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Potsdam-Golm, Germany

The Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology is a German research institute for molecular plant physiology, based in the Golm district of Potsdam, Brandenburg. Founded on January 1, 1994, the MPIMP focuses on the study of the dynamics of plant metabolism and how that relates to the entire plant system. The institution is one of the 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society . Wikipedia.

Licausi F.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

The oxygen availability to plant tissues can vary strongly in time and space. To endure short- or long-term oxygen deprivation, plants evolved a series of metabolic and morphological adaptations that have been extensively studied. However, our knowledge of the molecular regulation of these processes is not as well understood. In this review, the recent findings on the molecular effectors that regulate the response of higher plants to oxygen deficiency are discussed. Although no direct oxygen sensor has been discovered in plants so far, mechanisms that perceive low-oxygen derived signals have been reported, involving different sets of transcription factors (TFs). The ERF (Ethylene Responsive Factor) family especially appears to play a crucial role in the determination of survival to reduced oxygen availability in Arabidopsis and rice. This class of TFs displays a broad range of targets, being involved in both the metabolic reprogramming and the morphological adaptations exploited by plants when subjected to low-oxygen conditions. © 2010 The Author. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust. Source

Stitt M.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The maximum yield of crop plants depends on the efficiency of conversion of sunlight into biomass. This review summarises recent models that estimate energy conversion efficiency for successive steps in photosynthesis and metabolism. Photorespiration was identified as a major reason for energy loss during photosynthesis and strategies to modify or suppress photorespiration are presented. Energy loss during the conversion of photosynthate to biomass is also large but cannot be modelled as precisely due to incomplete knowledge about pathways and turnover and maintenance costs. Recent research on pathways involved in metabolite transport and interconversion in different organs, and recent insights into energy requirements linked to the production, maintenance and turnover of the apparatus for cellular growth and repair processes are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Stitt M.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

System integration of metabolism is considered in analogy to the investigation of corporate misdemeanour. Motive, or goal-oriented explanation, provides hypotheses that can guide the investigation of network structure. Opportunity can be established by correlative analysis using large-scale omics resources. However, correlative approaches on their own remain inconclusive and seldom identify all the links in a network. Establishment of means, or the ability to act on other network components and contribute to a phenotype, is therefore crucial. This requires functional information. Integration of quantitative data in the context of pathway models provides a powerful approach to establish 'means'. This is illustrated by discussing: first, how protein abundance is regulated by a network including transcript abundance, translation and protein degradation and second, how a combination of experimentation and modelling provides information about pathway flux, an emergent network property that integrates changes in proteins and metabolites and determines composition and biomass. © 2013. Source

Bock R.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2015

The small bacterial-type genome of the plastid (chloroplast) can be engineered by genetic transformation, generating cells and plants with transgenic plastid genomes, also referred to as transplastomic plants. The transformation process relies on homologous recombination, thereby facilitating the site-specific alteration of endogenous plastid genes as well as the precisely targeted insertion of foreign genes into the plastid DNA. The technology has been used extensively to analyze chloroplast gene functions and study plastid gene expression at all levels in vivo. Over the years, a large toolbox has been assembled that is now nearly comparable to the techniques available for plant nuclear transformation and that has enabled new applications of transplastomic technology in basic and applied research. This review describes the state of the art in engineering the plastid genomes of algae and land plants (Embryophyta). It provides an overview of the existing tools for plastid genome engineering, discusses current technological limitations, and highlights selected applications that demonstrate the immense potential of chloroplast transformation in several key areas of plant biotechnology. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Bock R.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The plastid genome represents an attractive target of genetic engineering in crop plants. Plastid transgenes often give high expression levels, can be stacked in operons and are largely excluded from pollen transmission. Recent research has greatly expanded our toolbox for plastid genome engineering and many new proof-of-principle applications have highlighted the enormous potential of the transplastomic technology in both crop improvement and the development of plants as bioreactors for the sustainable and cost-effective production of biopharmaceuticals, enzymes and raw materials for the chemical industry. This review describes recent technological advances with plastid transformation in seed plants. It focuses on novel tools for plastid genome engineering and transgene expression and summarizes progress with harnessing the potential of plastid transformation in biotechnology. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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