Max Planck Genome Center

Köln, Germany

Max Planck Genome Center

Köln, Germany
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Frey F.P.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Urbany C.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Huttel B.,Max Planck Genome Center | Reinhardt R.,Max Planck Genome Center | Stich B.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
BMC genomics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Climate change will lead in the future to an occurrence of heat waves with a higher frequency and duration than observed today, which has the potential to cause severe damage to seedlings of temperate maize genotypes. In this study, we aimed to (I) assess phenotypic variation for heat tolerance of temperate European Flint and Dent maize inbred lines, (II) investigate the transcriptomic response of temperate maize to linearly increasing heat levels and, (III) identify genes associated with heat tolerance in a set of genotypes with contrasting heat tolerance behaviour.RESULTS: Strong phenotypic differences with respect to heat tolerance were observed between the examined maize inbred lines on a multi-trait level. We identified 607 heat responsive genes as well as 39 heat tolerance genes.CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that individual inbred lines developed different genetic mechanisms in response to heat stress. We applied a novel statistical approach enabling the integration of multiple genotypes and stress levels in the analysis of abiotic stress expression studies.


Vieira F.A.,University of Algarve | Thorne M.A.S.,Natural Environment Research Council | Stueber K.,Max Planck Genome Center | Darias M.,IRD Montpellier | And 3 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2013

An articulated endoskeleton that is calcified is a unifying innovation of the vertebrates, however the molecular basis of the structural divergence between terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, such as teleost fish, has not been determined. In the present study long-read next generation sequencing (NGS, Roche 454 platform) was used to characterize acellular perichondral bone (vertebrae) and chondroid bone (gill arch) in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus). A total of 15.97 and 14.53. Mb were produced, respectively from vertebrae and gill arch cDNA libraries and yielded 32,374 and 28,371 contigs (consensus sequences) respectively. 10,455 contigs from vertebrae and 10,625 contigs from gill arches were annotated with gene ontology terms. Comparative analysis of the global transcriptome revealed 4249 unique transcripts in vertebrae, 4201 unique transcripts in the gill arches and 3700 common transcripts. Several core gene networks were conserved between the gilthead sea bream and mammalian skeleton. Transcripts for putative endocrine factors were identified in acellular gilthead sea bream bone suggesting that in common with mammalian bone it can act as an endocrine tissue. The acellular bone of the vertebra, in contrast to current opinion based on histological analysis, was responsive to a short fast and significant (p<. 0.05) down-regulation of several transcripts identified by NGS, osteonectin, osteocalcin, cathepsin K and IGFI occurred. In gill arches fasting caused a significant (p<. 0.05) down-regulation of osteocalcin and up-regulation of MMP9. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Skern-Mauritzen R.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Skern-Mauritzen R.,Salmon Louse Research Center | Malde K.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Besnier F.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2013

Molecular genetic tools have become standard in biological studies of both model and non-model species. This has created a growing need for sequence information, a resource hitherto limited for many species. With new sequencing technologies this is rapidly changing, and whole genome shotgun sequencing has become a realistic goal for many species. However, present sequencing protocols require more DNA than can be extracted from single individuals of many small metazoans, potentially forcing sequencing projects to perform sequencing on samples derived from several individuals. A pertinent question thus arises: can wild samples be used or is inbreeding necessary? In the present study we compare assemblies generated using sequence data from inbred and wild Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The results indicate not only that measures to reduce the genetic variability may significantly improve the final assemblies but also that deeper coverage to some extent can compensate for the detrimental effects of natural sequence variability. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research and Max Planck Genome Center
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2015

Climate change will lead in the future to an occurrence of heat waves with a higher frequency and duration than observed today, which has the potential to cause severe damage to seedlings of temperate maize genotypes. In this study, we aimed to (I) assess phenotypic variation for heat tolerance of temperate European Flint and Dent maize inbred lines, (II) investigate the transcriptomic response of temperate maize to linearly increasing heat levels and, (III) identify genes associated with heat tolerance in a set of genotypes with contrasting heat tolerance behaviour.Strong phenotypic differences with respect to heat tolerance were observed between the examined maize inbred lines on a multi-trait level. We identified 607 heat responsive genes as well as 39 heat tolerance genes.Our findings indicate that individual inbred lines developed different genetic mechanisms in response to heat stress. We applied a novel statistical approach enabling the integration of multiple genotypes and stress levels in the analysis of abiotic stress expression studies.


