Max Planck Institute of Immunology

Freiburg, Germany

Max Planck Institute of Immunology

Freiburg, Germany
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Ivanova S.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Gregorc U.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Vidergar N.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Javier R.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2011

A major feature of apoptotic cell death is gross structural changes, one of which is the loss of cell-cell contacts. The caspases, executioners of apoptosis, were shown to cleave several proteins involved in the formation of cell junctions. The membraneassociated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), which are typically associated with cell junctions, have a major role in the organization of protein-protein complexes at plasma membranes and are therefore potentially important caspase targets during apoptosis. We report here that MAGUKs are cleaved and/or degraded by executioner caspases, granzyme B and several cysteine cathepsins in vitro. When apoptosis was induced by UV-irradiation and staurosporine in different epithelial cell lines, caspases were found to efficiently cleave MAGUKs in these cell models, as the cleavages could be prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe) fluoromethylketone. Using a selective lysosomal disrupting agent L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester, which induces apoptosis through the lysosomal pathway, it was further shown that MAGUKs are also cleaved by the cathepsins in HaCaT and CaCo-2 cells. Immunohistological data showed rapid loss of MAGUKs at the sites of cell-cell contacts, preceding actual cell detachment, suggesting that cleavage of MAGUKs is an important step in fast and efficient cell detachment. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Kundu K.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Costa F.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Huber M.,RWTH Aachen | Reth M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are the largest family of the peptide-recognition modules (PRMs) that bind to phosphotyrosine containing peptides. Knowledge about binding partners of SH2-domains is key for a deeper understanding of different cellular processes. Given the high binding specificity of SH2, in-silico ligand peptide prediction is of great interest. Currently however, only a few approaches have been published for the prediction of SH2-peptide interactions. Their main shortcomings range from limited coverage, to restrictive modeling assumptions (they are mainly based on position specific scoring matrices and do not take into consideration complex amino acids inter-dependencies) and high computational complexity. We propose a simple yet effective machine learning approach for a large set of known human SH2 domains. We used comprehensive data from micro-array and peptide-array experiments on 51 human SH2 domains. In order to deal with the high data imbalance problem and the high signal-to-noise ration, we casted the problem in a semi-supervised setting. We report competitive predictive performance w.r.t. state-of-the-art. Specifically we obtain 0.83 AUC ROC and 0.93 AUC PR in comparison to 0.71 AUC ROC and 0.87 AUC PR previously achieved by the position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) based SMALI approach. Our work provides three main contributions. First, we showed that better models can be obtained when the information on the non-interacting peptides (negative examples) is also used. Second, we improve performance when considering high order correlations between the ligand positions employing regularization techniques to effectively avoid overfitting issues. Third, we developed an approach to tackle the data imbalance problem using a semi-supervised strategy. Finally, we performed a genome-wide prediction of human SH2-peptide binding, uncovering several findings of biological relevance. We make our models and genome-wide predictions, for all the 51 SH2-domains, freely available to the scientific community under the following URLs: and, respectively. © 2013 Kundu et al.

Maus M.,Eötvös Loránd University | Medgyesi D.,Max Planck Institute of Immunology | Kiss E.,Eötvös Loránd University | Schneider A.E.,Eötvös Loránd University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2013

B cells acquire membrane-bound cognate antigens from the surface of the APCs by forming an IS, similar to that seen in T cells. Recognition of membrane-bound antigens on the APCs initiates adhesion of B lymphocytes to the antigen-tethered surface, which is followed by the formation of radial lamellipodia-like structures, a process known as B cell spreading. The spreading response requires the rearrangement of the submembrane actin cytoskeleton and is regulated mainly via signals transmitted by the BCR. Here, we show that cytoplasmic calcium is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in B lymphocytes. We find that BCR-induced calcium mobilization is indispensible for adhesion and spreading of B cells and that PLCγ and CRAC-mediated calcium mobilization are critical regulators of these processes. Measuring calcium and actin dynamics in live cells, we found that a generation of actin-based membrane protrusion is strongly linked to the dynamics of a cytoplasmic-free calcium level. Finally, we demonstrate that PLCγ and CRAC channels regulate the activity of actin-severing protein cofilin, linking BCR-induced calcium signaling to the actin dynamics. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

PubMed | Max Planck Institute of Immunology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature neuroscience | Year: 2012

Temporal regulation of embryonic neurogenesis is controlled by hypostable transcription factors. The mechanism of the process is unclear. Here we show that the RNase III Drosha and DGCR8 (also known as Pasha), key components of the microRNA (miRNA) microprocessor, have important functions in mouse neurogenesis. Loss of microprocessor in forebrain neural progenitors resulted in a loss of stem cell character and precocious differentiation whereas Dicer deficiency did not. Drosha negatively regulated expression of the transcription factors Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and NeuroD1 whereas forced Ngn2 expression phenocopied the loss of Drosha. Neurog2 mRNA contains evolutionarily conserved hairpins with similarities to pri-miRNAs, and associates with the microprocessor in neural progenitors. We uncovered a Drosha-dependent destabilization of Neurog2 mRNAs consistent with microprocessor cleavage at hairpins. Our findings implicate direct and miRNA-independent destabilization of proneural mRNAs by the microprocessor, which facilitates neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance by blocking accumulation of differentiation and determination factors.

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