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Kabsch W.,Max Planck Institute For Medizinische Forschung
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2014

A functional expression is introduced that relates scattered X-ray intensities from a still or a rotation snapshot to the corresponding structure-factor amplitudes. The new approach was implemented in the program nXDS for processing monochromatic diffraction images recorded by a multi-segment detector where each exposure could come from a different crystal. For images containing indexable spots, the intensities of the expected reflections and their variances are obtained by profile fitting after mapping the contributing pixel contents to the Ewald sphere. The varying intensity decline owing to the angular distance of the reflection from the surface of the Ewald sphere is estimated using a Gaussian rocking curve. This decline is dubbed 'Ewald offset correction', which is well defined even for still images. Together with an image-scaling factor and other corrections, an explicit expression is defined that predicts each recorded intensity from its corresponding structure-factor amplitude. All diffraction parameters, scaling and correction factors are improved by post-refinement. The ambiguous case of a lower point group than the lattice symmetry is resolved by a method reminiscent of the technique of 'selective breeding'. It selects the indexing alternative for each image that yields, on average, the highest correlation with intensities from all other images. Processing a test set of rotation images by XDS and treating the same images by nXDS as snapshots of crystals in random orientations yields data of comparable quality, clearly indicating an anomalous signal from Se atoms. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

Schlichting I.,Max Planck Institute For Medizinische Forschung | Schlichting I.,German Electron Synchrotron | Miao J.,University of California at Los Angeles
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2012

X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) produce X-ray pulses with extremely brilliant peak intensity and ultrashort pulse duration. It has been proposed that radiation damage can be 'outrun' by using an ultra intense and short X-FEL pulse that passes a biological sample before the onset of significant radiation damage. The concept of 'diffraction-before-destruction' has been demonstrated recently at the Linac Coherent Light Source, the first operational hard X-ray FEL, for protein nanocrystals and giant virus particles. The continuous diffraction patterns from single particles allow solving the classical 'phase problem' by the oversampling method with iterative algorithms. If enough data are collected from many identical copies of a (biological) particle, its three-dimensional structure can be reconstructed. We review the current status and future prospects of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and single-particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with X-FELs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Splettstoesser T.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Holmes K.C.,Max Planck Institute For Medizinische Forschung | Noe F.,Free University of Berlin | Smith J.C.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Smith J.C.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

Actin is a major structural protein of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and enables cell motility. Here, we present a model of the actin filament (F-actin) that not only incorporates the global structure of the recently published model by Oda et al. but also conserves internal stereochemistry. A comparison is made using molecular dynamics simulation of the model with other recent F-actin models. A number of structural determents such as the protomer propeller angle, the number of hydrogen bonds, and the structural variation among the protomers are analyzed. The MD comparison is found to reflect the evolution in quality of actin models over the last 6 years. In addition, simulations of the model are carried out in states with both ADP or ATP bound and local hydrogen-bonding differences characterized. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Kabsch W.,Max Planck Institute For Medizinische Forschung
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2010

Important steps in the processing of rotation data are described that are common to most software packages. These programs differ in the details and in the methods implemented to carry out the tasks. Here, the working principles underlying the data-reduction package XDS are explained, including the new features of automatic determination of spot size and reflecting range, recognition and assignment of crystal sym-metry and a highly efficient algorithm for the determination of correction/scaling factors.


Kabsch W.,Max Planck Institute For Medizinische Forschung
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2010

The usage and control of recent modifications of the program package XDS for the processing of rotation images are described in the context of previous versions. New features include automatic determination of spot size and reflecting range and recognition and assignment of crystal symmetry. Moreover, the limitations of earlier package versions on the number of correction/scaling factors and the representation of pixel contents have been removed. Large program parts have been restructured for parallel processing so that the quality and completeness of collected data can be assessed soon after measurement.

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