Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food

Kiel, Germany

Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food

Kiel, Germany
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Kliche T.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Li B.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Bockelmann W.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Habermann D.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 5 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2017

In a screening for proteolytically active lactic acid bacteria, three strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis 92202, Lactobacillus helveticus 92201, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 92059, showed the highest activities following growth in milk. All three strains degraded α- and β-casein, but did not hydrolyse κ-casein. HPLC analysis of skim milk fermentation revealed increasing amounts of peptides after 5 and 10 h with Lb. d. ssp. bulgaricus 92059. Hydrolysates obtained with Lb. d. ssp. lactis 92202 and Lb. d. ssp. bulgaricus 92059 revealed the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory effect. The effect was dose dependent. Almost no effect (<10%) was seen for Lb. helveticus 92201. For Lb. d. ssp. bulgaricus 92059, maximal inhibition of approx. 65% was reached after 25 h of fermentation. In an in vitro assay measuring potential immunomodulation, hydrolysates of the three strains yielded anti-inflammatory activities in the presence of TNF-α. However, the effects were more pronounced at lower hydrolysate concentrations. In the absence of TNF-α, slight pro-inflammatory effects were observed. The hydrolysate of Lb. d. ssp. bulgaricus 92059, when purified by means of solid-phase extraction, exhibited pro-inflammatory activity. Sour whey containing Lb. d. ssp. bulgaricus 92059 cells showed pro-inflammatory activity while cell-free sour whey was clearly anti-inflammatory. In the purified hydrolysate, 20 different α- and β-casein (CN)-derived peptides could be identified by LC-MS. Most peptides originated from the central and C-terminal regions of β-casein. Peptide length was between 9 (β-CN(f 59–67)) and 22 amino acids (β-CN(f 117–138)). © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany


PubMed | University of Aarhus, Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food and University of Hohenheim
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2016

Thirteen whey powders and 5 whey powder formulations were screened for the presence of dairy bacteriophages using a representative set of 8 acid-producing Lactococcus lactis and 5 Streptococcus thermophilus, and 8 flavour-producing Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains. Lytic L. lactis phages were detected in all samples, while S. thermophilus and Leuconostoc phages were present in 50% or 40% of the samples, respectively. Maximal phage titers were 610


Ali Y.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Ali Y.,Jazan University | Ali Y.,Animal Health Research Institute | Koberg S.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Lipoprotein Ltp encoded by temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 is the prototype of the wide-spread family of host cell surface-exposed lipoproteins involved in superinfection exclusion (sie). When screening for other S. thermophilus phages expressing this type of lipoprotein, three temperate phages-TP-EW, TP-DSM20617, and TP-778-were isolated. In this communication we present the total nucleotide sequences of TP-J34 and TP-778L. For TP-EW, a phage almost identical to TP-J34, besides the ltp gene only the two regions of deviation from TP-J34 DNA were analyzed: the gene encoding the tail protein causing an assembly defect in TP-J34 and the gene encoding the lysin, which in TP-EW contains an intron. For TP-DSM20617 only the sequence of the lysogeny module containing the ltp gene was determined. The region showed high homology to the same region of TP-778. For TP-778 we could show that absence of the attR region resulted in aberrant excision of phage DNA. The amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-EW was shown to be identical to that of mature LtpTP-J34, whereas the amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-778 was shown to differ from mature LtpTP-J34 in eight amino acid positions. LtpTP-DSM20617 was shown to differ from LtpTP-778 in just one amino acid position. In contrast to LtpTP-J34, LtpTP-778 did not affect infection of lactococcal phage P008 instead increased activity against phage P001 was noticed. © 2014 Ali, Koberg, Heßner, Sun, Rabe, Back, Neve and Heller.


PubMed | University of Leipzig, 1Training and Consultancy Institute for animal welfare at transport and slaughter bsi Schwarzenbek and Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2016

This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57C to 72C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (2824 v. 107 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (14144 v. 2725 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual findings (P<0.05). We conclude that HWS is a promising test for SOL. SM and sustained mouth opening in particular are indicators for compromised animal welfare and affected pigs should be shot by captive bolt.


Parotat S.,Training and Consultancy Institute for Animal Welfare at Transport and Slaughter Bsi Schwarzenbek | Parotat S.,University of Leipzig | Von Holleben K.,Training and Consultancy Institute for Animal Welfare at Transport and Slaughter Bsi Schwarzenbek | Arnold S.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57°C to 72°C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P<0.001). The sensitivity for HWS as a test for SOL was calculated as 100%, dropping to 75% when only obvious and strong movements were taken into account. The specificity was >99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (28±24 v. 10±7 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (141±44 v. 27±25 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual findings (P<0.05). We conclude that HWS is a promising test for SOL. SM and sustained mouth opening in particular are indicators for compromised animal welfare and affected pigs should be shot by captive bolt. © The Animal Consortium 2015.