Bruckskotten M.,Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research | Looso M.,Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research | Reinhardt R.,Max Planck Genome Center | Braun T.,Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research | Borchardt T.,Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Notophthalmus viridescens, a member of the salamander family is an excellent model organism to study regenerative processes due to its unique ability to replace lost appendages and to repair internal organs. Molecular insights into regenerative events have been severely hampered by the lack of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data, as well as an appropriate database to store such novel information. Here, we describe 'Newt-omics' (http://newt-omics.mpi-bn.mpg.de), a database, which enables researchers to locate, retrieve and store data sets dedicated to the molecular characterization of newts. Newt-omics is a transcript-centred database, based on an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data set from the newt, covering ∼50 000 Sanger sequenced transcripts and a set of high-density microarray data, generated from regenerating hearts. Newt-omics also contains a large set of peptides identified by mass spectrometry, which was used to validate 13 810 ESTs as true protein coding. Newt-omics is open to implement additional high-throughput data sets without changing the database structure. Via a user-friendly interface Newt-omics allows access to a huge set of molecular data without the need for prior bioinformatical expertise. © The Author(s) 2011.


Blattner S.,University of Würzburg | Das S.,University of Würzburg | Paprotka K.,University of Würzburg | Eilers U.,University of Würzburg | And 13 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2016

Community-acquired (CA) Staphylococcus aureus cause various diseases even in healthy individuals. Enhanced virulence of CA-strains is partly attributed to increased production of toxins such as phenol-soluble modulins (PSM). The pathogen is internalized efficiently by mammalian host cells and intracellular S. aureus has recently been shown to contribute to disease. Upon internalization, cytotoxic S. aureus strains can disrupt phagosomal membranes and kill host cells in a PSM-dependent manner. However, PSM are not sufficient for these processes. Here we screened for factors required for intracellular S. aureus virulence. We infected escape reporter host cells with strains from an established transposon mutant library and detected phagosomal escape rates using automated microscopy. We thereby, among other factors, identified a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) to be required for efficient phagosomal escape and intracellular survival of S. aureus as well as induction of host cell death. By genetic complementation as well as supplementation with the synthetic NRPS product, the cyclic dipeptide phevalin, wild-type phenotypes were restored. We further demonstrate that the NRPS is contributing to virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Together, our data illustrate a hitherto unrecognized function of the S. aureus NRPS and its dipeptide product during S. aureus infection. © 2016 Blättner et al.


