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PubMed | Mayo Medical School, Cleveland Clinic, Aga Khan University and Mayo Clinic Transplant Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of hematology | Year: 2016

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is another complication of HSCT that may modify the risk of VTE. Our objective was to explore the incidence of VTE (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) following HSCT and to evaluate its association with GVHD. A comprehensive search of Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus was conducted to search for both retrospective and prospective HSCT studies which had reported VTE. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool incidence rates. We included 17 studies reporting on allogeneic- and 10 on autologous-HSCT; enrolling 6693 patients; of which 5 were randomized. The overall incidence of VTE after HSCT was 5%(4-7%). Incidence in allogeneic-HSCT was 4%(2-6%) and in autologous-HSCT was 4%(1-15%). Eleven and nine studies reported data on acute and chronic GVHD, respectively. The incidence of VTE in chronic GVHD was 35%(20-54%), whereas in acute GVHD it was 47%(32-62%). Based on the results of this meta-analysis, VTE is a fairly common complication after HSCT, emphasizing the importance of assimilating guidelines for both treatment and prophylaxis in this patient population.


Krowka M.J.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Miller D.P.,ICON Late Phase and Outcomes Research | Barst R.J.,Columbia University | Taichman D.,University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2012

Background: We evaluated survival and hospitalization rates in patients with group 1 portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL Registry). Methods: The REVEAL Registry is a multicenter, observational, US-based study evaluating demographics and management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Outcomes were examined using Kaplan-Meier time-to-event estimates and compared with patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) or familial PAH (FPAH). Results: One hundred seventy-four patients with PoPH were enrolled in the REVEAL Registry (IPAH/FPAH; n = 1,478) from March 2006 to December 2009. Mean age was 53 ± 10 years, 52% were female, 32% were newly diagnosed, and 6% were New York Heart Association/World Health Organization functional class IV. Outcome parameters were worse for PoPH vs IPAH/FPAH, respectively: 2-year survival from enrollment (67% vs 85%, P < .001), 5-year survival from time of diagnosis (40% vs 64%, P < .001), and 2-year freedom from all-cause hospitalization (49% vs 59%, P = .019). However, despite worse outcomes, hemodynamic parameters at diagnosis were better for PoPH vs IPAH/FPAH, respectively: mean pulmonary artery pressure (49 mm Hg vs 53 mm Hg, P < .001), mean right atrial pressure (9 mm Hg vs 10 mm Hg, P = .005), pulmonary vascular resistance (8 Wood units vs 12 Wood units, P < .001), and cardiac output (5 L/min vs 4 L/min, P < .001). Compared with patients with IPAH/FPAH, patients with PoPH were less likely to be on a PAH-specific therapy at enrollment (P < .001), suggesting potential delays in therapy for patients with PoPH. Conclusions: Patients with PoPH had significantly poorer survival and all-cause hospitalization rates compared with patients with IPAH/FPAH, despite having better hemodynamics at diagnosis. Further studies should investigate such outcomes and differences in treatment patterns. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00370214; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. © 2012 American College of Chest Physicians.


Hashmi S.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Oliva J.L.,University of Rochester | Liesveld J.L.,University of Rochester | Phillips G.L.,University of Rochester | And 2 more authors.
Leukemia Research | Year: 2013

Hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-specific-comorbidity-index (HCT-CI) has been reported as a predictor of survival in allogeneic-transplant recipients; however its validity has recently been challenged. We evaluated the association of HCT-CI with survival of transplant recipients who underwent reduced-intensity-conditioning (RIC) with photopheresis, pentostatin, and total-body-irradiation. Median age of 103 patients selected was 55 years. Most patients (58.3%) had high (≥3) HCT-CI. Median OS was 298 days. Age, disease-type, disease-status, HCT-CI correlated with survival on bivariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only HCT-CI was significantly associated with OS (low HCT-CI HR = 0.29, CI 0.091-0.886; intermediate HCT-CI HR = 0.41, CI 0.226-0.752). Our findings suggest HCT-CI as an independent predictor of survival in the setting of RIC transplants. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Watt K.D.S.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Coss E.,Foundation Medicine | Pedersen R.A.,Mayo Clinic and Foundation | Dierkhising R.,Mayo Clinic and Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2010

