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Merida, Mexico

Murillo-Rodriguez E.,Mayab University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The sleep disorder narcolepsy is now considered a neurodegenerative disease because there is a massive loss of neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin (HCRT). In consequence, narcoleptic patients have very low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of HCRT. Studies in animal models of narcolepsy have shown the neurophysiological role of the HCRT system in the development of this disease. For example, the injection of the neurotoxin named hypocretin-2-saporin (HCRT2/SAP) into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) destroys the HCRT neurons, therefore diminishes the contents of HCRT in the CSF and induces narcoleptic-like behavior in rats. Transplants of various cell types have been used to induce recovery in a variety of neurodegenerative animal models. In models such as Parkinson's disease, cell survival has been shown to be small but satisfactory. Similarly, cell transplantation could be employed to implant grafts of HCRT cells into the LH or even other brain regions to treat narcolepsy. Here, we report for the first time that transplantation of HCRT neurons into the LH of HCRT2/SAP-lesioned rats diminishes narcoleptic-like sleep behavior. Therefore, cell transplantation may provide an effective method to treat narcolepsy. © 2014 Arias-Carrion, Murillo-Rodriguez.

Murillo-Rodriguez E.,Mayab University | Palomero-Rivero M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Millan-Aldaco D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Mechoulam R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Drucker-Colin R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Aims: The major non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), displays a plethora of actions including wakefulness. In the present study, we addressed whether perfusing CBD via microdialysis into lateral hypothalamus (LH) during the lights-on period would modify the sleep-wake cycle of rats as well as the contents of dopamine (DA) collected from nucleus accumbens (AcbC). Additionally, we tested whether perfusion of CBD into LH would block the sleep rebound after a sleep deprivation period. Main methods: Electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes were implanted in rats as well as a guide-cannula aimed to LH or AcbC. CBD perfusion was carried out via cannulae placed into LH whereas contents of DA were collected from AcbC and analyzed using HPLC means. Key findings: We found that microdialysis perfusion of CBD (30, 60, or 90 nM) into LH of rat enhances alertness and suppresses sleep. This effect was accompanied with an increase in DA extracellular levels collected from the AcbC. Furthermore, perfusion of CBD into LH after total sleep deprivation prevented the sleep rebound. Significance: These findings enhance the investigation about the neurobiological properties of CBD on sleep modulation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bravo J.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Villarreal V.,Technological University of Panama | Hervas R.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Urzaiz G.,Mayab University
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Wireless systems and services have undergone remarkable development since the first mobile phone system was introduced in the early 1980s. The use of sensors in an Ambient Intelligence approach is a great solution in a medical environment. We define a communication architecture to facilitate the information transfer between all connected devices. This model is based in layers to allow the collection of measurement data to be used in our framework monitoring architecture. An overlay-based solution is built between network elements in order to provide an efficient and highly functional communication platform that allows the connection of a wide variety of devices and technologies, and serves also to perform additional functions such as the possibility to perform some processing in the network that may help to improve overall performance. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Icaza-Chavez M.E.,Mayab University
Revista de Gastroenterologia de Mexico | Year: 2013

Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease. © 2013 Asociacioacute;n Mexicana de Gastroenterologia. Published by Masson Doyma Mexico S.A. All rights reserved.

Pacheco-Pantoja E.L.,Mayab University | Ranganath L.R.,University of Liverpool | Gallagher J.A.,University of Liverpool | Wilson P.J.,University of Liverpool | Fraser W.D.,University of Liverpool
BMC Physiology | Year: 2011

Background: In recent years the interest on the relationship of gut hormones to bone processes has increased and represents one of the most interesting aspects in skeletal research. The proportion of bone mass to soft tissue is a relationship that seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle regulations that imply "cross-talks" between the nutrient intake and tissues like fat. Thus, recognition of the mechanisms that integrate a gastrointestinal-fat-bone axis and its application to several aspects of human health is vital for improving treatments related to bone diseases. This work analysed the effects of gut hormones in cell cultures of three osteoblastic cell lines which represent different stages in osteoblastic development. Also, this is the first time that there is a report on the direct effects of glucagon-like peptide 2, and obestatin on osteoblast-like cells. Methods. mRNA expression levels of five gut hormone receptors (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], glucagon-like peptide 2 [GLP-2], ghrelin [GHR] and obestatin [OB]) were analysed in three osteoblastic cell lines (Saos-2, TE-85 and MG-63) showing different stages of osteoblast development using reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. The responses to the gut peptides were studied using assays for cell viability, and biochemical bone markers: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptides (P1NP), and osteocalcin production. Results: The gut hormone receptor mRNA displayed the highest levels for GIP in Saos-2 and the lowest levels in MG-63, whereas GHR and GPR39 (the putative obestatin receptor) expression was higher in TE-85 and MG-63 and lower in Saos-2. GLP-1 and GLP-2 were expressed only in MG-63 and TE-85. Treatment of gut hormones to cell lines showed differential responses: higher levels in cell viability in Saos-2 after GIP, in TE-85 and MG-63 after GLP-1, GLP-2, ghrelin and obestatin. ALP showed higher levels in Saos-2 after GIP, GHR and OB and in TE-85 after GHR. P1NP showed higher levels after GIP and OB in Saos-2. Decreased levels of P1NP were observed in TE-85 and MG-63 after GLP-1, GLP-2 and OB. MG-63 showed opposite responses in osteocalcin levels after GLP-2. Conclusions: These results suggest that osteoblast activity modulation varies according to different development stage under different nutrition related-peptides. © 2011 Pacheco-Pantoja et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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