countries where vaccination against hepatitis B is mandatory or required for employment). Policies regarding HCW vaccination also exist against mumps (12 countries), measles or rubella (15 countries), varicella (17 countries), diphtheria-tetanus (14 countries), pertussis (9 countries), poliomyelitis (11 countries), hepatitis A (11 countries), tuberculosis (BCG vaccine) (9 countries), and against meningococcus group C or meningococci groups A, C, W135, Y (tetravalent vaccine) (in 4 countries each). Re-evaluation of occupational vaccine policies for HCWs in Europe on a consensus basis is imperative in order to promote HCW and patient safety. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Poland G.A.,Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group | Kennedy R.B.,Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group | McKinney B.A.,University of Tulsa | McKinney B.A.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research | And 5 more authors.
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2013

Vaccines, like drugs and medical procedures, are increasingly amenable to individualization or personalization, often based on novel data resulting from high throughput "omics" technologies. As a result of these technologies, 21st century vaccinology will increasingly see the abandonment of a "one size fits all" approach to vaccine dosing and delivery, as well as the abandonment of the empiric "isolate-inactivate-inject" paradigm for vaccine development. In this review, we discuss the immune response network theory and its application to the new field of vaccinomics and adversomics, and illustrate how vaccinomics can lead to new vaccine candidates, new understandings of how vaccines stimulate immune responses, new biomarkers for vaccine response, and facilitate the understanding of what genetic and other factors might be responsible for rare side effects due to vaccines. Perhaps most exciting will be the ability, at a systems biology level, to integrate increasingly complex high throughput data into descriptive and predictive equations for immune responses to vaccines. Herein, we discuss the above with a view toward the future of vaccinology. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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