Optimizing the utility of liver transplantation requires the identification of factors that confer increased risk of posttransplant mortality. Elevated serum troponin (TN) levels are strongly predictive of posttransplant mortality after kidney transplantation. We sought to determine whether pretransplant TN levels were predictive of mortality and graft loss after liver transplantation in 236 liver transplant recipients from 1998 to 2001 with 8.2 years of follow-up. Elevated TN levels [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.19, P = 0.004] and a pretransplant history of cardiovascular disease (CVD; HR = 1.90, P = 0.031) were predictive of patient mortality. Elevated TN levels (HR = 2.44, P < 0.001), a history of CVD (HR = 1.83, P = 0.031), and a combination of elevated TN levels and CVD (HR = 2.75, P = 0.027) were associated with increased graft loss. Multivariate analysis confirmed TN and CVD as independent predictors of mortality and graft loss. CVD (HR = 2.39, P = 0.032) and a combination of elevated TN levels and a history of CVD (HR = 6.67, P < 0.001) were predictive of graft loss within 1 year. Age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, creatinine levels, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were not predictive of posttransplant mortality or graft loss. In summary, elevated pretransplant serum TN levels are strongly predictive of mortality and graft loss after liver transplantation and may be helpful in risk stratification of potential liver transplant recipients. © 2010 AASLD.


Gonwa T.A.,Mayo Clinic in Florida | Gonwa T.A.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Wadei H.M.,Mayo Clinic in Florida
Blood Purification | Year: 2012

Development of renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the cirrhotic patient is a devastating complication. Survival without RRT is less than 10% on average at 6 months. However, it is now appreciated that all renal failure in this group of patients is not due solely to hepatorenal syndrome, and the cause of the renal failure affects the prognosis. This paper reviews the prognosis depending on cause and points out the difficulty in making the correct diagnosis. Provision of RRT is difficult in this group of patients due to hypotension and coagulopathy which is highly prevalent. Survival with RRT is still poor with only 30-60% of patients surviving to liver transplant. Provision of RRT should be offered as a bridge to patients awaiting liver transplant or those undergoing liver transplant evaluation. Provision of long-term RRT is usually not indicated in other cirrhotic patients who develop a need for RRT except as a trial to see if renal function will return. The decision between intermittent hemodialysis or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is usually based on the clinical characteristics of the patient. Neither has been demonstrated to be superior to the other, although CRRT may be better tolerated in the unstable patient. CRRT is clearly indicated in cases of fulminant hepatic failure as it does not raise intracranial pressure. Provision of intraoperative CRRT during liver transplant may be indicated to help control volume and electrolytes in those patients presenting for liver transplant with renal failure. Newer extracorporeal support systems, such as extracorporeal albumin dialysis (MARS) and fractional plasma separation and adsorption with hemodialysis (Prometheus), have recently been developed to provide both renal and liver support in this group of patients. These are still considered experimental, although the MARS system has been utilized to treat patients with hepatorenal syndrome, and is available outside the United States. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Koning L.,Erasmus Medical Center | Koning L.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Charlton M.R.,Intermountain Medical Center | Pas S.D.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in immunocompromised patients can lead to severe liver disease. Treatment options for HEV include peginterferon or ribavirin, routinely also used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We determined the prevalence and clinical consequences of HEV in United States (US) based patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) for chronic HCV. Methods: Seroprevalence of HEV in 145 US LT recipients with a history of chronic HCV was determined pre-LT, 1, 3 and 5 years post-LT. All last available samples and all samples in IgM positive patients and post-LT IgG seroconverters were tested for HEV RNA. Results: Overall anti-HEV seroprevalence was 42 %. Five patients were HEV IgM positive pre-LT, one patient had IgM seroconversion post-LT and eight patients had IgG seroconversion post-LT. None of the tested samples were positive for HEV RNA. Eight out of nine of the post-LT seroconverters had been treated for HCV recurrence before or at the moment of seroconversion. Conclusions: LT recipients in the US are at risk of acquiring HEV. Post-LT HCV treatment with interferons and/or ribavirin may have protected patients against chronic HEV. With the arrival of new direct antiviral agents for the treatment of HCV and the elimination of peginterferon and ribavirin from HCV treatment regimens, the prevalence of chronic HEV in this population may rise again. © 2015 Koning et al.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Vanderbilt University, U.S. National Institutes of Health and Mayo Clinic Transplant Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2016

Continual advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have greatly improved early transplantation-related mortality and broadened the applicability of this intense but curative therapy. With growing success there is increasing awareness of late complications, occurring 1 year after treatment, and their associated morbidity and mortality in HCT survivors. These late effects occur with a wide spectrum in terms of latency, intensity, reversibility, and lethality. There is a need to understand the biology, surveillance, management, and patient experience of HCT-related effects, as well as the health care and research infrastructure to manage this growing population. To address these needs, the National Cancer Institute and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute cosponsored a 12-month initiative to identify barriers and knowledge gaps and to formulate research and practice recommendations. Six major areas of interest were identified: research methodology and study design, subsequent neoplasms, patient-centered outcomes, immune dysregulation and pathobiology, cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, and health care delivery. These findings were presented during the 2016 workshop and revised based on public response. This report provides an overview of the National Institutes of Health HCT Late Effects Initiative process and recommendations.


