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The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry is a scientific research institute under the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.Basic research in chemistry and related subjects is carried out at the four departments of the institute. The departments are independently led by their Directors. Wikipedia.

Marsh D.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Negatively charged phospholipids are an important component of biological membranes. The thermodynamic parameters governing self-assembly of anionic phospholipids are deduced here from isothermal titration calorimetry. Heats of demicellization were determined for dioctanoyl phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylserine (PS) at different ionic strengths, and for dioctanoyl phosphatidic acid at different pH values. The large heat capacity (ΔC o P ∼ -400 J.mol -1 K -1 for PG and PS), and zero enthalpy at a characteristic temperature near the physiological range (T ∼ 300 K for PG and PS), demonstrate that the driving force for self-assembly is the hydrophobic effect. The pH and ionic-strength dependences indicate that the principal electrostatic contribution to self-assembly comes from the entropy associated with the electrostatic double layer, in agreement with theoretical predictions. These measurements help define the thermodynamic effects of anionic lipids on biomembrane stability. © 2012 Biophysical Society. Source

Sander R.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

Many atmospheric chemicals occur in the gas phase as well as in liquid cloud droplets and aerosol particles. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the distribution between the phases. According to Henry's law, the equilibrium ratio between the abundances in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase is constant for a dilute solution. Henry's law constants of trace gases of potential importance in environmental chemistry have been collected and converted into a uniform format. The compilation contains 17 350 values of Henry's law constants for 4632 species, collected from 689 references. It is also available at http://www.henrys-law.org. © Author(s) 2015. Source

Losi A.,University of Parma | Gartner W.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Photoreceptor flavoproteins of the LOV, BLUF, and cryptochrome families are ubiquitous among the three domains of life and are configured as UVA/blue-light systems not only in plantsmdashtheir original arenamdashbut also in prokaryotes and microscopic algae. Here, we review these proteins' structure and function, their biological roles, and their evolution and impact in the living world, and underline their growing application in biotechnologies. We present novel developments such as the interplay of light and redox stimuli, emerging enzymatic and biological functions, lessons on evolution from picoalgae, metagenomics analysis, and optogenetics applications. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Jahns P.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Holzwarth A.R.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2012

Photoprotection of photosystem II (PSII) is essential to avoid the light-induced damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (= photo-oxidative stress) under excess light. Carotenoids are known to play a crucial role in these processes based on their property to deactivate triplet chlorophyll ( 3Chl *) and singlet oxygen ( 1O 2 *). Xanthophylls are further assumed to be involved either directly or indirectly in the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excess light energy in the antenna of PSII. This review gives an overview on recent progress in the understanding of the photoprotective role of the xanthophylls zeaxanthin (which is formed in the light in the so-called xanthophyll cycle) and lutein with emphasis on the NPQ processes associated with PSII of higher plants. The current knowledge supports the view that the photoprotective role of Lut is predominantly restricted to its function in the deactivation of 3Chl *, while zeaxanthin is the major player in the deactivation of excited singlet Chl ( 1Chl *) and thus in NPQ (non-photochemical quenching). Additionally, zeaxanthin serves important functions as an antioxidant in the lipid phase of the membrane and is likely to act as a key component in the memory of the chloroplast with respect to preceding photo-oxidative stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosystem II. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Marsh D.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2010

Mixtures of phospholipids with cholesterol are able to form liquid-ordered phases that are characterised by short-range orientational order and long-range translational disorder. These Lo-phases are distinct from the liquid-disordered, fluid Lα-phases and the solid-ordered, gel Lβ-phases that are assumed by the phospholipids alone. The liquid-ordered phase can produce spatially separated in-plane fluid domains, which, in the form of lipid rafts, are thought to act as platforms for signalling and membrane sorting in cells. The areas of domain formation are defined by the regions of phase coexistence in the phase diagrams for the binary mixtures of lipid with cholesterol. In this paper, the available binary phase diagrams of lipid-cholesterol mixtures are all collected together. It is found that there is not complete agreement between different determinations of the phase diagrams for the same binary mixture. This can be attributed to the indirect methods largely used to establish the phase boundaries. Intercomparison of the various data sets allows critical assessment of which phase boundaries are rigorously established from direct evidence for phase coexistence. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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