Max Planck Institute for Brain Research

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Max Planck Institute for Brain Research

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

The Max Planck Institute for Brain Research is located in Frankfurt, Germany. It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin 1914, moved to Frankfurt-Niederrad in 1962 and more recently in a new building in Frankfurt-Riedberg. It is one of 83 institutes in the Max Planck Society . Wikipedia.

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Rohrer H.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Autonomic neuron development is controlled by a network of transcription factors, which is induced by bone morphogenetic protein signalling in neural crest progenitor cells. This network intersects with a transcriptional program in migratory neural crest cells that pre-specifies autonomic neuron precursor cells. Recent findings demonstrate that the transcription factors acting in the initial specification and differentiation of sympathetic neurons are also important for the proliferation of progenitors and immature neurons during neurogenesis. Elimination of Phox2b, Hand2 and Gata3 in differentiated neurons affects the expression of subtype-specific and/or generic neuronal properties or neuron survival. Taken together, transcription factors previously shown to act in initial neuron specification and differentiation display a much broader spectrum of functions, including control of neurogenesis and the maintenance of subtype characteristics and survival of mature neurons. © 2011 The Author. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Buzsaki G.,New York University | Logothetis N.,Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics | Logothetis N.,University of Manchester | Singer W.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
Neuron | Year: 2013

Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies.

Holt C.E.,University of Cambridge | Schuman E.M.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
Neuron | Year: 2013

The elaborate morphology of neurons together with the information processing that occurs in remote dendritic and axonal compartments makes the use of decentralized cell biological machines necessary. Recent years have witnessed a revolution in our understanding of signaling in neuronal compartments and the manifold functions of a variety of RNA molecules that regulate protein translation and other cellular functions. Here we discuss the view that mRNA localization and RNA-regulated and localized translation underlie many fundamental neuronal processes and highlight key issues for future experiments.

Singer W.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research | Singer W.,Ernst Struengmann Institute for Neuroscience in Cooperation with the Max Planck Society ESI | Singer W.,Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2013

Recent discoveries on the organisation of the cortical connectome together with novel data on the dynamics of neuronal interactions require an extension of classical concepts on information processing in the cerebral cortex. These new insights justify considering the brain as a complex, self-organised system with nonlinear dynamics in which principles of distributed, parallel processing coexist with serial operations within highly interconnected networks. The observed dynamics suggest that cortical networks are capable of providing an extremely high-dimensional state space in which a large amount of evolutionary and ontogenetically acquired information can coexist and be accessible to rapid parallel search. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hanus C.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research | Schuman E.M.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Like all cells, neurons are made of proteins that have characteristic synthesis and degradation profiles. Unlike other cells, however, neurons have a unique multipolar architecture that makes ∼10,000 synaptic contacts with other neurons. Both the stability and modifiability of the neuronal proteome are crucial for its information-processing, storage and plastic properties. The cell biological mechanisms that synthesize, modify, deliver and degrade dendritic and synaptic proteins are not well understood but appear to reflect unique solutions adapted to the particular morphology of neurons. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Friederici A.D.,Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences | Singer W.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research | Singer W.,Ernst Struengmann Institute for Neuroscience in Cooperation with the Max Planck Society | Singer W.,Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2015

In animal models the neural basis of cognitive and executive processes has been studied extensively at various hierarchical levels from microcircuits to distributed functional networks. This work already provides compelling evidence that diverse cognitive functions are based on similar basic neuronal mechanisms. More recent data suggest that even cognitive functions realized only in human brains rely on these canonical neuronal mechanisms. Here we argue that language, like other cognitive functions, depends on distributed computations in specialized cortical areas forming large-scale dynamic networks and examine to what extent empirical results support this view. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Arendt D.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory | Tosches M.A.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research | Marlow H.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2016

The puzzle of how complex nervous systems emerged remains unsolved. Comparative studies of neurodevelopment in cnidarians and bilaterians suggest that this process began with distinct integration centres that evolved on opposite ends of an initial nerve net. The 'apical nervous system' controlled general body physiology, and the 'blastoporal nervous system' coordinated feeding movements and locomotion. We propose that expansion, integration and fusion of these centres gave rise to the bilaterian nerve cord and brain. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Euler T.,University of Tübingen | Haverkamp S.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research | Schubert T.,University of Tübingen | Baden T.,University of Tübingen
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Retinal bipolar cells are the first 'projection neurons' of the vertebrate visual system-all of the information needed for vision is relayed by this intraretinal connection. Each of the at least 13 distinct types of bipolar cells systematically transforms the photoreceptor input in a different way, thereby generating specific channels that encode stimulus properties, such as polarity, contrast, temporal profile and chromatic composition. As a result, bipolar cell output signals represent elementary 'building blocks' from which the microcircuits of the inner retina derive a feature-oriented description of the visual world.© 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Roux F.,Basque Center for Cognition | Uhlhaas P.J.,University of Glasgow | Uhlhaas P.J.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research | Uhlhaas P.J.,Ernst Strüngmann Institute (ESI) for Neuroscience
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2014

Neural oscillations at different frequencies have recently been related to a wide range of basic and higher cognitive processes. One possible role of oscillatory activity is to assure the maintenance of information in working memory (WM). Here we review the possibility that rhythmic activity at theta, alpha, and gamma frequencies serve distinct functional roles during WM maintenance. Specifically, we propose that gamma-band oscillations are generically involved in the maintenance of WM information. By contrast, alpha-band activity reflects the active inhibition of task-irrelevant information, whereas theta-band oscillations underlie the organization of sequentially ordered WM items. Finally, we address the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) in enabling alpha-gamma and theta-gamma codes for distinct WM information. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Borst A.,Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology | Helmstaedter M.,Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Motion-sensitive neurons have long been studied in both the mammalian retina and the insect optic lobe, yet striking similarities have become obvious only recently. Detailed studies at the circuit level revealed that, in both systems, (i) motion information is extracted from primary visual information in parallel ON and OFF pathways; (ii) in each pathway, the process of elementary motion detection involves the correlation of signals with different temporal dynamics; and (iii) primary motion information from both pathways converges at the next synapse, resulting in four groups of ON-OFF neurons, selective for the four cardinal directions. Given that the last common ancestor of insects and mammals lived about 550 million years ago, this general strategy seems to be a robust solution for how to compute the direction of visual motion with neural hardware. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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