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Scholl B.,University of Texas at Austin | Scholl B.,Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience | Pattadkal J.J.,University of Texas at Austin | Dilly G.A.,University of Texas at Austin | And 2 more authors.

Dissecting the functional roles of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in cortical circuits is a fundamental goal in neuroscience. Of particular interest are their roles in emergent cortical computations such as binocular integration in primary visual cortex (V1). We measured the binocular response selectivity of genetically defined subpopulations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons received strong inputs from both eyes but lacked selectivity for binocular disparity. Because broad selectivity could result from heterogeneous synaptic input from neighboring neurons, we examined how individual PV+ interneuron selectivity compared to that of the local neuronal network, whichisprimarily composed of excitatory neurons. PV+ neurons showed functional similarity to neighboring neuronal populations over spatial distances resembling measurements of synaptic connectivity. On the other hand, excitatory neurons expressing CaMKIIα displayed no such functional similarity with the neighboring population. Our findings suggest that broad selectivity of PV+ interneurons results from nonspecific integration within local networks. Video Abstract: Excitatory and inhibitory neurons integrate local neocortical inputs differently. Parvalbumin (PV+) inhibitory neurons exhibit functional responses similar to the neighboring neurons consistent with nonspecific pooling within 100μm, whereas excitatory neuron selectivity is unrelated to the local population. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Oh W.,University of California at Davis | Oh W.,Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience | Parajuli L.,University of California at Davis | Zito K.,University of California at Davis
Cell Reports

Competition between synapses contributes to activity-dependent refinement of the nervous system during development. Does local competition between neighboring synapses drive circuit remodeling during experience-dependent plasticity in the cerebral cortex? Here, we examined the role of activity-mediated competitive interactions in regulating dendritic spine structure and function on hippocampal CA1 neurons. We found that high-frequency glutamatergic stimulation at individual spines, which leads to input-specific synaptic potentiation, induces shrinkage and weakening of nearby unstimulated synapses. This heterosynaptic plasticity requires potentiation of multiple neighboring spines, suggesting that a local threshold of neural activity exists beyond which inactive synapses are punished. Notably, inhibition of calcineurin, IP3Rs, or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) blocked heterosynaptic shrinkage without blocking structural potentiation, and inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blocked structural potentiation without blocking heterosynaptic shrinkage. Our results support a model in which activity-induced shrinkage signal, and not competition for limited structural resources, drives heterosynaptic structural and functional depression during neural circuit refinement. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Kim I.H.,Duke University | Wang H.,Duke University | Soderling S.H.,Duke University | Yasuda R.,Duke University | Yasuda R.,Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

Cdc42 is a signaling protein important for reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and morphogenesis of cells. However, the functional role of Cdc42 in synaptic plasticity and in behaviors such as learning and memory are not well understood. Here we report that postnatal forebrain deletion of Cdc42 leads to deficits in synaptic plasticity and in remote memory recall using conditional knockout of Cdc42. We found that deletion of Cdc42 impaired LTP in the Schaffer collateral synapses and postsynaptic structural plasticity of dendritic spines in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, loss of Cdc42 did not affect memory acquisition, but instead significantly impaired remote memory recall. Together these results indicate that the postnatal functions of Cdc42 may be crucial for the synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons, which contribute to the capacity for remote memory recall. © Kim et al. Source

Zhai S.,Duke University | Ark E.D.,Duke University | Parra-Bueno P.,Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience | Yasuda R.,Duke University | And 2 more authors.

The late phase of long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses, which is thought to underlie long-lasting memory, requires gene transcription in the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which signaling initiated at synapses is transmitted into the nucleus to induce transcription has remained elusive. Here, we found that induction of LTP in only three to seven dendritic spines in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons was sufficient to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the nucleus and regulate downstream transcription factors. Signaling from individual spines was integrated over a wide range of time (>30 minutes) and space (>80 micrometers). Spatially dispersed inputs over multiple branches activated nuclear ERK much more efficiently than clustered inputs over one branch. Thus, biochemical signals from individual dendritic spines exert profound effects on nuclear signaling. Source

Rowan M.J.M.,Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience | Tranquil E.,Florida Atlantic University | Christie J.M.,Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience
Journal of Neuroscience

The discrete arrangement of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels in axons may impart functional advantages in action potential (AP) signaling yet, in compact cell types, the organization of Kv channels is poorly understood. We find that in cerebellar stellate cell interneurons of mice, the composition and influence of Kv channels populating the axon is diverse and depends on location allowing axonal compartments to differentially control APs in a local manner. Kv1 channels determine AP repolarization at the spike initiation site but not at more distal sites, limiting the expression of use-dependent spike broadening to the most proximal axon region, likely a key attribute informing spiking phenotype. Local control of AP repolarization at presynaptic boutons depends on Kv3 channels keeping APs brief, thus limiting Ca2+ influx and synaptic strength. These observations suggest that AP repolarization is tuned by the local influence of distinct Kv channel types, and this organization enhances the functional segregation of axonal compartments. © 2014 the authors. Source

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