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Becker J.,University of Hamburg | Grtner K.,Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis And Stochastics | Klanner R.,University of Hamburg | Richter R.,Max Planck Institute Halbleiterlabor
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2010

In silicon sensors high densities of electron-hole pairs result in a change of the current pulse shape and spatial distribution of the collected charge compared to the situation in presence of low charge carrier densities. This paper presents a detailed comparison of numerical simulations with time resolved current measurements on planar silicon sensors using 660 nm laser light to create different densities of electron hole pairs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ekeberg T.,Uppsala University | Svenda M.,Uppsala University | Abergel C.,Aix - Marseille University | Maia F.R.N.C.,Uppsala University | And 32 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We present a proof-of-concept three-dimensional reconstruction of the giant mimivirus particle from experimentally measured diffraction patterns from an x-ray free-electron laser. Three-dimensional imaging requires the assembly of many two-dimensional patterns into an internally consistent Fourier volume. Since each particle is randomly oriented when exposed to the x-ray pulse, relative orientations have to be retrieved from the diffraction data alone. We achieve this with a modified version of the expand, maximize and compress algorithm and validate our result using new methods. © 2015 American Physical Society.


PubMed | German Electron Synchrotron, Kansas State University, Max Planck Institute Halbleiterlabor, Aix - Marseille University and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physical review letters | Year: 2015

We present a proof-of-concept three-dimensional reconstruction of the giant mimivirus particle from experimentally measured diffraction patterns from an x-ray free-electron laser. Three-dimensional imaging requires the assembly of many two-dimensional patterns into an internally consistent Fourier volume. Since each particle is randomly oriented when exposed to the x-ray pulse, relative orientations have to be retrieved from the diffraction data alone. We achieve this with a modified version of the expand, maximize and compress algorithm and validate our result using new methods.


Muller K.,University of Bremen | Ryll H.,PNSensor GmbH | Ordavo I.,PNSensor GmbH | Ihle S.,PNSensor GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

A high-speed direct electron detection system is introduced to the field of transmission electron microscopy and applied to strain measurements in semiconductor nanostructures. In particular, a focused electron probe with a diameter of 0.5 nm was scanned over a fourfold quantum layer stack with alternating compressive and tensile strain and diffracted discs have been recorded on a scintillator-free direct electron detector with a frame time of 1 ms. We show that the applied algorithms can accurately detect Bragg beam positions despite a significant point spread each 300 kV electron causes during detection on the scintillator-free camera. For millisecond exposures, we find that strain can be measured with a precision of 1.3 × 10 - 3, enabling, e.g., strain mapping in a 100 × 100 nm 2 region with 0.5 nm resolution in 40 s. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Macchiolo A.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Andricek L.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Andricek L.,Max Planck Institute Halbleiterlabor | Ellenburg M.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | And 7 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2013

This R&D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75μm or 150μm, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100μm thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×1015 neq/cm2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3μm×10μm, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Weigell P.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Beimforde M.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Gallrapp Ch.,CERN | La Rosa A.,CERN | And 5 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

The existing ATLAS tracker will be at its functional limit for particle fluences of 1015 neq/cm2 (LHC). Thus for the upgrades at smaller radii like in the case of the planned Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and for increased LHC luminosities (super LHC) the development of new structures and materials which can cope with the resulting particle fluences is needed. n-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate for tracking detectors to achieve these goals, since they are radiation hard, cost efficient and are not type inverted after irradiation. A n-in-p pixel production based on a MPP/HLL design and performed by CiS (Erfurt, Germany) on 300μm thick Float-Zone material is characterised and the electrical properties of sensors and single chip modules (SCM) are presented, including noise, charge collection efficiencies, and measurements with MIPs as well as an 241Am source. The SCMs are built with sensors connected to the current ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterisation has been performed with the ATLAS pixel read-out systems, before and after irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons. In addition preliminary testbeam results for the tracking efficiency and charge collection, obtained with a SCM, are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Andricek L.,Max Planck Institute Halbleiterlabor | Beimforde M.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | MacChiolo A.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Moser H.-G.,Max Planck Institute Halbleiterlabor | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

