Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik

Berlin, Germany

Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik

Berlin, Germany
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Al-Bughaili M.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Neuhann T.M.,Medizinisch Genetisches Zentrum | Flottmann R.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Mundlos S.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2017

Gerodermia osteodysplastica is a recessive segmental progeroid disorder mainly characterized by wrinkled skin, generalized connective tissue weakness, infantile onset osteoporosis and normal intelligence. Coding mutations in GORAB, localized on chromosome 1q24.2, are the cause of this disease. 1q24 deletions underlie a spectrum of disorders with intellectual disability and ear abnormalities as phenotypic hallmarks. Here we report on an individual from Azerbaijan originating from a non-consanguineous couple showing short stature, cutis laxa, frequent fractures, facial dysmorphism, cup-shaped ears and intellectual disability. Sanger sequencing of GORAB revealed the seemingly homozygous missense mutation p.Ser175Phe. This mutation was detected in a heterozygous state in the clinically unaffected mother, but was absent in the healthy father. We performed copy-number investigations by high-resolution array-CGH and PCR approaches and found an ∼6 Mb de novo deletion spanning 1q23.3-q24.2 in the affected boy. This novel combination of genetic defects very well explains the phenotype that goes beyond the usual presentation of gerodermia osteodysplastica. Our data provide new insight into the phenotypic spectrum of 1q23-q25 deletions and shows that the combination with another pathogenic allele can lead to more severe clinical manifestations. © 2017 The Japan Society of Human Genetics All rights reserved.


Afzal M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Zaman Q.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Kornak U.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Kornak U.,Max Planck Institute Fuer Molekulare Genetik | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2017

Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome (CLSS; MIM-212780) is a rare autosomal recessive limb malformation characterized by complete osseous fusion of all fingers and toes, disorganization of phalangeal elements and severe shortening of the radius and ulna. It is occasionally associated with renal hypoplasia, oro-facial defects, scoliosis of the thoracic spine, hearing loss, and genital anomalies. Here we describe a consanguineous Pakistani kindred with a severe form of CLSS characterized by complete syndactyly and disorganization of fingers, oligo-syndactyly of toes, shortening of limbs, frontal bossing, and hypoplasia/agenesis of left kidney. The affected individuals were additionally presented with short stature, cleft-lip and hypoplastic shoulder joint with restricted upper limb movement. A novel splice variant in LRP4 (c.316+1G > A) segregated with the phenotype in a five generations family. The mutation is predicted to add 29 non-native amino acids with a premature termination, resulting in approximately 90% length reduction of the wild-type transcript. These findings not only further expand the phenotypic variability of CLSS but also indicate that early truncated and loss-of-function mutations in LRP4 lead to a more severe CLSS phenotype. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Fischer B.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Dimopoulou A.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Egerer J.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Egerer J.,Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik | And 24 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) syndromes are phenotypically overlapping, but genetically heterogeneous disorders. Mutations in the ATP6V0A2 gene were found to underlie both, autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2), Debré type, and wrinkly skin syndrome (WSS). The ATP6V0A2 gene encodes the a2 subunit of the V-type H+-ATPase, playing a role in proton translocation, and possibly also in membrane fusion. Here, we describe a highly variable phenotype in 13 patients with ARCL2, including the oldest affected individual described so far, who showed strikingly progressive dysmorphic features and heterotopic calcifications. In these individuals we identified 17 ATP6V0A2 mutations, 14 of which are novel. Furthermore, we demonstrate a localization of ATP6V0A2 at the Golgi-apparatus and a loss of the mutated ATP6V0A2 protein in patients' dermal fibroblasts. Investigation of brefeldin A-induced Golgi collapse in dermal fibroblasts as well as in HeLa cells deficient for ATP6V0A2 revealed a delay, which was absent in cells deficient for the ARCL-associated proteins GORAB or PYCR1. Furthermore, fibroblasts from patients with ATP6V0A2 mutations displayed elevated TGF-β signalling and increased TGF-β1 levels in the supernatant. Our current findings expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum and suggest that, besides the known glycosylation defect, alterations in trafficking and signalling processes are potential key events in the pathogenesis of ATP6V0A2-related ARCL. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Singapore Institute of Medical Biology, University of Otago, University of Washington, Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik and 11 more.
Type: Case Reports | Journal: American journal of human genetics | Year: 2015

