Kleemann J.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research |
Rincon-Rivera L.J.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research |
Takahara H.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research |
Takahara H.,Ishikawa Prefectural University |
And 10 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2012
Phytopathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate their hosts for effective colonization. Hemibiotrophic fungi must maintain host viability during initial biotrophic growth and elicit host death for subsequent necrotrophic growth. To identify effectors mediating these opposing processes, we deeply sequenced the transcriptome of Colletotrichum higginsianum infecting Arabidopsis. Most effector genes are host-induced and expressed in consecutive waves associated with pathogenic transitions, indicating distinct effector suites are deployed at each stage. Using fluorescent protein tagging and transmission electron microscopy-immunogold labelling, we found effectors localised to stage-specific compartments at the host-pathogen interface. In particular, we show effectors are focally secreted from appressorial penetration pores before host invasion, revealing new levels of functional complexity for this fungal organ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that antagonistic effectors either induce or suppress plant cell death. Based on these results we conclude that hemibiotrophy in Colletotrichum is orchestrated through the coordinated expression of antagonistic effectors supporting either cell viability or cell death. © 2012 Kleemann et al.
Lefevre C.T.,Aix - Marseille University |
Trubitsyn D.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas |
Abreu F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Kolinko S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
And 11 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a group of diverse motile prokaryotes that biomineralize magnetosomes, the organelles responsible for magnetotaxis. Magnetosomes consist of intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometre-sized crystals of the magnetic minerals magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and are usually organized as a chain within the cell acting like a compass needle. Most information regarding the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation comes from studies involving Alphaproteobacteria species which biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated prismatic crystals of magnetite. Many magnetosome genes, the mam genes, identified in these organisms are conserved in all known MTB. Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria that synthesize bullet-shaped crystals of magnetite and/or greigite. We show that in addition to mam genes, there is a conserved set of genes, designated mad genes, specific to the magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria, some also being present in CandidatusMagnetobacterium bavaricum of the Nitrospirae phylum, but absent in the magnetotactic Alphaproteobacteria. Our results suggest that the number of genes associated with magnetotaxis in magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria is larger than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the minimum set of mam genes necessary for magnetosome formation in Magnetospirillum is also conserved in magnetite-producing, magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria. Some putative novel functions of mad genes are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.
Wohlbrand L.,Carl von Ossietzky University |
Jacob J.H.,Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology |
Jacob J.H.,Al al-Bayt University |
Kube M.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics |
And 10 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013
Among the dominant deltaproteobacterial sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), members of the genus Desulfobacula are not only present in (hydrocarbon-rich) marine sediments, but occur also frequently in the anoxic water bodies encountered in marine upwelling areas. Here, we present the 5.2Mbp genome of Desulfobacula toluolicaTol2, which is the first of an aromatic compound-degrading, marine SRB. The genome has apparently been shaped by viral attacks (e.g. CRISPRs) and its high plasticity is reflected by 163 detected genes related to transposases and integrases, a total of 494 paralogous genes and 24 group II introns. Prediction of the catabolic network of strain Tol2 was refined by differential proteome and metabolite analysis of substrate-adapted cells. Toluene and p-cresol are degraded by separate suites of specific enzymes for initial arylsuccinate formation via addition to fumarate (p-cresol-specific enzyme HbsA represents a new phylogenetic branch) as well as for subsequent modified β-oxidation of arylsuccinates to the central intermediate benzoyl-CoA. Proteogenomic evidence suggests specific electron transfer (EtfAB) and membrane proteins to channel electrons from dehydrogenation of both arylsuccinates directly to the membrane redox pool. In contrast to the known anaerobic degradation pathways in other bacteria, strain Tol2 deaminates phenylalanine non-oxidatively to cinnamate by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and subsequently forms phenylacetate (both metabolites identified in 13C-labelling experiments). Benzoate degradation involves CoA activation, reductive dearomatization by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase and hydrolytic ring cleavage as found in the obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducensGS-15. The catabolic sub-proteomes displayed high substrate specificity, reflecting the genomically predicted complex and fine-tuned regulatory network of strain Tol2. Despite the genetic equipment for a TCA cycle, proteomic evidence supports complete oxidation of acetyl-CoA to CO2 via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Strain Tol2 possesses transmembrane redox complexes similar to that of other Desulfobacteraceae members. The multiple heterodisulfide reductase-like proteins (more than described for Desulfobacterium autotrophicumHRM2) may constitute a multifaceted cytoplasmic electron transfer network. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Clark M.S.,Natural Environment Research Council |
Denekamp N.Y.,Israel Oceanographic And Limnological Research |
Thorne M.A.S.,Natural Environment Research Council |