A new pixel module concept is presented utilizing thin sensors and a novel vertical integration technique for the ATLAS pixel detector in view of the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrades. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 and 150μm has been produced from wafers of standard thickness using a thinning process developed at the Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor (HLL) and the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP). Pre-irradiation characterizations of these sensors show a very good device yield and high break down voltage. First proton irradiations up to a fluence of 10 15 n eq cm -2 have been carried out and their impact on the electrical properties of thin sensors has been studied. The novel ICV-SLID vertical integration technology will allow for routing signals vertically to the back side of the readout chips. With this, four-side buttable detector devices with an increased active area fraction are made possible. A first production of SLID test structures was performed and showed a high connection efficiency for different pad sizes and a mild sensitivity to disturbances of the surface planarity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Rupp D.,TU Berlin | Adolph M.,TU Berlin | Gorkhover T.,TU Berlin | Schorb S.,TU Berlin | And 14 more authors.
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

Scattering experiments on xenon nanoclusters with high-intensity soft x-ray laser pulses from the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) are performed to investigate different cluster morphologies in the gas phase. Three different types of scattering patterns can be identified. The most frequent pattern of concentric rings reflects the event of a single spherical cluster in focus. Fine interference rings similar to Newton rings appear when two clusters are illuminated at μm distance, revealing three-dimensional information about the location of the clusters. Between 10 and 30% of all hits show a previously unknown twin cluster configuration with two clusters in direct contact. Simulations of scattering patterns for twin clusters with different sizes of the two particles, degree of fusion and orientation in space allow us to explain all the observed patterns. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Gallrapp C.,CERN | La Rosa A.,CERN | MacChiolo A.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Nisius R.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | And 3 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2012

The performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel detectors designed for future upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel system is presented. The n-in-p silicon sensors technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. The n-in-p modules presented here are composed of pixel sensors produced by CiS connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterization of these devices has been performed before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5×10 15 1 MeV n eqcm -2. Charge collection measurements carried out with radioactive sources have proven the functioning of this technology up to these particle fluences. First results from beam test data with a 120 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN-SPS are also discussed, demonstrating a high tracking efficiency of (98.6±0.3)% and a high collected charge of about 10 ke for a device irradiated at the maximum fluence and biased at 1 kV. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Scharf O.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Ihle S.,PNSensor GmbH | Ordavo I.,PNDetector GmbH | Arkadiev V.,Institute fur Angewandte Photonik E.V. IAP | And 18 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

For many applications there is a requirement for nondestructive analytical investigation of the elemental distribution in a sample. With the improvement of X-ray optics and spectroscopic X-ray imagers, full field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF) methods are feasible. A new device for high-resolution X-ray imaging, an energy and spatial resolving X-ray camera, is presented. The basic idea behind this so-called "color X-ray camera" (CXC) is to combine an energy dispersive array detector for X-rays, in this case a pnCCD, with polycapillary optics. Imaging is achieved using multiframe recording of the energy and the point of impact of single photons. The camera was tested using a laboratory 30 μm microfocus X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation from BESSY II at the BAMline facility. These experiments demonstrate the suitability of the camera for X-ray fluorescence analytics. The camera simultaneously records 69 696 spectra with an energy resolution of 152 eV for manganese K α with a spatial resolution of 50 μm over an imaging area of 12.7 × 12.7 mm2. It is sensitive to photons in the energy region between 3 and 40 keV, limited by a 50 μm beryllium window, and the sensitive thickness of 450 μm of the chip. Online preview of the sample is possible as the software updates the sums of the counts for certain energy channel ranges during the measurement and displays 2-D false-color maps as well as spectra of selected regions. The complete data cube of 264 × 264 spectra is saved for further qualitative and quantitative processing. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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