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Arias-Carrion O.,University of Marburg | Palomero-Rivero M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Millan-Aldaco D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Haro R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2011

Clinical studies have indicated that the primary pharmacological activity of modafinil (MOD) is inducing wakefulness; however, the brain targets that underlie its wake-promoting activity have not been described. In the present study, we show that MOD injected into sleep-wake related brain areas promoted alertness. If administered (10, 20, or 30 μg/1 μL) into either anterior hypothalamus (AH) or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) at 08:00, 12:00 or 16:00. h, MOD enhanced wakefulness whereas diminished slow wave sleep as well as rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, microinjection of MOD (10, 20, or 30 μg/1 μL) either into AH or PPTg after total sleep deprivation prevented the sleep rebound. Taken together, these observations suggest that AH and PPTg play a key role in the wake-inducing effects of MOD and encourage further experimentation to draw a possible mechanism of action. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Murillo-Rodriguez E.,Mayab University | Murillo-Rodriguez E.,Intercontinental Neuroscience Research Group
Current Drug Delivery | Year: 2017

Background: There is a general consensus that sleep-wake cycle is controlled by neuroanatomical, neurochemical and molecular systems as well as by homeostatic and circadian complex networks. The research has shown that a molecular element that could be displaying a relevant role in the modulation of sleep is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which belongs to the family of nuclear receptor ligand-activated transcription factors that includes PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that PPARα is activated by natural ligands such as the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or synthetic compounds including Wy14643 whereas antagonists like MK-886 block the neurobiological outcomes of PPARα. More recently, studies have reported the permissive role of PPARα by modulating diverse neurobiological functions such as inflammation, metabolic disorders, learning, degenerative diseases and sleep. Remarkably, this nuclear receptor has been described in sleep-related brain regions leading to the hypothesis that PPARα might be involved in sleep modulation inasmuch as activation of this protein promotes a robust enhancement of wakefulness while reduces sleep. Objective: In this mini review, the emerging evidence of the putative role of PPARα in sleep control is highlighted. Even though the data are derived from new areas of research, there are many reasons to believe that understanding and appreciation of PPARα functions may provide knowledge of possible mechanisms of action activated by this nuclear receptor in sleep modulation. Conclusion: Novel insights of therapeutic intervention for sleep disorders might be visualized targeting the function of PPARα in sleep abnormalities. © 2017 Bentham Science Publishers.

Navarro-Zarza J.E.,Hospital General Of Chilpancingo Dr Raymundo Abarca Alarcon | Hernandez-Diaz C.,National Institute of Rehabilitation | Saavedra M.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Alvarez-Nemegyei J.,Mayab University | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2014

Objective To report the baseline knowledge of clinical anatomy of rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists from Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, the US, and Uruguay. Methods The invitation to attend a workshop in clinical anatomy was an open call by national rheumatology societies in 4 countries or by invitation from teaching program directors in 3 countries. Prior to the workshop, a practical test of anatomic structures commonly involved in rheumatic diseases was administered. The test consisted of the demonstration of these structures or their function in the participant's or instructor's body. At one site, a postworkshop practical test was administered immediately after the workshop. Results There were 170 participants (84 rheumatology fellows, 61 rheumatologists, and 25 nonrheumatologists). The overall mean ± SD number of correct answers was 46.6% ± 19.9% and ranged from 32.5-67.0% by country. Rheumatology fellows scored significantly higher than nonrheumatologists. Questions related to anatomy of the hand scored the lowest of the regions surveyed. Conclusion Rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists showed a deficit in knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy that is of central importance in rheumatologic assessment and diagnosis. This gap may hinder accurate and cost-effective rheumatologic diagnosis, particularly in the area of regional pain syndromes. Presently, widespread use of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) by rheumatologists may be premature, since a key component of expert-level MSUS is the integration of an accurate knowledge of anatomy with the views obtained with the ultrasound probe. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Castellanos-Jankiewicz A.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica | Castellanos-Jankiewicz A.,Mayab University | del Bosque-Plata L.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica | Tejero M.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition | Year: 2014

