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Storz P.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2017

Acinar cells in the adult pancreas show high plasticity and can undergo transdifferentiation to a progenitor-like cell type with ductal characteristics. This process, termed acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), is an important feature facilitating pancreas regeneration after injury. Data from animal models show that cells that undergo ADM in response to oncogenic signalling are precursors for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, which can further progress to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As human pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often diagnosed at a stage of metastatic disease, understanding the processes that lead to its initiation is important for the discovery of markers for early detection, as well as options that enable an early intervention. Here, the critical determinants of acinar cell plasticity are discussed, in addition to the intracellular and extracellular signalling events that drive acinar cell metaplasia and their contribution to development of PDAC. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Von Roemeling C.A.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Marlow L.A.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Wei J.J.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Cooper S.J.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: We set out to identify Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) as a novel molecular target in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and examine its role in tumor cell growth and viability in vitro and in vivo independently as well as in combination with current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved regimens. Experimental Design: Patient normal and ccRCC tissue samples and cell lines were examined for SCD1 expression. Genetic knockdown models and targeted inhibition of SCD1 through use of a small molecule inhibitor, A939572, were analyzed for growth, apoptosis, and alterations in gene expression using gene array analysis. Therapeutic models of synergy were evaluated utilizing pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) sunitinib and pazopanib, and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Results: Our studies identify increased SCD1 expression in all stages of ccRCC. Both genetic knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 decreased tumor cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Upon gene array, quantitative real-time PCR, and protein analysis of A939572-treated or SCD1 lentiviral knockdown samples, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress response signaling was observed, providing mechanistic insight for SCD1 activity in ccRCC. Furthermore, combinatorial application of A939572 with temsirolimus synergistically inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: Increased SCD1 expression supports ccRCC viability and therefore we propose it as a novel molecular target for therapy either independently or in combination with an mTOR inhibitor for patients whose disease cannot be remedied with surgical intervention, such as in cases of advanced or metastatic disease. ©2013 AACR.

Doppler H.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Storz P.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center
Cell Adhesion and Migration | Year: 2013

Phosphorylations control all aspects of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) function. Mapped phosphorylation sites include Y39, S157, S239, T278, and S322, and multiple kinases have been shown to mediate their phosphorylation. Recently, Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) as a direct kinase for S157 and S322 joined this group. While S157 phosphorylation generally seems to serve as a signal for membrane localization, phosphorylations at S322 or at S239 and T278 have opposite effects on F-actin accumulation. In migrating cells, S322 phosphorylation increases filopodia numbers and length, while S239/T278 phosphorylations decrease these and also disrupt formation of focal adhesions. Therefore, the kinases mediating these phosphorylations can be seen as switches needed to facilitate cell motility. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Kourtidis A.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Anastasiadis P.Z.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center
Cell Cycle | Year: 2016

E-cadherin-p120 catenin complexes are essential for adherens junction (AJ) formation and for the maintenance of the normal epithelial phenotype. PLEKHA7 was originally identified as a member of this complex that tethers microtubules to the AJs and supports their overall integrity. Recently, we revealed that PLEKHA7 regulates cellular behavior via miRNAs by associating with the microprocessor complex at the apical zonula adherens (ZA). We have also identified a new set of PLEKHA7 interacting partners at the apical ZA, via proteomics. Our analysis shows that the main groups of proteins associating with PLEKHA7 are cytoskeletal-related and RNA-binding proteins. Here, we provide extended evidence for association of PLEKHA7 with several of these proteins. We also show that PLEKHA7 loss activates the actin regulator cofilin in a p120-dependent manner, providing an explanation for the effects of PLEKHA7 on the cortical actin ring. Interestingly, PLEKHA7 regulates the levels and associates with PP1α, a phosphatase responsible for cofilin activation. Finally, we clarify the mode of regulation of the oncogenic miR-19a by PLEKHA7. Overall, our findings support a multi-layered role of PLEKHA7 in converging cytoskeletal dynamics and miRNA-mediated growth regulation at the ZA, with potentially critical implications in cancer that warrant further investigation. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Recent studies on the processes that lead to the development of pancreatic cancer indicate that inflammatory macrophages have key functions in the initiation of pre-neoplastic lesions. Specifically, acquisition of an activating Kras mutation in pancreatic acinar cells leads to upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which serves as a chemoattractant for M1-polarized macrophages. M1 macrophages then contribute to acinar cell metaplasia and development of precancerous lesions through inflammatory cytokines and secreted proteases. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Murray N.R.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Kalari K.R.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Fields A.P.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2011

