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Meybohm P.,University of Kiel | Gruenewald M.,University of Kiel | Albrecht M.,University of Kiel | Muller C.,University of Kiel | And 7 more authors.
Critical Care

Introduction: In this study, we sought to examine whether pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane (SEVO) is neuro- and cardioprotective in a pig model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Methods: Twenty-two pigs were subjected to cardiac arrest. After 8 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started. After successful return of spontaneous circulation (N = 16), animals were randomized to either (1) propofol (CONTROL) anesthesia or (2) SEVO anesthesia for 4 hours. Neurological function was assessed 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation. The effects on myocardial and cerebral damage, especially on inflammation, apoptosis and tissue remodeling, were studied using cellular and molecular approaches.Results: Animals treated with SEVO had lower peak troponin T levels (median [IQR]) (CONTROL vs SEVO = 0.31 pg/mL [0.2 to 0.65] vs 0.14 pg/mL [0.09 to 0.25]; P < 0.05) and improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared to the CONTROL group (P < 0.05). SEVO was associated with a reduction in myocardial IL-1β protein concentrations (0.16 pg/μg total protein [0.14 to 0.17] vs 0.12 pg/μg total protein [0.11 to 0.14]; P < 0.01), a reduction in apoptosis (increased procaspase-3 protein levels (0.94 arbitrary units [0.86 to 1.04] vs 1.18 arbitrary units [1.03 to 1.28]; P < 0.05), increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein expression (P < 0.05) and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (P < 0.05). SEVO did not, however, affect neurological deficit score or cerebral cellular and molecular pathways.Conclusions: SEVO reduced myocardial damage and dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the early postresuscitation period. The reduction was associated with a reduced rate of myocardial proinflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis, increased HIF-1α expression and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Early administration of SEVO may not, however, improve neurological recovery. © 2011 Meybohm et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Altmann K.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Wutkowski A.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Kampfer S.,Muller Service GmbH | Klempt M.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | And 2 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology

Oligosaccharides in milk (MOS) have been reported in the literature to exert various bioactivities and to modulate the immune system. However, processes to obtain milk oligosaccharides on industrial scale as food ingredients are currently not available. Therefore, the aim of the study on hand was the evaluation of different nanofiltration (NF) membranes for the enrichment of MOS from bovine milk. Moreover, a transfer of the NF process from laboratory to pilot plant and industrial scale was performed. The immunostimulatory effect of the MOS concentrates was studied by the activity of NFκB in human embryotic kidney cells (HEKnfκbRE-cells). NF was carried out with lactose hydrolyzed skimmed and ultrafiltered milk permeate by application of different membranes. The quantification of MOS was determined by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and parallel online electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. The enrichment of MOS (3-sialyl-lactose, 6-sialyl-lactose, N-acetylgalactosaminyl-lactose) on laboratory, pilot plant and industrial scale was achieved by the retention of these oligosaccharides of at least 50 % in NF retentate. The content of MOS in relation to total sugar content in the retentate from NF on industrial scale was 100-fold higher than in the initial sample. The MOS retentates and the standards (3-sialyl-lactose, 6-sialyl-lactose) exhibited increased NFκB activity in HEKnfκbRE-cells. Although there exist a few studies about the enrichment of MOS by NF, this is the first report about a screening of the efficiency of different NF membranes for the enrichment of MOS on different technological scales of production. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Malinowski J.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Klempt M.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Clawin-Radecker I.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Lorenzen P.C.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Meisel H.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel
Food Chemistry

Several bioactive peptides are encrypted within the sequence of major milk proteins, requiring enzymatic proteolysis for release and activation. The present study aimed at the identification of potential anti-inflammatory activities in tryptic hydrolysates of bovine β-casein. Inflammatory processes involve in most cases an activation of Nuclear factor Kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), which is a pro-inflammatory transcription factor of several genes. Hence, a NFκB reporter cell line was established, and TNF-α mediated activation of NFκB was used as a measurement. Bovine β-casein (β-CN) was hydrolysed by trypsin and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Total proteolysate as well as the fraction containing peptides between 1 and 5 kDa showed an inhibitory effect in the cell-based assay, while the fraction containing molecules smaller than 1 kDa did not. This anti-inflammatory effect was ascribed to a group of large, hydrophobic peptides, which were identified using LC-MS. The main peptide was synthesised and showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in HEKnfkb-RE-cells. Thus, for the first time, a casein-derived peptide having an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro has been identified. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Altmann K.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Wutkowski A.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Klempt M.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | Clawin-Radecker I.,Max Rubner Institute Kiel | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to generate and identify potential anti-inflammatory peptides from bovine β-casein with enzyme preparations from cod and hog. Furthermore, the potential of cod trypsin, derived from fishery by-products, to produce these bioactive peptides for replacement of non-food-grade tosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK)-treated porcine trypsin enzyme preparation was evaluated. RESULTS: Potential anti-inflammatory peptides were obtained by hydrolysis of β-casein with the tryptic enzyme preparations cod trypsin, porcine trypsin (TPCK-treated) and a porcine trypsin and chymotrypsin preparation (PTN 6.0 S). Proteolysates generated with enzyme preparations containing mainly chymotryptic activity (Cryotin, Cryotin F) did not exhibit any effect. CONCLUSION: The more chymotryptic enzyme activity is present, the lower is the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the hydrolysates in HEKnfκb - RE cells. Comparable peptides were produced by application of porcine trypsin (TPCK) and cod trypsin. Therefore, the enzyme preparation cod trypsin can replace the non-food-grade porcine enzyme preparation trypsin (TPCK) for the generation of potential anti-inflammatory peptides from β-casein. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

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