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Behrmann E.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Behrmann E.,Research Group Structural Dynamics of Proteins | Loerke J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Budkevich T.V.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 9 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. Although their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that, at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex-vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and 3D variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Budkevich T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Budkevich T.,Abteilung Vingron AG | Budkevich T.,NASU Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | Giesebrecht J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2011

Although the structural core of the ribosome is conserved in all kingdoms of life, eukaryotic ribosomes are significantly larger and more complex than their bacterial counterparts. The extent to which these differences influence the molecular mechanism of translation remains elusive. Multiparticle cryo-electron microscopy and single-molecule FRET investigations of the mammalian pretranslocation complex reveal spontaneous, large-scale conformational changes, including an intersubunit rotation of the ribosomal subunits. Through structurally related processes, tRNA substrates oscillate between classical and at least two distinct hybrid configurations facilitated by localized changes in their L-shaped fold. Hybrid states are favored within the mammalian complex. However, classical tRNA positions can be restored by tRNA binding to the E site or by the eukaryotic-specific antibiotic and translocation inhibitor cycloheximide. These findings reveal critical distinctions in the structural and energetic features of bacterial and mammalian ribosomes, providing a mechanistic basis for divergent translation regulation strategies and species-specific antibiotic action. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Achenbach J.,Noxxon Pharma | Nierhaus K.H.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Nierhaus K.H.,Max Planck Institute For Molekulare Genetik
Biochimie | Year: 2015

The ribosome translates the sequence of codons of an mRNA into the corresponding sequence of amino acids as it moves along the mRNA with a codon-step width of about 10 Å. The movement of the million-dalton complex ribosome is triggered by the universal elongation factor G (EF2 in archaea and eukaryotes) and is termed translocation. Unraveling the molecular details of translocation is one of the most challenging tasks of current ribosome research. In the last two years, enormous progress has been obtained by highly-resolved X-ray and cryo-electron microscopic structures as well as by sophisticated biochemical approaches concerning the trigger and control of the movement of the tRNA2·mRNA complex inside the ribosome during translocation. This review inspects and surveys these achievements. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM).

Budkevich T.V.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Budkevich T.V.,Abteilung Vingron AG | Budkevich T.V.,NASU Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | Giesebrecht J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 12 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

The extent to which bacterial ribosomes and the significantly larger eukaryotic ribosomes share the same mechanisms of ribosomal elongation is unknown. Here, we present subnanometer resolution cryoelectron microscopy maps of the mammalian 80S ribosome in the posttranslocational state and in complex with the eukaryotic eEF1A·Val-tRNA·GMPPNP ternary complex, revealing significant differences in the elongation mechanism between bacteria and mammals. Surprisingly, and in contrast to bacterial ribosomes, a rotation of the small subunit around its long axis and orthogonal to the well-known intersubunit rotation distinguishes the posttranslocational state from the classical pretranslocational state ribosome. We term this motion "subunit rolling." Correspondingly, a mammalian decoding complex visualized in substates before and after codon recognition reveals structural distinctions from the bacterial system. These findings suggest how codon recognition leads to GTPase activation in the mammalian system and demonstrate that in mammalia subunit rolling occurs during tRNA selection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Solano-Collado V.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Lurz R.,Max Planck Institute For Molekulare Genetik | Espinosa M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Bravo A.,CSIC - Biological Research Center
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

The MgaSpn transcriptional regulator contributes to the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is thought to be a member of the Mga/AtxA family of global regulators. MgaSpn was shown to activate in vivo the P1623B promoter, which is divergent from the promoter (Pmga) of its own gene. This activation required a 70-bp region (PB activation region) located between both promoters. In this work, we purified an untagged form of the MgaSpn protein, which formed dimers in solution. By gel retardation and footprinting assays, we analysed the binding of MgaSpn to linear double-stranded DNAs. MgaSpn interacted with the PB activation region when it was placed at internal position on the DNA. However, when it was positioned at one DNA end, MgaSpn recognized preferentially the Pmga promoter placed at internal position. In both cases, and on binding to the primary site, MgaSpn spread along the adjacent DNA regions generating multimeric protein-DNA complexes. When both MgaSpn-binding sites were located at internal positions on longer DNAs, electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that the PB activation region was the preferred target. DNA molecules totally or partially covered by MgaSpn were also visualized. Our results suggest that MgaSpn might recognize particular DNA conformations to achieve DNA-binding specificity. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

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