Dresden, Germany

The Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex systems is one of the 80 institutes of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, located in Dresden, Germany. Wikipedia.

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Harayama T.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Shinohara S.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2011

Advances in processing technology, such as quantum-well structures and dry-etching techniques, have made it possible to create new types of two-dimensional (2D) microcavity lasers which have 2D emission patterns of output laser light although conventional one-dimensional (1D) edge-emitting-type lasers have 1D emission. Two-dimensional microcavity lasers have given nice experimental stages for fundamental researches on wave chaos closely related to quantum chaos. New types of 2D microcavity lasers also can offer the important lasing characteristics of directionality and high-power output light, and they may well find applications in optical communications, integrated optical circuits, and optical sensors. Fundamental physics of 2D microcavity lasers has been reviewed from the viewpoint of classical and quantum chaos, and recently developed theoretical approaches have been introduced. In addition, nonlinear dynamics due to the interaction among wave-chaotic modes through the active lasing medium is explained. Applications of 2D microcavity lasers for directional emission with strong light confinement are introduced, as well as high-precision rotation sensors designed by using wave-chaotic properties. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Nisoli C.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Moessner R.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Schiffer P.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

Frustration, the presence of competing interactions, is ubiquitous in the physical sciences and is a source of degeneracy and disorder, which in turn gives rise to new and interesting physical phenomena. Perhaps nowhere does it occur more simply than in correlated spin systems, where it has been studied in the most detail. In disordered magnetic materials, frustration leads to spin-glass phenomena, with analogies to the behavior of structural glasses and neural networks. In structurally ordered magnetic materials, it has also been the topic of extensive theoretical and experimental studies over the past two decades. Such geometrical frustration has opened a window to a wide range of fundamentally new exotic behavior. This includes spin liquids in which the spins continue to fluctuate down to the lowest temperatures, and spin ice, which appears to retain macroscopic entropy even in the low-temperature limit where it enters a topological Coulomb phase. In the past seven years a new perspective has opened in the study of frustration through the creation of artificial frustrated magnetic systems. These materials consist of arrays of lithographically fabricated single-domain ferromagnetic nanostructures that behave like giant Ising spins. The nanostructures' interactions can be controlled through appropriate choices of their geometric properties and arrangement on a (frustrated) lattice. The degrees of freedom of the material can not only be directly tuned, but also individually observed. Experimental studies have unearthed intriguing connections to the out-of-equilibrium physics of disordered systems and nonthermal "granular" materials, while revealing strong analogies to spin ice materials and their fractionalized magnetic monopole excitations, lending the enterprise a distinctly interdisciplinary flavor. The experimental results have also been closely coupled to theoretical and computational analyses, facilitated by connections to classic models of frustrated magnetism, whose hitherto unobserved aspects have here found an experimental realization. Considerable experimental and theoretical progress in this field is reviewed here, including connections to other frustrated phenomena, and future vistas for progress in this rapidly expanding field are outlined. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Zaburdaev V.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Denisov S.,University of Augsburg | Denisov S.,Sumy State University | Klafter J.,Tel Aviv University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2015

Random walk is a fundamental concept with applications ranging from quantum physics to econometrics. Remarkably, one specific model of random walks appears to be ubiquitous across many fields as a tool to analyze transport phenomena in which the dispersal process is faster than dictated by Brownian diffusion. The Lévy-walk model combines two key features, the ability to generate anomalously fast diffusion and a finite velocity of a random walker. Recent results in optics, Hamiltonian chaos, cold atom dynamics, biophysics, and behavioral science demonstrate that this particular type of random walk provides significant insight into complex transport phenomena. This review gives a self-consistent introduction to Lévy walks, surveys their existing applications, including latest advances, and outlines further perspectives. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Castelnovo C.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Moessner R.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Sondhi S.L.,Princeton University
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2012

The spin ice compounds Dy 2Ti 2O 7 and Ho 2Ti 2O 7 are highly unusual magnets that epitomize a set of concepts of great interest in modern condensed matter physics: Their low-energy physics exhibits an emergent gauge field and their excitations are magnetic monopoles that arise from the fractionalization of the microscopic magnetic spin degrees of freedom. In this review, we provide an elementary introduction to these concepts and we survey the thermodynamics, statics, and dynamics - in and out of equilibrium - of spin ice from these vantage points. Along the way, we touch on topics such as emergent Coulomb plasmas, observable Dirac strings, and irrational charges. We close with the outlook for these unique materials. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Altmann E.G.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Portela J.S.E.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Portela J.S.E.,Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics | Tel T.,Eötvös Loránd University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