Reinhardt R.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Background: Several organisms display dormancy and developmental arrest at embryonic stages. Long-term survival in the dormant form is usually associated with desiccation, orthodox plant seeds and Artemia cysts being well documented examples. Several aquatic invertebrates display dormancy during embryonic development and survive for tens or even hundreds of years in a hydrated form, raising the question of whether survival in the non-desiccated form of embryonic development depends on pathways similar to those occurring in desiccation tolerant forms. Methodology/Principal Findings: To address this question, Illumina short read sequencing was used to generate transcription profiles from the resting and amictic eggs of an aquatic invertebrate, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis. These two types of egg have very different life histories, with the dormant or diapausing resting eggs, the result of the sexual cycle and amictic eggs, the non-dormant products of the asexual cycle. Significant transcriptional differences were found between the two types of egg, with amictic eggs rich in genes involved in the morphological development into a juvenile rotifer. In contrast, representatives of classical "stress" proteins: a small heat shock protein, ferritin and Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins were identified in resting eggs. More importantly however, was the identification of transcripts for messenger ribonucleoprotein particles which stabilise RNA. These inhibit translation and provide a valuable source of useful RNAs which can be rapidly activated on the exit from dormancy. Apoptotic genes were also present. Although apoptosis is inconsistent with maintenance of prolonged dormancy, an altered apoptotic pathway has been proposed for Artemia, and this may be the case with the rotifer. Conclusions: These data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with dormancy in a non-desiccated form and indicate important similarities in the molecular pathways activated in resting eggs compared with desiccated dormant forms, specifically plant seeds and Artemia. © 2012 Clark et al.
Tine M.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics |
Kuhl H.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics |
Gagnaire P.-A.,IRD Montpellier |
Louro B.,University of Algarve |
And 17 more authors.
Nature communications | Year: 2014
The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation.
Wasmund K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Wasmund K.,University of Vienna |
Algora C.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Muller J.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
And 5 more authors.
Environmental microbiology | Year: 2015
Bacteria of the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH) (phylum Chloroflexi) are widely distributed in the marine subsurface and are especially prevalent in deep marine sediments. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific distributions of DEH subgroups at different sites and depths. This study therefore specifically examined the distributions of DEH through depths of various marine sediment cores by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing using newly designed DEH 16S rRNA gene targeting primers. Quantification of DEH showed populations may establish in shallow sediments (i.e. upper centimetres), although as low relative proportions of total Bacteria, yet often became more prevalent in deeper sediments. Pyrosequencing revealed pronounced diversity co-exists within single biogeochemical zones, and that clear and sometimes abrupt shifts in relative proportions of DEH subgroups occur with depth. These shifts indicate varying metabolic properties exist among DEH subgroups. The distributional changes in DEH subgroups with depth may be related to a combination of biogeochemical factors including the availability of electron acceptors such as sulfate, the composition of organic matter and depositional regimes. Collectively, the results suggest DEH exhibit wider metabolic and genomic diversity than previously recognized, and this contributes to their widespread occurrence in the marine subsurface. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mo D.,University of Munster |
Raabe C.A.,University of Munster |
Reinhardt R.,Max Planck Genome Center Cologne |
Brosius J.,University of Munster |
Rozhdestvensky T.S.,University of Munster
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013
The evolution of new genes can ensue through either gene duplication and the neofunctionalization of one of the copies or the formation of a de novo gene from hitherto nonfunctional, neutrally evolving intergenic or intronic genomic sequences. Only very rarely are entire genes created de novo. Mostly, nonfunctional sequences are coopted as novel parts of existing genes, such as in the process of exonizationwhereby introns become exonsthrough changesinsplicing. Here,wereport acasein which anovel nonprotein coding RNA evolved by intron-sequence recruitment into its structure. cDNAs derived from rat brain small RNAs, revealed a novel small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) originating from one of the Snord115 copies in the rat Prader-Willi syndrome locus. We suggest that a singlepoint substitution in the Snord115 region led to the expression of a longer snoRNA variant, designated as L-Snord115. Cell culture and footprinting experiments confirmed that a single nucleotide substitution at Snord115 position 67 destabilized the kink-turn motif within the canonical snoRNA, while distal intronic sequences provided an alternate D-box region. The exapted sequence displays putative base pairing to 28S rRNA and mRNA targets. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
PubMed | Max Planck Genome Center Cologne, Carl von Ossietzky University and Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2016
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are key players of the carbon- and sulfur-cycles in the sediments of the worlds oceans. Habitat relevant SRBs are often members of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus clade belonging to the deltaproteobacterial family of Desulfobacteraceae. Despite this environmental recognition, their molecular (genome-based) physiology and their potential to contribute to organic carbon mineralization as well as to adapt to changing environmental conditions have been scarcely investigated. A metabolically versatile representative of this family is Desulfococcus multivorans that is able to completely oxidize (to COIn this study the complete 4.46 Mbp and manually annotated genome of metabolically versatile Desulfococcus multivorans DSM 2059 is presented with particular emphasis on a proteomics-driven metabolic reconstruction. Proteomic profiling covered 17 substrate adaptation conditions (6 aromatic and 11 aliphatic compounds) and comprised 2D DIGE, shotgun proteomics and analysis of the membrane protein-enriched fractions. This comprehensive proteogenomic dataset allowed for reconstructing a metabolic network of degradation pathways and energy metabolism that consists of 170 proteins (154 detected; ~91% coverage). Peripheral degradation routes feed via central benzoyl-CoA, (modified) -oxidation or methylmalonyl-CoA pathways into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for complete oxidation of acetyl-CoA to COA highly dynamic genome structure in combination with substrate-specifically formed catabolic subproteomes and a constitutive subproteome for energy metabolism and electron transfer appears to be a common trait of Desulfobacteraceae members.