Progeroid disorders overlapping with De Barsy syndrome (DBS) are collectively denoted as autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 3 (ARCL3). They are caused by biallelic mutations in PYCR1 or ALDH18A1, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), respectively, which both operate in the mitochondrial proline cycle. We report here on eight unrelated individuals born to non-consanguineous families clinically diagnosed with DBS or wrinkly skin syndrome. We found three heterozygous mutations in ALDH18A1 leading to amino acid substitutions of the same highly conserved residue, Arg138 in P5CS. A de novo origin was confirmed in all six probands for whom parental DNA was available. Using fibroblasts from affected individuals and heterologous overexpression, we found that the P5CS-p.Arg138Trp protein was stable and able to interact with wild-type P5CS but showed an altered sub-mitochondrial distribution. A reduced size upon native gel electrophoresis indicated an alteration of the structure or composition of P5CS mutant complex. Furthermore, we found that the mutant cells had a reduced P5CS enzymatic activity leading to a delayed proline accumulation. In summary, recurrent de novo mutations, affecting the highly conserved residue Arg138 of P5CS, cause an autosomal-dominant form of cutis laxa with progeroid features. Our data provide insights into the etiology of cutis laxa diseases and will have immediate impact on diagnostics and genetic counseling.


Dimopoulou A.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Fischer B.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Fischer B.,Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik | Gardeitchik T.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 32 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2B (ARCL2B; OMIM # 612940) is a segmental progeroid disorder caused by mutations in PYCR1 encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, which is part of the conserved proline de novo synthesis pathway. Here we describe 33 patients with PYCR1-related ARCL from 27 families with initial diagnoses varying between wrinkly skin syndrome, gerodermia osteodysplastica, De Barsy syndrome or more severe progeria syndromes. Given the difficult differential diagnosis of ARCL syndromes we performed a systematic comparison of clinical features of PYCR1-related ARCL. Intrauterine growth retardation, a characteristic triangular facial gestalt, psychomotor retardation, and hypotonia were the most relevant distinctive hallmarks of ARCL due to proline de novo synthesis defects. Corneal clouding or cataracts, athetoid movements, and finger contractures were rather rare features, but had a high predictive value. In our cohort we identified 20 different PYCR1 mutations of which seven were novel. Most of the mutations accumulated in exons 4 to 6. Missense alterations of highly conserved residues were most frequent followed by splice site changes and a single nonsense mutation. Analysis of genotype-phenotype correlation revealed that patients with mutations in the first two exons had lower average clinical scores and absent or only mild intellectual disability. Structural analyses predicted interference with PYCR1 multimerization for a subset of missense mutations. These findings have implications for the clinics as well as the pathomechanism of PYCR1-related ARCL. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Fischer B.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Fischer B.,Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik | Callewaert B.,Ghent University | Schroter P.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) type 2 constitutes a heterogeneous group of diseases mainly characterized by lax and wrinkled skin, skeletal anomalies, and a variable degree of intellectual disability. ALDH18A1-related ARCL is the most severe form within this disease spectrum. Here we report on the clinical and molecular findings of two affected individuals from two unrelated families. The patients presented with typical features of de Barsy syndrome and an overall progeroid appearance. However, the phenotype was highly variable including cardiovascular involvement in the more severe case. Investigation of a skin biopsy of one patient revealed not only the typical alterations of elastic fibers, but also an altered structure of mitochondria in cutaneous fibroblasts. Using conventional sequencing and copy number analysis we identified a frameshift deletion of one nucleotide and a microdeletion affecting the ALDH18A1 gene, respectively, in a homozygous state in both patients. Expression analysis in dermal fibroblasts from the patient carrying the microdeletion showed an almost complete absence of the ALDH18A1 mRNA resulting in an absence of the ALDH18A1 protein. So far, only 13 affected individuals from seven unrelated families suffering from ALDH18A1-related cutis laxa have been described in literature. Our findings provide new insights into the clinical spectrum and show that beside point mutations microdeletions are a possible cause of ALDH18A1-ARCL. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Egerer J.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Egerer J.,Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik | Emmerich D.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Emmerich D.,Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2015

