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Berlin, Germany

The Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Berlin. The institute was founded 1993 near the Charité hospital in Berlin on the campus of the Humboldt University of Berlin in Berlin-Mitte. The Institute commenced its operation in a provisional laboratory facility and a small group of scientists that has greatly expanded over the years, and relocated to an especially built facility in summer 2000. The new facility is located in the heart of Berlin on the historical Charité medical campus, where Robert Koch and Emil Behring had made their important discoveries paving the field of infection research, in close proximity to the Parliament house and the newly constructed government offices. The choice of the location was to support the goal of the Institute to research infectious diseases in close collaboration with universities and clinical units. The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is an independent, non-profit research organization that primarily promotes and supports research at its own institutes Wikipedia.

Kaufmann S.H.E.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2013

Efforts over the last 2 decades have led to a rich research and development pipeline of tuberculosis (TB) vaccines. Although none of the candidates has successfully completed the clinical trial pipeline, many are under advanced clinical assessment. These vaccines aim at prevention of active TB, with most of them being considered for preexposure with recent additions for postexposure or multistage administration. A few therapeutic vaccines are under clinical assessment, as well. Preexposure vaccination with the licensed TB vaccine BCG prevents severe forms of TB in children but not in adolescents and adults. The current vaccine pipeline does not include strategies which prevent or eliminate infection with the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Rather in a best-case scenario, they are quantitatively superior to BCG in preventing active TB over prolonged periods of time, ideally lifelong in the face of latent Mtb infection. Qualitatively superior vaccines should be capable of preventing or eliminating Mtb infection, in this way eliminating the risk of TB reactivation. The time is now ripe to exploit radically new strategies to achieve this goal. © 2013. Source

Kaufmann S.H.E.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Immunity | Year: 2010

With almost a dozen vaccine candidates in clinical trials, tuberculosis (TB) research and development is finally reaping the first fruits of its labors. Vaccine candidates in clinical trials may prevent TB disease reactivation by efficiently containing the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Future research should target vaccines that achieve sterile eradication of Mtb or even prevent stable infection. These are ambitious goals that can be reached only by highly cooperative engagement of basic immunologists, vaccinologists, and clinical researchers-or in other words, by translation from basic immunology to vaccine research and development, as well as reverse translation of insights from clinical trials back to hypothesis-driven research in the basic laboratory. Here, we review current and future strategies toward the rational design of novel vaccines against TB, as well as the progress made thus far, and the hurdles that need to be overcome in the near and distant future. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ottenhoff T.H.M.,Leiden University | Kaufmann S.H.E.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2012

In this review we discuss recent progress in the development, testing, and clinical evaluation of new vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Over the last 20 years, tremendous progress has been made in TB vaccine research and development: from a pipeline virtually empty of new TB candidate vaccines in the early 1990s, to an era in which a dozen novel TB vaccine candidates have been and are being evaluated in human clinical trials. In addition, innovative approaches are being pursued to further improve existing vaccines, as well as discover new ones. Thus, there is good reason for optimism in the field of TB vaccines that it will be possible to develop better vaccines than BCG, which is still the only vaccine available against TB. © 2012 Ottenhoff, Kaufmann. Source

Kaufmann S.H.E.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2012

The past decade has witnessed a tremendous increase in the development of novel vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). In mice, each of these vaccine candidates stimulates an immune response that reduces the bacillary load, reflecting control but not sterilization of infection. Yet, the immune mechanisms underlying vaccine efficacy are only partially understood. In parallel to clinical assessment of current candidates, the next generation of vaccine candidates still needs to be developed. This requires basic research on how to induce the most efficacious immune response. Equally important is the dissection of immune responses in patients, latently infected healthy individuals, and participants of clinical vaccine trials. Amalgamation of this information will foster the way towards more efficacious vaccination strategies that not only prevent disease, but prevent or abolish infection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kaufmann S.H.E.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) fails to protect against adult pulmonary TB. Yet, its capacity to control miliary TB in newborn infants forms the basis for development of novel vaccine candidates. These either exploit genetic modification of BCG to create a viable replacement vaccine or use BCG to prime the immune response followed by boost with a novel subunit vaccine. This could ultimately result in a combination vaccination schedule comprising a prime with a live BCG replacement followed by a subunit vaccine boost. Ultimately, vaccination strategies that achieve sterile eradication of, or prevent infection with, tubercle bacilli would be an ambitious highly promising goal. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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