Hypercholesterolemia is a major contributor for disease burden in both the developed and developing world and an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Phytosterols (PhS) and dietary fiber (DF) act as low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering agents, offering an effective treatment against high blood cholesterol and CVD. The aim of this review was to consider clinical evidence that analyzed the combination of PhS and DF in a cereal carrier for lowering LDL-C. Electronic database searches were carried out to identify peer-reviewed journal articles, from which five intervention studies that combined both components in a cereal carrier were identified and included in the present review. LDL-C lowering effects varied widely among studies, due to large heterogeneity in study design, subject baseline characteristics, length of the interventions, PhS and DF dosage and type of DF used. In relation to a time of intake, three studies suggested a frequency or distribution of the product's consumption during the day, while two studies did not consider this factor. Overall, the selected studies found significant differences on LDL-C concentrations, although not all of them reached the expected outcomes. Future research should be conducted to explore the effect that different types of DF exert on LDL-C when combined with PhS, and to analyze the effect of the product's time of intake in order to suggest an optimal moment of the day for its consumption. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Murillo-Rodriguez E.,Mayab University | Palomero-Rivero M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Millan-Aldaco D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Mechoulam R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Drucker-Colin R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Aims: The major non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), displays a plethora of actions including wakefulness. In the present study, we addressed whether perfusing CBD via microdialysis into lateral hypothalamus (LH) during the lights-on period would modify the sleep-wake cycle of rats as well as the contents of dopamine (DA) collected from nucleus accumbens (AcbC). Additionally, we tested whether perfusion of CBD into LH would block the sleep rebound after a sleep deprivation period. Main methods: Electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes were implanted in rats as well as a guide-cannula aimed to LH or AcbC. CBD perfusion was carried out via cannulae placed into LH whereas contents of DA were collected from AcbC and analyzed using HPLC means. Key findings: We found that microdialysis perfusion of CBD (30, 60, or 90 nM) into LH of rat enhances alertness and suppresses sleep. This effect was accompanied with an increase in DA extracellular levels collected from the AcbC. Furthermore, perfusion of CBD into LH after total sleep deprivation prevented the sleep rebound. Significance: These findings enhance the investigation about the neurobiological properties of CBD on sleep modulation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Arias-Carrion O.,Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez | Arias-Carrion O.,Hospital General Ajusco Medio | Murillo-Rodriguez E.,Mayab University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The sleep disorder narcolepsy is now considered a neurodegenerative disease because there is a massive loss of neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin (HCRT). In consequence, narcoleptic patients have very low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of HCRT. Studies in animal models of narcolepsy have shown the neurophysiological role of the HCRT system in the development of this disease. For example, the injection of the neurotoxin named hypocretin-2-saporin (HCRT2/SAP) into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) destroys the HCRT neurons, therefore diminishes the contents of HCRT in the CSF and induces narcoleptic-like behavior in rats. Transplants of various cell types have been used to induce recovery in a variety of neurodegenerative animal models. In models such as Parkinson's disease, cell survival has been shown to be small but satisfactory. Similarly, cell transplantation could be employed to implant grafts of HCRT cells into the LH or even other brain regions to treat narcolepsy. Here, we report for the first time that transplantation of HCRT neurons into the LH of HCRT2/SAP-lesioned rats diminishes narcoleptic-like sleep behavior. Therefore, cell transplantation may provide an effective method to treat narcolepsy. © 2014 Arias-Carrion, Murillo-Rodriguez.

Pacheco-Pantoja E.L.,Mayab University | Ranganath L.R.,University of Liverpool | Gallagher J.A.,University of Liverpool | Wilson P.J.,University of Liverpool | Fraser W.D.,University of Liverpool
BMC Physiology | Year: 2011

