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Max Born was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 30s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function".Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians, Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom. A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when a metal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle.In 1921, Born returned to Göttingen, arranging another chair for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck. Under Born, Göttingen became one of the world's foremost centres for physics. In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. The following year, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. His influence extended far beyond his own research. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf all received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen, and his assistants included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner.In January 1933, the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, and Born, who was Jewish, was suspended. He emigrated to Britain, where he took a job at St John's College, Cambridge, and wrote a popular science book, The Restless Universe, as well as Atomic Physics, which soon became a standard text book. In October 1936, he became the Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, where, working with German-born assistants E. Walter Kellermann and Klaus Fuchs, he continued his research into physics. Max Born became a naturalised British subject on 31 August 1939, one day before World War II broke out in Europe. He remained at Edinburgh until 1952. He retired to Bad Pyrmont, in West Germany. He died in hospital in Göttingen on 5 January 1970. Wikipedia.

Gitin A.V.,Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

The main relationships of wave optics are derived from a combination of the Huygens-Fresnel principle and the Feynman integral over all paths. The stationary-phase approximation of the wave relations gives the correspondent relations from the point of view of geometrical optics. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Source

Zhavoronkov N.,Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

An uniquely high conversion efficiency of fundamental radiation from a Ti:sapphire laser to a supercontinuum is achieved through filamentary propagation in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) to generate a uniform over-octave spectrum. Two different parts of the supercontinuum, firstly around the fundamental wavelength of 800nm and secondly within the newly generated frequency range around 550nm, are shown to be compressible down to minimal pulse duration of about 10 fs demonstrating a potential of the method for single-cycle pulses generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Source

Vrakking M.J.J.,Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

The natural timescale for electron dynamics reaches down to the attosecond domain. Following the discovery of attosecond laser pulses, about a decade ago, attosecond science has developed into a vibrant, new research field, where the motion of single or multiple electrons and, in molecules, the coupling of electronic and nuclear motion, can be investigated, on attosecond to few-femtosecond timescales. Attosecond experiments require suitable observables. This review describes how "attosecond imaging", basing itself on kinetic energy and angle-resolved detection of photoelectrons and fragment ions using a velocity map imaging (VMI) spectrometer, has been exploited in a number of pump-probe experiments. The use of a VMI spectrometer in attosecond experiments has allowed the characterization of attosecond pulse trains and isolated attosecond pulses, the elucidation of continuum electron dynamics and wave packet interferometry in atomic photoionization and the observation of electron localization in dissociative molecular photoionization. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2014. Source

Lange K.M.,Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy | Lange K.M.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | Aziz E.F.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | Aziz E.F.,Free University of Berlin
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Soft X-ray spectroscopies are powerful tools for probing the local electronic and molecular orbital structures of materials in different phases and various environments. While modern spectroscopic tools using soft X-ray synchrotron photons perspicuously reveal the molecular orbital (MO) structure in detail, structures remain widely unknown in the liquid phase since many of these techniques could only be applied to solutions very recently. Furthermore, the interactions and dynamics of molecules in the liquid phase are especially complicated compared to those in gas and solid phases and thereby impede the understanding of functional materials in solution. This review presents recent developments using soft X-ray radiation for probing the electronic structure of ions and molecules in solution. The presented X-ray absorption, emission, and photo-electron spectroscopy studies exhibit the powerful contributions of soft X-ray liquid spectroscopies in the last few years. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Becker W.,Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy | Liu X.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics | Ho P.J.,Argonne National Laboratory | Eberly J.H.,University of Rochester
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

Experimental advances with laser intensities above 1TW/cm2, with pulse durations between roughly 50 and 5 fs, have led to the discovery of new atomic effects that include examples of startlingly high electron correlation. These phenomena have presented an unexpected theoretical challenge as they lie outside the domains of both of the nominally applicable theories, namely, straightforward perturbative radiation theory and quasistatic tunneling theory. The two liberated electrons present a new few-body collective effect. When they are not released independently, one by one, the term nonsequential double ionization has been adopted. Theoretical avenues of attack have emerged in two categories, which are strikingly different. They can be labeled as "all-at-once" and "step-by-step" approaches. Although different, even conceptually opposite in some ways, both approaches have been successful in confronting substantial parts of the experimental data. These approaches are examined and compared with their results in addressing key experimental data obtained over the past decade. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

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