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East Sahuarita, AZ, United States

Frey K.A.,Mayo Clinic in Arizona
Primary Care - Clinics in Office Practice | Year: 2010

Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Bergsagel P.L.,Mayo Clinic in Arizona | Mateos M.-V.,University of Salamanca | Gutierrez N.C.,University of Salamanca | Rajkumar S.V.,Mayo Medical School | San Miguel J.F.,University of Salamanca
Blood | Year: 2013

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous disease with certain genetic features [eg, t(4;14), del17p] associated with worse outcome. The introduction of thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib has dramatically improved the outlook for patients with MM, but their relative benefit (or harm) for different genetic patient subgroups remains unclear. Unfortunately, the small number of patients in each subgroup frequently limits the analysis of high-risk patients enrolled in clinical trials. Strategies that result in survival of high-risk genetic subgroups approximating that of patients lacking high-risk features are said to overcome the poor prognostic impact of these high-risk features. This outcome has been difficult to achieve, and studies in this regard have so far been limited by inadequate sample size. In contrast, strategies that compare the survival of high-risk genetic subgroups randomized to different treatment arms can identify approaches that improve survival. This type of analysis is clinically useful, even if the absolute gains do not improve outcomes to levels seen in patients without high-risk cytogenetics. Reviewing available data in high-risk MM from this perspective, it appears that bortezomib has frequently been associated with improved survival, whereas thalidomide maintenance has sometimes been associated with a shorter survival. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.

Carey E.J.,Mayo Medical School | Lindor K.D.,Mayo Clinic in Arizona
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2012

Importance of the field: The cholestatic liver diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders which, left untreated, usually progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure. Most are recognized before the onset of advanced fibrosis, thereby affording an opportunity for disease modifying therapy. Areas covered: This review will cover the current pharmacologic management of the most common causes of cholestatic liver disease in adults, including primary biliary cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome, primary sclerosing cholangitis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, intestinal failure-associated liver disease, and immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis. Pharmacologic management of complications of cholestasis will also be reviewed. Expert opinion: Effective therapy for most cholestatic liver disease is lacking. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) slows the progression of primary biliary cirrhosis but the majority of patients do not have a full response. Even in those with a complete response, UDCA does not cure the disease. There is currently no effective medical therapy for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Symptoms and serum liver biochemistry values in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are improved with UDCA, but it is not certain if this alters the course of disease. Immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis is responsive to steroids but may relapse. The farnesoid X receptor agonists are a promising new class of drugs currently being tested in cholestatic liver disease. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Kho R.M.,Mayo Clinic in Arizona | Abrao M.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS), a rare condition in which remnant ovarian tissue presents as a pelvic mass and/or pain after previous oophorectomy, poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge. This study reviews the recent studies in the past 5 years on the subject. RECENT FINDINGS: Incomplete removal of ovarian tissue at the time of initial oophorectomy from inability to obtain adequate surgical margins or inappropriate extraction from the pelvic cavity during laparoscopy can cause ORS. Excision of ovarian remnant tissue is increasingly approached minimally invasively. Cases of malignant involvement of the remnant ovary have been reported. Endometriosis, recently suggested to increase the risk for ovarian cancer, predisposes to ORS and is associated with 50% of patients with ovarian carcinoma in ORS patients. SUMMARY: Surgical excision remains the treatment of choice in ORS as malignancy can be associated with the remnant tissue. In cases of endometriosis, complete excision of endometriosis and ovarian tissue at the time of initial surgery prevents recurrence of endometriosis, subsequent development of ORS and possible ovarian malignant transformation. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Foxx-Orenstein A.E.,Mayo Clinic in Arizona
Clinics in Geriatric Medicine | Year: 2014

Constipation is a frequently diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder. Symptoms of constipation are common, with the greatest prevalence in the elderly. Evaluation of constipation begins with a detailed medical history and a focused anorectal examination. Diagnostic testing for constipation is not routinely recommended in the initial evaluation in the absence of alarm signs. Key self-management strategies include increased exercise, a high-fiber diet, and toilet training. High-fiber diets can worsen symptoms in some patients who have chronic constipation. Biofeedback is an effective treatment option for patients who have constipation caused by outlet obstruction defecation. A variety of medications are available to remedy constipation. © 2014 .

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