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Parotat S.,Training and Consultancy Institute for Animal Welfare at Transport and Slaughter Bsi Schwarzenbek | Parotat S.,University of Leipzig | von Holleben K.,Training and Consultancy Institute for Animal Welfare at Transport and Slaughter Bsi Schwarzenbek | Arnold S.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2015

This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57°C to 72°C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P<0.001). The sensitivity for HWS as a test for SOL was calculated as 100%, dropping to 75% when only obvious and strong movements were taken into account. The specificity was >99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (28±24 v. 10±7 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (141±44 v. 27±25 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual findings (P<0.05). We conclude that HWS is a promising test for SOL. SM and sustained mouth opening in particular are indicators for compromised animal welfare and affected pigs should be shot by captive bolt. © The Animal Consortium 2015 Source


Parotat S.,Training and Consultancy Institute for Animal Welfare at Transport and Slaughter Bsi Schwarzenbek | Parotat S.,University of Leipzig | Von Holleben K.,Training and Consultancy Institute for Animal Welfare at Transport and Slaughter Bsi Schwarzenbek | Arnold S.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57°C to 72°C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P<0.001). The sensitivity for HWS as a test for SOL was calculated as 100%, dropping to 75% when only obvious and strong movements were taken into account. The specificity was >99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (28±24 v. 10±7 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (141±44 v. 27±25 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual findings (P<0.05). We conclude that HWS is a promising test for SOL. SM and sustained mouth opening in particular are indicators for compromised animal welfare and affected pigs should be shot by captive bolt. © The Animal Consortium 2015. Source


Ali Y.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Ali Y.,Jazan University | Ali Y.,Animal Health Research Institute | Koberg S.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Lipoprotein Ltp encoded by temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 is the prototype of the wide-spread family of host cell surface-exposed lipoproteins involved in superinfection exclusion (sie). When screening for other S. thermophilus phages expressing this type of lipoprotein, three temperate phages-TP-EW, TP-DSM20617, and TP-778-were isolated. In this communication we present the total nucleotide sequences of TP-J34 and TP-778L. For TP-EW, a phage almost identical to TP-J34, besides the ltp gene only the two regions of deviation from TP-J34 DNA were analyzed: the gene encoding the tail protein causing an assembly defect in TP-J34 and the gene encoding the lysin, which in TP-EW contains an intron. For TP-DSM20617 only the sequence of the lysogeny module containing the ltp gene was determined. The region showed high homology to the same region of TP-778. For TP-778 we could show that absence of the attR region resulted in aberrant excision of phage DNA. The amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-EW was shown to be identical to that of mature LtpTP-J34, whereas the amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-778 was shown to differ from mature LtpTP-J34 in eight amino acid positions. LtpTP-DSM20617 was shown to differ from LtpTP-778 in just one amino acid position. In contrast to LtpTP-J34, LtpTP-778 did not affect infection of lactococcal phage P008 instead increased activity against phage P001 was noticed. © 2014 Ali, Koberg, Heßner, Sun, Rabe, Back, Neve and Heller. Source


Jaudszus A.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Degen C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Barth S.W.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Klempt M.,Max Rubner Institute | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Scope: Established epithelial cell lines equipped with pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 are common tools for immune response studies on invading pathogens, e.g. the obligate intracellular species of Chlamydia. Moreover, such models are widely used to elucidate fatty acid-mediated immune effects. In several transformed cell lines, however, unusual loss of metabolic functions was described. The cell lines A549 and HeLa are poorly characterized in this respect. Therefore, we comparatively assessed the metabolic capacity of A549 and HeLa prior to proposed application as in vitro model for fatty acid effects on chlamydial infection. Methodology/Principal Findings: We incubated both cell lines either with substrates (C18:2n-6 or C18:3n-3) or products (C18:3n-6, C18:4n-3) of fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), and analysed the fatty acid profiles after 24 h and 72 h by gas chromatography. Based on these data, we suspected that the complete discontinuation of normal biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in HeLa was due to loss of FADS2 function. Consequently, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation was less inducible by TLR2 stimulation in HeLa, likely as a result of not only insufficient supply of precursors but also weak cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) response. In accordance, Chlamydia infection rates were consistently lower in HeLa than in A549. Sequence analysis revealed no alteration within the FADS2 gene in HeLa. The FADS2 expression level, however, was significantly lower and, in contrast to A549, not regulated by C18:2n-6. A549 exhibited regular fatty acid metabolism and enzyme functionality. Conclusions/Significance: Our data show that HeLa cells considerably differ from A549 at several stages of fatty acid metabolism. The poor metabolic potential of HeLa, mainly concerning FADS2 upstream of COX-2 function, calls into question whether these cells represent a good model to unveil fatty acid or downstream eicosanoid effects in the course of intracellular bacterial infection. © 2014 Jaudszus et al. Source


Koberg S.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Mohamed M.D.A.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | Mohamed M.D.A.,Sohag University | Faulhaber K.,Max Rubner Institute Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2015

The genetic switch region of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 contains two divergently oriented promoters and several predicted operator sites. It separates lytic cycle-promoting genes from those promoting lysogeny. A polycistronic transcript comprises the genes coding for repressor Crh, metalloproteinase-motif protein Rir and superinfection exclusion lipoprotein Ltp. Weak promoters effecting monocistronic transcripts were localized for ltp and int (encoding integrase) by Northern blot and 5′-RACE-PCR. These transcripts appeared in lysogenic as well as lytic state. A polycistronic transcript comprising genes coh (encoding Cro homolog), ant (encoding putative antirepressor), orf7, orf8 and orf9 was only detected in the lytic state. Four operator sites, of which three were located in the intergenic regions between crh and coh, and one between coh and ant, were identified by competition electromobility shift assays. Cooperative binding of Crh to two operator sites immediately upstream of coh could be demonstrated. Coh was shown to bind to the operator closest to crh only. Oligomerization was proven by cross-linking Crh by glutaraldehyde. Knock-out of rir revealed a key role in prophage induction. Rir and Crh were shown to form a complex in solution and Rir prevented binding of Crh to its operator sites. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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