Background: In recent years the interest on the relationship of gut hormones to bone processes has increased and represents one of the most interesting aspects in skeletal research. The proportion of bone mass to soft tissue is a relationship that seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle regulations that imply "cross-talks" between the nutrient intake and tissues like fat. Thus, recognition of the mechanisms that integrate a gastrointestinal-fat-bone axis and its application to several aspects of human health is vital for improving treatments related to bone diseases. This work analysed the effects of gut hormones in cell cultures of three osteoblastic cell lines which represent different stages in osteoblastic development. Also, this is the first time that there is a report on the direct effects of glucagon-like peptide 2, and obestatin on osteoblast-like cells. Methods. mRNA expression levels of five gut hormone receptors (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], glucagon-like peptide 2 [GLP-2], ghrelin [GHR] and obestatin [OB]) were analysed in three osteoblastic cell lines (Saos-2, TE-85 and MG-63) showing different stages of osteoblast development using reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. The responses to the gut peptides were studied using assays for cell viability, and biochemical bone markers: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptides (P1NP), and osteocalcin production. Results: The gut hormone receptor mRNA displayed the highest levels for GIP in Saos-2 and the lowest levels in MG-63, whereas GHR and GPR39 (the putative obestatin receptor) expression was higher in TE-85 and MG-63 and lower in Saos-2. GLP-1 and GLP-2 were expressed only in MG-63 and TE-85. Treatment of gut hormones to cell lines showed differential responses: higher levels in cell viability in Saos-2 after GIP, in TE-85 and MG-63 after GLP-1, GLP-2, ghrelin and obestatin. ALP showed higher levels in Saos-2 after GIP, GHR and OB and in TE-85 after GHR. P1NP showed higher levels after GIP and OB in Saos-2. Decreased levels of P1NP were observed in TE-85 and MG-63 after GLP-1, GLP-2 and OB. MG-63 showed opposite responses in osteocalcin levels after GLP-2. Conclusions: These results suggest that osteoblast activity modulation varies according to different development stage under different nutrition related-peptides. © 2011 Pacheco-Pantoja et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Icaza-Chavez M.E.,Mayab University
Revista de Gastroenterologia de Mexico | Year: 2013

Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease. © 2013 Asociacioacute;n Mexicana de Gastroenterologia. Published by Masson Doyma Mexico S.A. All rights reserved.

Tec-Yam S.,CINVESTAV | Patino R.,CINVESTAV | Oliva A.I.,Mayab University | Oliva A.I.,CINVESTAV
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2011

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique on glass substrates under different substrate orientation and two agitation modes of the bath. Groups of CdS films were grown onto horizontal, vertical, and 45° inclined substrates, meanwhile the chemical bath was affected by magnetic or oscillating agitation. Optical homogeneity was studied by means of the band gap energy measured on different sites of the film. Morphology, thickness, stoichiometry and crystalline structure of films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, profilemetry, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. Relations between measured properties, substrate orientation and agitation types are discussed. In all cases, a cubic phase with (111) as main peak diffraction was obtained in films. Oscillating agitation in bath produces large grain size with low roughness, constant deposition rate and better crystal orientation as compared with magnetic agitation. CdS films grown on vertical substrates result with low roughness, high Cd/S ratio, band gap energy values near to the typical value (2.42 eV) and better crystalline structure than other substrate orientation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) are amides of fatty acids and ethanolamine named N-acylethanolamines or acylethanolamides. The hydrolysis of OEA and PEA is catalyzed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). A number of FAAH inhibitors that increase the levels of OEA and PEA in the brain have been developed, including URB597. In the present report, we examined whether URB597, OEA or PEA injected into wake-related brain areas, such as lateral hypothalamus (LH) or dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) would promote wakefulness (W) in rats. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were implanted for sleep studies with electrodes to record the electroencephalogram and electromyogram as well as a cannulae aimed either into LH or into DRN. Sleep stages were scored to determine W, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Power spectra bands underly neurophysiological mechanisms of the sleep-wake cycle and provide information about quality rather than quantity of sleep, thus fast Fourier transformation analysis was collected after the pharmacological trials for alpha (for W; α = 8-12 Hz), delta (for SWS; δ = 0.5-4.0 Hz) and theta (for REMS; θ = 6.0-12.0 Hz). Finally, microdialysis samples were collected from a cannula placed into the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) and the levels of dopamine (DA) were determined by HPLC means after the injection of URB597, OEA or PEA. We found that microinjection of compounds (10, 20, 30 μg/1 μL; each) into LH or DRN during the lights-on period increased W and decreased SWS as well as REMS and enhanced DA extracellular levels. URB597, OEA or PEA promoted waking and enhanced DA if injected into LH or DRN. The wake-promoting effects of these compounds could be linked with the enhancement in levels of DA and indirectly mediated by anandamide.

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