Dugar G.,University of Würzburg |
Herbig A.,University of Tübingen |
Forstner K.U.,University of Würzburg |
Heidrich N.,University of Würzburg |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013
Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA) repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary transcriptome analysis based on the differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq) of four C. jejuni isolates. Our approach includes a novel, generic method for the automated annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS), which allowed us to provide genome-wide promoter maps in the analyzed strains. These global TSS maps are refined through the integration of a SuperGenome approach that allows for a comparative TSS annotation by mapping RNA-seq data of multiple strains into a common coordinate system derived from a whole-genome alignment. Considering the steadily increasing amount of RNA-seq studies, our automated TSS annotation will not only facilitate transcriptome annotation for a wider range of pro- and eukaryotes but can also be adapted for the analysis among different growth or stress conditions. Our comparative dRNA-seq analysis revealed conservation of most TSS, but also single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP) in promoter regions, which lead to strain-specific transcriptional output. Furthermore, we identified strain-specific sRNA repertoires that could contribute to differential gene regulation among strains. In addition, we identified a novel minimal CRISPR-system in Campylobacter of the type-II CRISPR subtype, which relies on the host factor RNase III and a trans-encoded sRNA for maturation of crRNAs. This minimal system of Campylobacter, which seems active in only some strains, employs a unique maturation pathway, since the crRNAs are transcribed from individual promoters in the upstream repeats and thereby minimize the requirements for the maturation machinery. Overall, our study provides new insights into strain-specific transcriptome organization and sRNAs, and reveals genes that could modulate phenotypic variation among strains despite high conservation at the DNA level. © 2013 Dugar et al.
Rieder R.,University of Würzburg |
Reinhardt R.,Max Planck Genome Center Cologne |
Sharma C.M.,University of Würzburg |
Vogel J.,University of Würzburg
RNA Biology | Year: 2012
Helicobacter pylori, one of the most prevalent human pathogens, used to be thought to lack small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) which are otherwise considered abundant in all bacteria. However, our recent analysis of the primary transcriptome of H. pylori discovered an unexpectedly large number of sRNAs, and suggested that this model organism also uses riboregulation to control the expression of its genes. Nonetheless, whereas most enterobacterial sRNAs require the RNA chaperone Hfq for function, Epsilonproteobacteria including H. pylori seem to have no Hfq homolog, which prompted us to search for other auxiliary proteins in sRNA-mediated regulation. Therefore, we have developed two orthogonal methods to isolate and investigate in vivo and in vitro assembled RNA-protein complexes in H. pylori: (1) an affinity chromatography strategy based on aptamer-tagged sRNAs of interest to identify their protein binding partners; and (2) a rapid method for chromosomal FLAG-tagging of proteins to facilitate co-immunoprecipitation of associated RNA species. Using these methods, we have identified RNA-protein interactions between the ribosomal protein S1 and various mRNAs and sRNAs of H. pylori. Moreover, both methods reported a stable RNA-protein complex between the abundant HP nc6910 sRNA and HP 1334, a protein of unknown function that is encoded downstream of HP nc6910. Given that 50% of all bacteria may lack Hfq, our methods can be useful to identify RNA-protein interactions in a wider range of bacterial pathogens. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.