Mayo Clinic at Scottsdale

Scottsdale, AZ, United States

Mayo Clinic at Scottsdale

Scottsdale, AZ, United States

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Katabathina V.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Flaherty E.M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Dasyam A.K.,University of Pittsburgh | Menias C.O.,Mayo Clinic at Scottsdale | And 6 more authors.
Radiographics | Year: 2016

On the basis of the similarities in the histopathologic findings and the clinical-biologic behaviors of select biliary and pancreatic conditions, a new disease concept, “biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts,” has been proposed. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic pathologic conditions of the biliary tract have their counterparts in the pancreas. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)–related sclerosing cholangitis is the biliary manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is its pancreatic counterpart. People with chronic alcoholism can develop peribiliary cysts and fibrosis as well as pancreatic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis simultaneously. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous cystic neoplasm are considered pancreatic counterparts for the biliary neoplasms of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract, and hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, respectively. The anatomic proximity of the biliary tract and the pancreas, the nearly simultaneous development of both organs from the endoderm of the foregut, and the presence of pancreatic exocrine acini within the peribiliary glands surrounding the extrahepatic bile ducts are suggested as causative factors for these similarities. Interestingly, these diseases show “nearly” identical findings at cross-sectional imaging, an observation that further supports this new disease concept. New information obtained with regard to biliary diseases can be used for evaluation of pancreatic abnormalities, and vice versa. In addition, combined genetic and molecular studies may be performed to develop novel therapeutic targets. For both biliary and pancreatic diseases, imaging plays a pivotal role in initial diagnosis, evaluation of treatment response, efficacy testing of novel drugs, and long-term surveillance. © RSNA, 2016.


Katabathina V.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Amanullah F.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Menias C.O.,Mayo Clinic at Scottsdale | Chen M.M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 3 more authors.
Radiographics | Year: 2016

The spectrum of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas includes ovarian serous carcinoma, primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, and primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common ovarian malignant epithelial neoplasm, consists of two distinct entities: high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma and primary fallopian tube carcinoma are rare malignancies that share many characteristics of high-grade serous carcinomas. Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of gynecologic cancers have suggested a common origin of many extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas from fallopian tube epithelium.With the exception of low-grade serous carcinomas, which arise from cortical inclusion cysts lined by tubal epithelium, most extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas are believed to originate from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and show similar clinical-biologic behaviors and natural histories. Indeed, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Committee on Gynecologic Oncology recently recognized that these cancers should be considered collectively, with a common system of staging and management strategies for ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancers. A paradigm shift has occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas that has the potential to change current strategies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and management. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and combined positron emission tomography and CT are pivotal in screening, initial diagnosis, and treatment follow-up; however, because of this paradigm shift, new radiologic techniques, such as contrast material-enhanced US and molecular US imaging, and various optical imaging techniques are being investigated as important screening and diagnostic tools. Because of evolving knowledge of genetic and molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas, new targeted therapies are being developed to improve patient prognosis. © RSNA, 2016.


Katabathina V.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Menias C.O.,Mayo Clinic at Scottsdale | Tammisetti V.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Lubner M.G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 5 more authors.
Radiographics | Year: 2016

Life expectancies for solid organ recipients as well as graft survival rates for these patients have improved over the years because of advanced immunosuppressive therapies; however, with chronic use of these drugs, posttransplant malignancy has become one of the leading causes of morbidity for them. The risk of carcinogenesis in transplant recipients is significantly higher than for the general population and cancers tend to manifest at an advanced stage. Posttransplant malignancies are thought to develop by three mechanisms: de novo development, donor-related transmission, and recurrence of a recipient’s pretransplant malignancy. Although nonmelanoma skin cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, anogenital cancer, and lung cancer are malignancies that are thought to arise de novo, malignant melanoma and cancers that arise in the renal allograft are frequently donor related. Hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinomas have a greater tendency to recur in liver transplant recipients. An altered or deranged immune system caused by chronic immunosuppression is considered to be one of the major contributing factors to carcinogenesis. The proposed pathogenic mechanisms for oncogenesis include impaired immunosurveillance of neoplastic cells, weakened immune activity against oncogenic viruses, and direct carcinogenic effects of immunosuppressive agents. Imaging plays an important role in screening, follow-up, and long-term surveillance in patients with malignancies because key imaging features can guide in their timely diagnosis. However, some benign entities such as transplant-related renal fibrosis, biliary necrosis, and infectious nodules in the lungs mimic malignancies and require pathologic confirmation. Management strategies that can improve malignancy-related morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients include prevention of risk factors, appropriate modulation of immunosuppressive agents, prophylaxis against infection-related malignancies, and use of intensive targeted screening programs. © RSNA, 2016.


Katabathina V.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Kapalczynski W.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Dasyam A.K.,University of Pittsburg Medical Center | Anaya-Baez V.,Mayaguez Medical Center | Menias C.O.,Mayo Clinic at Scottsdale
Abdominal Imaging | Year: 2015

Approximately 20% of choledochal cysts (CC) present in adult patients and they are commonly associated with a high risk of complications, including malignancy. Additionally, children who underwent internal drainage procedures for CCs can develop complications during adulthood despite treatment. Concepts regarding classification and pathogenesis of the CCs have been evolving. While new subtypes are being added to the widely accepted Todani classification system, simplified classification schemes have also been proposed to guide appropriate management. The exact etiology of CCs is currently unknown. The two leading theories involve either the presence of an anomalous pancreatico-biliary junction with associated reflux of pancreatic juice into the biliary system or, more recently, some form of antenatal biliary obstruction with resulting proximal bile duct dilation. Imaging studies play an important role in the initial diagnosis, surgical planning, and long-term surveillance of CCs. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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