PubMed | Mayo Medical School, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Aga Khan University and Mayo Clinic Transplant Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of haematology | Year: 2016

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a relatively uncommon manifestation; with most cases of CNS involvement occuring during relapse after primary therapy. CNS dissemination typically occurs early in the disease course and is most likely present subclinically at the time of diagnosis in many patients who later relapse in the CNS. CNS relapse in these patients is associated with poor outcomes. Based on a CNS relapse rate of 5% in DLBCL and weighing the benefits against the toxicities, universal application of CNS prophylaxis is not justified. The introduction of rituximab has significantly reduced the incidence of CNS relapse in DLBCL. Different studies have employed other agents for CNS prophylaxis, such as intrathecal chemotherapy and high-dose systemic agents with sufficient CNS penetration. If CNS prophylaxis is to be given, it should be preferably administered during primary chemotherapy. However, there is no strong evidence that supports any single approach for CNS prophylaxis. In this review, we outline different strategies of administering CNS prophylaxis in DLBCL patients reported in literature and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.


Fussner L.A.,Mayo Medical School | Iyer V.N.,Mayo Medical School | Cartin-Ceba R.,Mayo Medical School | Lin G.,Mayo Medical School | And 3 more authors.
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2015

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) are pulmonary vascular complications of portal hypertension with divergent clinicopathologic features and management. The presence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVDs), detected by agitated saline contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography (cTTE), is an essential feature of HPS but is not typically characteristic of POPH. Although IPVDs have been reported rarely in POPH, the prevalence and significance of this finding have not been systematically studied. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 80 consecutive patients diagnosed with POPH from January 1, 2002 to June 30, 2014 with documentation of cTTE findings, pulmonary hemodynamics, oxygenation, and survival. A total of 34 of the 80 patients (42%) underwent cTTE during initial diagnosis of POPH. IPVDs were detected in 20/34 patients (59%); intracardiac shunting was detected in 9/34 patients (26%; 4 also had IPVDs); and 9 patients (26%) had negative cTTE with no evidence of IPVD or intracardiac shunting. Patients with IPVD had decreased survival as compared to those without IPVD (P = 0.003), a trend that persisted after exclusion of liver transplant recipients (P = 0.07). The IPVD group had a trend toward higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score with and without incorporating sodium (MELD or MELD-Na; P = 0.05 for both). The right ventricular index of myocardial performance (RIMP) was lower in the IPVD group (median, 0.4 versus 0.6; P = 0.006). Patients with moderate or large IPVDs (n = 6) had worse oxygenation parameters (partial pressure of arterial oxygen, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient) as compared to the rest of the cohort. Unexpectedly, IPVDs were frequently documented in POPH and associated with decreased survival. To further understand this observation, we recommend screening for IVPD in all patients with POPH. Liver Transpl 21:1355-1364, 2015. © 2015 AASLD. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Fussner L.A.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Charlton M.R.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Heimbach J.K.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | Fan C.,Mayo Clinic Transplant Center | And 3 more authors.
Liver International | Year: 2014

Background & Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) after liver transplant (LT) is associated with increased long-term mortality. The impact of gender on CKD before and after LT is unknown. To further define risk factors and analyse gender differences in the incidence and progression of CKD after liver transplant. Methods: Four hundred and fifty-five consecutive adult primary solitary LT recipients were included. Iothalamate clearance tests performed over time were analysed. Results: Mean age was 51.4 ± 10.4 years with 63% males. A percentage of 29.1% of females and 21.1% of males had a GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 10.2% of females and 5.9% of males had GFR<30 ml/min/1.73 m2 prior to transplant. At 1 year, 52.6% of recipients tested (69.6% females, 43.0% males) had GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 7.3% (11.6% females, 4.9% males) had GFR<30 ml/min/1.73 m2. Pre-LT GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 3.28, (1.76-6.10), P ≤ 0.001], female gender (OR 2.96, (1.72-5.10), P < 0.001) and age [OR 1.09, (1.05-1.12), P < 0.001] were independently predictive of stage ≥3 CKD at 1 year post-LT. Female gender [OR 2.52, (1.25-4.71), P = 0.004], age [OR 1.05, (1.02-1.08), P = 0.003] and NASH [OR 2.95, (1.06-8.21), P = 0.039] were independently predictive of ≥stage 3 CKD at 5 years post-LT. Pre-LT diabetes was associated with stage 4 CKD at 5 years [OR 2.91, (1.33-6.36), P = 0.008] post-LT. Conclusions: In addition to age and pre-LT CKD, female gender and NASH are independent predictors of ≥stage 3 CKD post-LT. Gender-based approaches to optimize modifiable risk factors are needed to improved post-transplant renal function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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