Huebert R.C.,Gastroenterology Research Unit |
Huebert R.C.,Foundation Medicine |
Jagavelu K.,Gastroenterology Research Unit |
Liebl A.F.,Gastroenterology Research Unit |
And 10 more authors.
Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2010
Hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs) are a unique subpopulation of fenestrated endothelial cells lining the hepatic sinusoids and comprising the majority of endothelial cells within the liver. HSECs not only have important roles in blood clearance, vascular tone, and immunity, but also undergo pathological changes, contributing to fibrosis, angiogenesis, and portal hypertension. There are few cell culture models for in vitro studies of motility and angiogenesis as primary cells are time-consuming to isolate, are limited in number, and often lack features of pathological vasculature. The aim of this study was to generate an immortalized cell line derived from HSECs that mimic pathological vasculature and allows detailed molecular interventions to be pursued. HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and subcloned on the basis of their ability to endocytose the acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL). The resulting cell line, transformed sinusoidal endothelial cells (TSECs), maintains an endothelial phenotype as well as some HSEC-specific features. This is evidenced by typical microscopic features of endothelia, including formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, and a cobblestone morphology of cell monolayers. Electron microscopy showed maintenance of a limited number of fenestrae organized in sieve plates. TSECs express numerous endothelia-specific markers, including CD31 and von Willebrand's factor (vWF), as detected by PCR array, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence (IF). Functionally, TSECs maintain a number of key endothelial features, including migration in response to angiogenic factors, formation of vascular tubes, endocytosis of AcLDL, and remodeling of extracellular matrix. Their phenotype most closely resembles the pathological neovasculature associated with chronic liver disease, in which cells become proliferative, defenestrated, and angiogenic. Importantly, the cells can be transduced efficiently with viral vectors. TSECs should provide a reproducible cell culture model for high-throughput in vitro studies pertaining to a broad range of liver endothelial cell functions, but likely broader endothelial cell biology as well. © 2010 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved.
O'Hara S.P.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling |
Tietz Bogert P.S.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling |
Trussoni C.E.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling |
Chen X.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling |
Larusso N.F.,Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011
Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining intrahepatic bile ducts, express multiple toll-like receptors (TLRs) and, thus, have the capacity to recognize and respond to microbial pathogens. In previous work, we demonstrated that TLR4, which is activated by gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is upregulated in cholangiocytes in response to infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro and contributes to nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) activation. Here, using an in vivo model of biliary cryptosporidiosis, we addressed the functional role of TLR4 in C. parvum infection dynamics and hepatobiliary pathophysiology. We observed that C57BL mice clear the infection by 3 wk post-infection (PI). In contrast, parasites were detected in bile and stool in TLR4-deficient mice at 4 wk PI. The liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), and the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-6 peaked at 1 to 2 wk PI and normalized by 4 wk in infected C57BL mice. C57BL mice also demonstrated increased cholangiocyte proliferation (PCNA staining) at 1 wk PI that was resolved by 2 wk PI. In contrast, TLR4-deficient mice showed persistently elevated serum ALT and AST, elevated hepatic IL-6 levels, and histological evidence of hepatocyte necrosis, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and cholangiocyte proliferation through 4 wk PI. These data suggest that a TLR4-mediated response is required for efficient eradication of biliary C. parvum infection in vivo, and lack of this pattern-recognition receptor contributes to an altered inflammatory response and an increase in hepatobiliary pathology. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists.