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Seo Y.S.,Gastroenterology Research Unit | Shah V.H.,Gastroenterology Research Unit | Shah V.H.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology

Portal hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Intrahepatic vascular resistance due to architectural distortion and intrahepatic vasoconstriction, increased portal blood flow due to splanchnic vasodilatation, and development of collateral circulation have been considered as major factors for the development of portal hypertension. Recently, sinusoidal remodeling and angiogenesis have been focused as potential etiologic factors and various researchers have tried to improve portal hypertension by modulating these new targets. This article reviews potential new treatments in the context of portal hypertension pathophysiology concepts. © 2011 INASL. Source

Steele R.,Saint Louis University | Mott J.L.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology | Ray R.B.,Saint Louis University
Genes and Cancer

c-myc promoter binding protein (MBP-1) is a multifunctional protein known to regulate expression of targets involved in the malignant phenotype. We have previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of MBP-1 inhibits prostate tumor growth, although the mechanism of growth inhibition is not well understood. We hypothesized that MBP-1 may modulate microRNA (miRNA) expression for regulation of prostate cancer cell growth. In this study, we demonstrated that exogenous MBP-1 upregulates miR-29b by 5- to 9-fold in prostate cancer cells as measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequent studies indicated that exogenous expression of miR-29b inhibited Mcl-1, COL1A1, and COL4A1. Furthermore, a novel target with potential implications for invasion and metastasis, matrix metallopeptidase-2 (MMP-2), was identified and confirmed to be a miR-29b target in prostate cancer cells. Together, these results demonstrated that exogenous expression of miR-29b regulates prostate cancer cell growth by modulating antiapoptotic and prometastatic matrix molecules, implicating the therapeutic potential of miR-29b for prostate cancer inhibition. © The Author(s) 2010. Source

Gradilone S.A.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology | Gradilone S.A.,University of Minnesota | O'Hara S.P.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology | Masyuk T.V.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology | And 2 more authors.
Seminars in Liver Disease

Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the biliary tree, represent only a small portion of the total liver cell population (3-5%), but they are responsible for the secretion of up to 40% of total daily bile volume. In addition, cholangiocytes are the target of a diverse group of liver diseases affecting the biliary tract, the cholangiopathies; for most of these conditions, the pathological mechanisms are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Thus, it is not surprising that altered miRNA profiles underlie the dysregulation of several proteins involved in the pathobiology of the cholangiopathies, as well as showing promise as diagnostic and prognostic tools. Here the authors review recent work relevant to the role of miRNAs in the etiopathogenesis of several of the cholangiopathies (i.e., fibroinflammatory cholangiopathies and polycystic liver diseases), discuss their value as prognostic and diagnostic tools, and provide suggestions for further research. © 2015 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Wang P.,Fudan University | Dong Q.,Fudan University | Zhang C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Kuan P.-F.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 24 more authors.

Mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH1 and IDH2, have been reported in gliomas, myeloid leukemias, chondrosarcomas and thyroid cancer. We discovered IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in 34 of 326 (10%) intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Tumor with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 had lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and higher 5-methylcytosine levels, as well as increased dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79). Mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 were associated with longer overall survival (P=0.028) and were independently associated with a longer time to tumor recurrence after intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resection in multivariate analysis (P=0.021). IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were significantly associated with increased levels of p53 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, but no mutations in the p53 gene were found, suggesting that mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 may cause a stress that leads to p53 activation. We identified 2309 genes that were significantly hypermethylated in 19 cholangiocarcinomas with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2, compared with cholangiocarcinomas without these mutations. Hypermethylated CpG sites were significantly enriched in CpG shores and upstream of transcription start sites, suggesting a global regulation of transcriptional potential. Half of the hypermethylated genes overlapped with DNA hypermethylation in IDH1-mutant gliobastomas, suggesting the existence of a common set of genes whose expression may be affected by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 in different types of tumors. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Trussoni C.E.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology | Tabibian J.H.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology | Splinter P.L.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology | O'Hara S.P.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology

Cholangiocytes (biliary epithelial cells) actively participate in microbe-induced proinflammatory responses in the liver and contribute to inflammatory and infectious cholangiopathies. We previously demonstrated that cholangiocyte TLR-dependent NRas activation contributes to proinflammatory/ proliferative responses. We test the hypothesis that LPS-induced activation of NRas requires the EGFR. SV40-transformed human cholangiocytes (H69 cells), or low passage normal human cholangiocytes (NHC), were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of EGFR or ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (TACE) inhibitors. Ras activation assays, quantitative RT-PCR, and proliferation assays were performed in cells cultured with or without inhibitors or an siRNA to Grb2. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR was performed on LPS-treated mouse samples and specimens from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, hepatitis C, and normal livers. LPS-treatment induced an association between the TLR/MyD88 and EGFR/Grb2 signaling apparatus, NRas activation, and EGFR phosphorylation. NRas activation was sensitive to EGFR and TACE inhibitors and correlated with EGFR phosphorylation. The TACE inhibitor and Grb2 depletion prevented LPS-induced IL6 expression (p<0.05) and proliferation (p<0.01). Additionally, cholangiocytes from LPS-treated mouse livers and human primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) livers exhibited increased phospho-EGFR (p<0.01). Moreover, LPS-induced mouse cholangiocyte proliferation was inhibited by concurrent treatment with the EGFR inhibitor, Erlotinib. Our results suggest that EGFR is essential for LPS-induced, TLR4/MyD88-mediated NRas activation and induction of a robust proinflammatory cholangiocyte response. These findings have implications not only for revealing the signaling potential of TLRs, but also implicate EGFR as an integral component of cholangiocyte TLR-induced proinflammatory processes. © 2015 Trussoni et al. Source

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