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that PKCι is an oncogene and prognostic marker that is frequently targeted for genetic alteration in many major forms of human cancer. Functional data demonstrate that PKCι is required for the transformed phenotype of lung, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate, colon, and brain cancer cells. Future studies will be required to determine whether PKCι is also an oncogene in the many other cancer types that also overexpress PKCι. Studies of PKCι using genetically defined models of tumorigenesis have revealed a critical role for PKCι in multiple stages of tumorigenesis, including tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. Recent studies in a genetic model of lung adenocarcinoma suggest a role for PKCι in transformation of lung cancer stem cells. These studies have important implications for the therapeutic use of aurothiomalate (ATM), a highly selective PKCι signaling inhibitor currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Significant progress has been made in determining the molecular mechanisms by which PKCι drives the transformed phenotype, particularly the central role played by the oncogenic PKCι-Par6 complex in transformed growth and invasion, and of several PKCι-dependent survival pathways in chemo-resistance. Future studies will be required to determine the composition and dynamics of the PKCι-Par6 complex, and the mechanisms by which oncogenic signaling through this complex is regulated. Likewise, a better understanding of the critical downstream effectors of PKCι in various human tumor types holds promise for identifying novel prognostic and surrogate markers of oncogenic PKCι activity that may be clinically useful in ongoing clinical trials of ATM. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Necela B.M.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Carr J.M.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Asmann Y.W.,Rochester College | Thompson E.A.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Chronic inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis predisposes individuals to increased colon cancer risk. The aim of these studies was to identify microRNAs that are aberrantly regulated during inflammation and may participate in transformation of colonic epithelial cells in the inflammatory setting. Methodology/Principal Findings: We have use quantitative PCR arrays to compare microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumors and control colonic epithelial cells isolated from distal colons of chronically inflamed mice and APCMin/+ mice. Rank order statistics was utilized to identify differentially regulated miRNAs in tumors that arose due to chronic inflammation and/or to germline APC mutation. Eight high priority miRNAs were identified: miR-215, miR-137, miR-708, miR-31, and miR-135b were differentially expressed in APC tumors and miR-215, miR-133a, miR-467d, miR-218, miR-708, miR-31, and miR-135b in colitis-associated tumors. Four of these (miR-215, miR-708, miR-31, and miR-135b) were common to both tumors types, and dysregulation of these miRNAs was confirmed in an independent sample set. Target prediction and pathway analysis suggests that these microRNAs, in the aggregate, regulate signaling pathways related to MAPK, PI3K, WNT, and TGF-β, all of which are known to be involved in transformation. Conclusions/Significance: We conclude that these four miRNAs are dysregulated at some very early stage in transformation of colonic epithelial cells. This response is not dependent on the mechanism of initiation of transformation (inflammation versus germline mutation), suggesting that the miRNAs that we have identified are likely to regulate critical signaling pathways that are central to early events in transformation of colonic epithelial cells. © 2011 Necela et al.

Langfield K.K.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Measles viruses have shown potent oncolytic activity as a therapeutic against a variety of human cancers in animal models and are currently being tested in clinical trials in patients. In contrast to using measles virus as a vaccine, oncolytic activity depends on high concentrations of infectious virus. For use in humans, the high-titer measles virus preparations must also be purified to remove significant levels of cellular proteins and nucleic acid resulting from the cytolytic products of measles virus replication and release. Pleomorphic measles virus must be treated as >1-μm particles that are extremely shear sensitive to maximize recoveries and retain infectivity. Therefore, to maximize the recovery of sterile, high titer infectious measles viruses, the entire production and purification process must be done using gentle conditions and aseptic processing. Here we describe a procedure applicable to the production of small (a few liters) to large (50-60 L) batches of measles virus amplified in Vero cells adapted to serum-free growth. Cell culture supernatant containing the measles virus is clarified by filtration to remove intact Vero cells and other debris, and then treated with Benzonase(®) in the presence of magnesium chloride to digest contaminating nucleic acid. The measles virus in the treated cell culture supernatant is then concentrated and purified using tangential flow filtration (TFF) and diafiltration. The concentrated and diafiltered measles virus is passed through a final clarifying filter prior to final vialing and storage at <-65°C. An infectivity assay to quantify infectious measles virus concentration based on the TCID(50) method is also described. This procedure can be readily adapted to the production and purification of measles viruses using good manufacturing practices (GMP).

Doppler H.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Liou G.-Y.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Storz P.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Increased levels of NF-κB are hallmarks of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and both classical and alternative NF-κB activation pathways have been implicated. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we show that activation of the alternative pathway is a source for the high basal NF-κB activity in PDAC cell lines. Increased activity of the p52/RelB NF-κB complex is mediated through stabilization and activation of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK). We identify proteasomal downregulation of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) as a mechanism by which levels of active NIK are increased in PDAC cell lines. Such upregulation of NIK expression and activity levels relays to increased proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, but not migration or survival of PDAC cells. Conclusions/Significance: Rapid growth is one characteristic of pancreatic cancer. Our data indicates that the TRAF2/NIK/NF-κB2 pathway regulates PDAC cell tumorigenicity and could be a valuable target for therapy of this cancer. © 2013 Döppler et al.

Ngok S.P.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Geyer R.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Kourtidis A.,Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center | Mitin N.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2013

Signaling events mediated by Rho family GTPases orchestrate cytoskeletal dynamics and cell junction formation. The activation of Rho GTPases is tightly regulated by guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs). In this study, we identified a novel Rho-specific GEF called TEM4 (tumor endothelial marker 4) that associates with multiple members of the cadherin-catenin complex and with several cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Depending on confluence, TEM4 localized to either actin stress fibers or areas of cell-cell contact. The junctional localization of TEM4 was independent of actin binding. Depletion of endogenous TEM4 by shRNAs impaired Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cell junctions, disrupted MDCK acini formation in 3D culture and negatively affected endothelial barrier function. Taken together, our findings implicate TEM4 as a novel and crucial junctional Rho GEF that regulates cell junction integrity and epithelial and endothelial cell function. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

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