Kot W.,Copenhagen University | Neve H.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Heller K.J.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Vogensen F.K.,Copenhagen University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Leuconostoc (Ln.), Weissella, and Oenococcus form a group of related genera of lactic acid bacteria, which once all shared the name Leuconostoc. They are associated with plants, fermented vegetable products, raw milk, dairy products, meat, and fish. Most of industrially relevant Leuconostoc strains can be classified as either Ln. mesenteroides or Ln. pseudomesenteroides. They are important flavor producers in dairy fermentations and they initiate nearly all vegetable fermentations. Therefore, bacteriophages attacking Leuconostoc strains may negatively influence the production process. Bacteriophages attacking Leuconostoc strains were first reported in 1946. Since then, the majority of described Leuconostoc phages was isolated from either dairy products or fermented vegetable products. Both lytic and temperate phages of Leuconostoc were reported. Most of Leuconostoc phages examined using electron microscopy belong to the Siphoviridae family and differ in morphological details. Hybridization and comparative genomic studies of Leuconostoc phages suggest that they can be divided into several groups, however overall diversity of Leuconostoc phages is much lower as compared to, e.g., lactococcal phages. Several fully sequenced genomes of Leuconostoc phages have been deposited in public databases. Lytic phages of Leuconostoc can be divided into two host species-specific groups with similarly organized genomes that shared very low nucleotide similarity. Phages of dairy Leuconostoc have rather limited host-ranges. The receptor binding proteins of two lytic Ln. pseudomesenteroides phages have been identified. Molecular tools for detection of dairy Leuconostoc phages have been developed. The rather limited data on phages of Oenococcus and Weissella show that (i) lysogeny seems to be abundant in Oenococcus strains, and (ii) several phages infecting Weissella cibaria are also able to productively infect strains of other Weissella species and even strains of the genus Lactobacillus. © 2014 Kot, Neve, Heller and Vogensen.


Elshaghabee F.M.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Elshaghabee F.M.,Cairo University | Bockelmann W.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Meske D.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose), pentoses (arabinose and ribose), disaccharides (lactose and lactulose), and inulin. Highest amounts of ethanol were produced by S. cerevisiae, L. fermentum, and W. confusa on glucose and by S. cerevisiae and W. confusa on fructose. Due to mannitol-dehydrogenase expressed in L. fermentum, ethanol production on fructose was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. Pyruvate and citrate, two potential electron acceptors for regeneration of NAD+/NADP+, drastically reduced ethanol production with acetate produced instead in L. fermentum grown on glucose and W. confusa grown on glucose and fructose, respectively. In fecal slurries prepared from feces of four overweight volunteers, ethanol was found to be produced upon addition of fructose. Addition of A. caccae, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, as well as citrate and pyruvate, respectively, abolished ethanol production. However, addition of W. confusa resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) increased production of ethanol. These results indicate that microorganisms like W. confusa, a hetero-fermentative, mannitol-dehydrogenase negative lactic acid bacterium, may promote NAFLD through ethanol produced from sugar fermentation, while other intestinal bacteria and homo- and hetero-fermentative but mannitol-dehydrogenase positive lactic acid bacteria may not promote NAFLD. Also, our studies indicate that dietary factors interfering with gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial metabolism may be important in preventing or promoting NAFLD. © 2016 Elshaghabee, Bockelmann, Meske, de Vrese, Walte, Schrezenmeir and Heller.


Bebeacua C.,Aix - Marseille University | Lorenzo Fajardo J.C.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Blangy S.,Aix - Marseille University | Spinelli S.,Aix - Marseille University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

Summary: Lipoproteins of temperate phage are a broad family of membrane proteins encoded in the lysogeny module of temperate phages. Expression of the ltpTP-J34 gene of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 interferes with phage infection at the stage of triggering DNA release and injection into the cell. Here, we report the first structure of a superinfection exclusion protein. We have expressed and determined the X-ray structure of LtpTP-J34. The soluble domain of LtpTP-J34 is composed of a tandem of three-helix helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains exhibiting a highly negatively charged surface. By isolating mutants of lactococcal phage P008wt with reduced sensitivities to LtpTP-J34 and by genome sequencing of such mutants we obtained evidence supporting the notion that LtpTP-J34 targets the phage's tape measure protein (TMP) and blocks its insertion into the cytoplasmic membrane. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Koberg S.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Mohamed M.D.A.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Mohamed M.D.A.,Sohag University | Faulhaber K.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2015

The genetic switch region of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 contains two divergently oriented promoters and several predicted operator sites. It separates lytic cycle-promoting genes from those promoting lysogeny. A polycistronic transcript comprises the genes coding for repressor Crh, metalloproteinase-motif protein Rir and superinfection exclusion lipoprotein Ltp. Weak promoters effecting monocistronic transcripts were localized for ltp and int (encoding integrase) by Northern blot and 5′-RACE-PCR. These transcripts appeared in lysogenic as well as lytic state. A polycistronic transcript comprising genes coh (encoding Cro homolog), ant (encoding putative antirepressor), orf7, orf8 and orf9 was only detected in the lytic state. Four operator sites, of which three were located in the intergenic regions between crh and coh, and one between coh and ant, were identified by competition electromobility shift assays. Cooperative binding of Crh to two operator sites immediately upstream of coh could be demonstrated. Coh was shown to bind to the operator closest to crh only. Oligomerization was proven by cross-linking Crh by glutaraldehyde. Knock-out of rir revealed a key role in prophage induction. Rir and Crh were shown to form a complex in solution and Rir prevented binding of Crh to its operator sites. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | University of Kiel and Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

A systematic investigation was carried out on the influence of fermentation on glucosinolates and their degradation products from fresh raw cabbage, throughout fermentation at 20 C and storage at 4 C. Glucosinolates were degraded dramatically between Day 2 and 5 of fermentation and by Day 7 there was no detectable amount of glucosinolates left. Fermentation led to formation of potential bioactive compounds ascorbigen (13.0 mol/100 g FW) and indole-3-carbinol (4.52 mol/100g FW) with their higher concentrations from Day 5 to Day 9. However, during storage indole-3-carbinol slowly degraded to 0.68 mol/100 g FW, while ascorbigen was relatively stable from Week 4 until Week 8 at 6.78 mol/100 g FW. In contrast, the content of indole-3-acetonitrile decreased rapidly during fermentation from 3.6 to 0.14 mol/100 g FW. The results imply a maximum of health beneficial compounds after fermentation (7-9 days) in contrast to raw cabbage or stored sauerkraut.

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