Gerodermia osteodysplastica is a hereditary segmental progeroid disorder affecting skin, connective tissues, and bone that is caused by loss-of-function mutations in GORAB. The golgin, RAB6-interacting (GORAB) protein localizes to the Golgi apparatus and interacts with the small GTPase RAB6. In this study, we used different approaches to shed more light on the recruitment of GORAB to this compartment. We show that GORAB best colocalizes with trans-Golgi markers and is rapidly displaced upon Brefeldin A exposition, indicating a loose association with Golgi membranes. A yeast two-hybrid screening revealed a specific interaction with the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF5) in its active, GTP-bound form. ARF5 and RAB6 bind to GORAB via the same internal Golgi-targeting RAB6 and ARF5 binding (IGRAB) domain. Two GORAB missense mutations identified in gerodermia osteodysplastica patients fall within this IGRAB domain. GORAB carrying the mutation p.Ala220Pro had a cytoplasmic distribution and failed to interact with both RAB6 and ARF5. In contrast, the p.Ser175Phe mutation displaced GORAB from the Golgi compartment to vesicular structures and selectively impaired ARF5 binding. Our findings indicate that the IGRAB domain is crucial for the Golgi localization of GORAB and that loss of this localization impairs its physiological function.


PubMed | SNSB Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik, Moscow State University, Aquatic Zoology Molecular Systematics Unit and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC evolutionary biology | Year: 2016

Although recent studies have greatly advanced understanding of deep molluscan phylogeny, placement of some taxa remains uncertain as different datasets support competing class-relationships. Traditionally, morphologists have placed Monoplacophora, a group of morphologically simple, limpet-like molluscs as sister group to all other conchiferans (shelled molluscs other than Polyplacophora), a grouping that is supported by the latest large-scale phylogenomic study that includes Laevipilina. However, molecular datasets dominated by nuclear ribosomal genes support Monoplacophora+Polyplacophora (Serialia). Here, we evaluate the potential of mitochondrial genome data for resolving placement of Monoplacophora.Two complete (Laevipilina antarctica and Vema ewingi) and one partial (Laevipilina hyalina) mitochondrial genomes were sequenced, assembled, and compared. All three genomes show a highly similar architecture including an unusually high number of non-coding regions. Comparison of monoplacophoran gene order shows a gene arrangement pattern not previously reported; there is an inversion of one large gene cluster. Our reanalyses of recently published polyplacophoran mitogenomes show, however, that this feature is also present in some chiton species. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses of 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes failed to robustly place Monoplacophora and hypothesis testing could not reject any of the evaluated placements of Monoplacophora.Under both serialian or aculiferan-conchiferan scenarios, the observed gene cluster inversion appears to be a convergent evolution of gene arrangements in molluscs. Our phylogenetic results are inconclusive and sensitive to taxon sampling. Aculifera (Polyplacophora+Aplacophora) and Conchifera were never recovered. However, some analyses recovered Serialia (Monoplacophora+Polyplacophora), Diasoma (Bivalvia+Scaphopoda) or Pleistomollusca (Bivalvia+Gastropoda). Although we could not shed light on deep evolutionary traits of Mollusca we found unique patterns of gene arrangements that are common to monoplacophoran and chitonine polyplacophoran species but not to acanthochitonine Polyplacophora. Complete mitochondrial genome of Laevipilina antarctica.


PubMed | Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik, Istanbul University, Charité - Medical University of Berlin and University of Oxford
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of investigative dermatology | Year: 2015

Gerodermia osteodysplastica is a hereditary segmental progeroid disorder affecting skin, connective tissues, and bone that is caused by loss-of-function mutations in GORAB. The golgin, RAB6-interacting (GORAB) protein localizes to the Golgi apparatus and interacts with the small GTPase RAB6. In this study, we used different approaches to shed more light on the recruitment of GORAB to this compartment. We show that GORAB best colocalizes with trans-Golgi markers and is rapidly displaced upon Brefeldin A exposition, indicating a loose association with Golgi membranes. A yeast two-hybrid screening revealed a specific interaction with the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF5) in its active, GTP-bound form. ARF5 and RAB6 bind to GORAB via the same internal Golgi-targeting RAB6 and ARF5 binding (IGRAB) domain. Two GORAB missense mutations identified in gerodermia osteodysplastica patients fall within this IGRAB domain. GORAB carrying the mutation p.Ala220Pro had a cytoplasmic distribution and failed to interact with both RAB6 and ARF5. In contrast, the p.Ser175Phe mutation displaced GORAB from the Golgi compartment to vesicular structures and selectively impaired ARF5 binding. Our findings indicate that the IGRAB domain is crucial for the Golgi localization of GORAB and that loss of this localization impairs its physiological function.

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