Kleppe L.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Edvardsen R.B.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Kuhl H.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | Malde K.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: Zygotic transcription in fish embryos initiates around the time of gastrulation, and all prior development is initiated and controlled by maternally derived messenger RNAs. Atlantic cod egg and embryo viability is variable, and it is hypothesized that the early development depends upon the feature of these maternal RNAs. Both the length and the presence of specific motifs in the 3'UTR of maternal RNAs are believed to regulate expression and stability of the maternal transcripts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the overall composition and 3'UTR structure of the most common maternal RNAs found in cod eggs and pre-zygotic embryos.Results: 22229 Sanger-sequences were obtained from 3'-end sequenced cDNA libraries prepared from oocyte, 1-2 cell, blastula and gastrula stages. Quantitative PCR revealed that EST copy number below 9 did not reflect the gene expression profile. Consequently genes represented by less than 9 ESTs were excluded from downstream analyses, in addition to sequences with low-quality gene hits. This provided 12764 EST sequences, encoding 257 unique genes, for further analysis. Mitochondrial transcripts accounted for 45.9-50.6% of the transcripts isolated from the maternal stages, but only 12.2% of those present at the onset of zygotic transcription. 3'UTR length was predicted in nuclear sequences with poly-A tail, which identified 191 3'UTRs. Their characteristics indicated a more complex regulation of transcripts that are abundant prior to the onset of zygotic transcription. Maternal and stable transcripts had longer 3'UTR (mean 187.1 and 208.8 bp) and more 3'UTR isoforms (45.7 and 34.6%) compared to zygotic transcripts, where 15.4% had 3'UTR isoforms and the mean 3'UTR length was 76 bp. Also, diversity and the amount of putative polyadenylation motifs were higher in both maternal and stable transcripts.Conclusions: We report on the most pronounced processes in the maternally transferred cod transcriptome. Maternal stages are characterized by a rich abundance of mitochondrial transcripts. Maternal and stable transcripts display longer 3'UTRs with more variation of both polyadenylation motifs and 3'UTR isoforms. These data suggest that cod eggs possess a complex array of maternal RNAs which likely act to tightly regulate early developmental processes in the newly fertilized egg. © 2012 Kleppe et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University of Tübingen, University of Würzburg and Max Planck Genome Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS pathogens | Year: 2016

Community-acquired (CA) Staphylococcus aureus cause various diseases even in healthy individuals. Enhanced virulence of CA-strains is partly attributed to increased production of toxins such as phenol-soluble modulins (PSM). The pathogen is internalized efficiently by mammalian host cells and intracellular S. aureus has recently been shown to contribute to disease. Upon internalization, cytotoxic S. aureus strains can disrupt phagosomal membranes and kill host cells in a PSM-dependent manner. However, PSM are not sufficient for these processes. Here we screened for factors required for intracellular S. aureus virulence. We infected escape reporter host cells with strains from an established transposon mutant library and detected phagosomal escape rates using automated microscopy. We thereby, among other factors, identified a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) to be required for efficient phagosomal escape and intracellular survival of S. aureus as well as induction of host cell death. By genetic complementation as well as supplementation with the synthetic NRPS product, the cyclic dipeptide phevalin, wild-type phenotypes were restored. We further demonstrate that the NRPS is contributing to virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Together, our data illustrate a hitherto unrecognized function of the S. aureus NRPS and its dipeptide product during S. aureus infection.


PubMed | Max Planck Genome Center, University of Bath, University of Oxford, University of Würzburg and Jenner Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016

Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen, which causes severe blood and tissue infections that frequently emerge by autoinfection with asymptomatically carried nose and skin populations. However, recent studies report that bloodstream isolates differ systematically from those found in the nose and skin, exhibiting reduced toxicity toward leukocytes. In two patients, an attenuated toxicity bloodstream infection evolved from an asymptomatically carried high-toxicity nasal strain by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor repressor of surface proteins (rsp). Here, we report that rsp knockout mutants lead to global transcriptional and proteomic reprofiling, and they exhibit the greatest signal in a genome-wide screen for genes influencing S. aureus survival in human cells. This effect is likely to be mediated in part via SSR42, a long-noncoding RNA. We show that rsp controls SSR42 expression, is induced by hydrogen peroxide, and is required for normal cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Rsp inactivation in laboratory- and bacteremia-derived mutants attenuates toxin production, but up-regulates other immune subversion proteins and reduces lethality during experimental infection. Crucially, inactivation of rsp preserves bacterial dissemination, because it affects neither formation of deep abscesses in mice nor survival in human blood. Thus, we have identified a spontaneously evolving, attenuated-cytotoxicity, nonhemolytic S. aureus phenotype, controlled by a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator/noncoding RNA virulence regulatory system, capable of causing S. aureus bloodstream infections. Such a phenotype could promote deep infection with limited early clinical manifestations, raising concerns that bacterial evolution within the human body may contribute to severe infection.

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