There are numerous physical situations in which a hole or leak is introduced in an otherwise closed chaotic system. The leak can have a natural origin, it can mimic measurement devices, and it can also be used to reveal dynamical properties of the closed system. A unified treatment of leaking systems is provided and applications to different physical problems, in both the classical and quantum pictures, are reviewed. The treatment is based on the transient chaos theory of open systems, which is essential because real leaks have finite size and therefore estimations based on the closed system differ essentially from observations. The field of applications reviewed is very broad, ranging from planetary astronomy and hydrodynamical flows to plasma physics and quantum fidelity. The theory is expanded and adapted to the case of partial leaks (partial absorption and/or transmission) with applications to room acoustics and optical microcavities in mind. Simulations in the limaçon family of billiards illustrate the main text. Regarding billiard dynamics, it is emphasized that a correct discrete-time representation can be given only in terms of the so-called true-time maps, while traditional Poincaré maps lead to erroneous results. Perron-Frobenius-type operators are generalized so that they describe true-time maps with partial leaks. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Gerlach M.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Altmann E.G.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Physical Review X | Year: 2013

We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf's and Heaps' law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

Zoubi H.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

A lattice of trapped atoms strongly coupled to a one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguide is investigated in exploiting polaritons as natural collective eigenstates. We derive polariton-polariton kinematic interactions by applying a bosonization procedure to transform excitation spin-12 operators into interacting bosons. In solving the scattering problem we extract the effective potential, which is shown to be modulated by using the excitation-photon detuning as a control parameter. We examine the regime in which polaritons behave as a dilute degenerate boson gas and in the limit where polaritons can be treated as weakly interacting photons we propose the system for realizing superfluidity of photons. We implement the kinematic interaction as a mechanism for nonlinear optical processes that provide an observation tool for the system properties, e.g., the interaction strength produces a blue shift in pump-probe experiments. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Van Bijnen R.E.E.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Pohl T.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We devise a cold-atom approach to realizing a broad range of bilinear quantum magnets. Our scheme is based on off-resonant single-photon excitation of Rydberg P states (Rydberg dressing), whose strong interactions are shown to yield controllable XYZ interactions between effective spins, represented by different atomic ground states. The distinctive features of Förster-resonant Rydberg atom interactions are exploited to enhance the effectiveness of Rydberg dressing and, thereby, yield large spin interactions that greatly exceed the corresponding decoherence rates. We illustrate the concept on a spin-1 chain implemented with cold rubidium atoms, and demonstrate that this permits the dynamical preparation of topological magnetic phases. Generally, the described approach provides a viable route to exploring quantum magnetism with dynamically tunable (an)isotropic interactions as well as variable space and spin dimensions in cold-atom experiments. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Dennis M.R.,University of Bristol | Gotte J.B.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We predict the splitting of a high-order optical vortex into a constellation of unit vortices, upon total internal reflection of the carrier beam, and analyze the splitting. The reflected vortex constellation generalizes, in a local sense, the familiar longitudinal Goos-Hänchen and transverse Imbert-Fedorov shifts of the centroid of a reflected optical beam. The centroid shift is related to the center of the constellation, whose geometry otherwise depends on higher-order terms in an expansion of the reflection matrix. We derive an approximation of the amplitude around the constellation as a complex analytic polynomial, whose roots are the vortices. Increasing the order of the initial vortex gives an Appell sequence of complex polynomials, which we explain by an analogy with the theory of optical aberration. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Friedrich B.M.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Julicher F.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Inspired by the coordinated beating of the flagellar pair of the green algae Chlamydomonas, we study theoretically a simple, mirror-symmetric swimmer, which propels itself at low Reynolds number by a revolving motion of a pair of spheres. We show that perfect synchronization between these two driven spheres can occur due to the motion of the swimmer and local hydrodynamic friction forces. Hydrodynamic interactions, though crucial for net propulsion, contribute little to synchronization for this free-moving swimmer. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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