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Carracedo S.,University of Oslo | Sacher F.,Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology | Sacher F.,Bayer AG | Brandes G.,Zellbiologie im Zentrum Anatomie Gebaude I4 | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis. © 2014 Carracedo et al.

Conrad S.,Institute of Anatomy | Stimpfle F.,Institute of Anatomy | Montazeri S.,Charite University Hospital | Oldekamp J.,Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology | And 4 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The proliferation, migration and differentiation of dentate gyrus stem and precursor cells have aroused keen interest. Neogenin and RGMb are expressed in non-overlapping compartments of the developing dentate gyrus. While Neogenin is expressed in migrating and proliferating dentate precursors, RGMb is localized in structures bordering the developing dentate, such as cornus ammonis cells and Cajal-Retzius cells in the marginal zone including the hippocampal fissure. Co-immunoprecipitation and binding assays indicate a strong physical interaction. In vitro and in vivo migration of dentate neuroepithelial cells is abolished by RGMb, and cell adhesion is reduced when cells expressing Neogenin comes into contact with cells expressing RGMb. Ectopic expression of RGMb in organotypic slice cultures and after in utero electroporation in the hippocampus modifies precursor cell migration. Our results imply that Neogenin-RGMb interaction might be involved in neuronal migration in the dentate gyrus. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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