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Mawlamyine, Myanmar

Nguyen V.X.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Nguyen V.X.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology | Detcharoen M.,Prince of Songkla University | Tuntiprapas P.,Prince of Songkla University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2014

Background: The Indo-Pacific region has the largest number of seagrass species worldwide and this region is considered as the origin of the Hydrocharitaceae. Halophila ovalis and its closely-related species belonging to the Hydrocharitaceae are well-known as a complex taxonomic challenge mainly due to their high morphological plasticity. The relationship of genetic differentiation and geographic barriers of H. ovalis radiation was not much studied in this region. Are there misidentifications between H. ovalis and its closely related species? Does any taxonomic uncertainty among different populations of H. ovalis persist? Is there any genetic differentiation among populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Thai-Malay peninsula? Genetic markers can be used to characterize and identify individuals or species and will be used to answer these questions. Results: Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region based on materials collected from 17 populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed that some specimens identified as H. ovalis belonged to the H. major clade, also supported by morphological data. Evolutionary divergence between the two clades is between 0.033 and 0.038, much higher than the evolutionary divergence among H. ovalis populations. Eight haplotypes were found; none of the haplotypes from the Western Pacific is found in India and vice versa. Analysis of genetic diversity based on microsatellite analysis revealed that the genetic diversity in the Western Pacific is higher than in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree among 14 populations from the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed six groups. The Mantel test results revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations. Results from band-based and allele frequency-based approaches from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed that all samples collected from both sides of the Thai-Malay peninsula were clustered into two clades: Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea. Conclusions: Our study documented the new records of H. major for Malaysia and Myanmar. The study also revealed that the Thai-Malay peninsula is a geographic barrier between H. ovalis populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean. © 2014 Nguyen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hamada Y.,Kyoto University | San A.M.,Mawlamyine University | Malaivijitnond S.,Chulalongkorn University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2016

Objectives Hybridization between rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques has become a focal point of interest. The majority of such studies have evaluated their genetics, but not their morphological characters. Materials and Methods We analyzed morphological characters of eight free-ranging populations of Indochinese rhesus and long-tailed macaques distributed at the proposed hybrid zone (15.75-21.58 N) in comparison with one population each of Chinese and Indian-derived rhesus macaques and three populations of Sundaic long-tailed macaques. Results Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques had a heavier body mass, longer crown-rump length, shorter relative facial length and relative tail length, and a greater contrast of reddish and yellowish dorsal pelage color than the Sundaic long-tailed macaques for which the latter three parameters could be used to visually discriminate between the two species. Although the morphological characters of Indochinese rhesus and long-tailed macaques were intermediate between the Chinese/Indian rhesus and Sundaic long-tailed macaques, they were more similar to their respective conspecifics. The species-specific characters of a shorter tail (<70%) and a bipartite pelage color pattern were retained in the Indochinese rhesus macaques while the longer tail (>90%) and no bipartite pattern was found in the Indochinese long-tailed macaques. No morphological cline was observed across the species and the variations were abrupt to some extent. Discussion The hybridization between rhesus and long-tailed macaques may be results of multiple contacts and isolations over a long period of time, thus their evolutionary history should not be drawn solely by genetic or morphological analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Win N.-N.,Kobe University | Hanyuda T.,Kobe University | Arai S.,Marine Algal Research Co. | Uchimura M.,Port and Airport Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Phycologia | Year: 2010

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Padina species collected from the western Pacific Ocean using rbcL and mitochondrial cox3 genes revealed the occurrence of four genetically distinctive clades of unknown Padina species: clade A (=Padina okinawaensis sp. nov.) from Ryukyu Islands (Japan), Hawaii, Indonesia and Thailand, clade B (=Padina undulata sp. nov.), clade C (=Padina terricolor sp. nov.) and clade D (=Padina fasciata sp. nov.) from Ryukyu Islands (Japan). Morphologically, these new taxa are all bistratose species, and different from any known species in the following morphological features: P. okinawaensis sp. nov., reniform or circular thallus of entire margin with inconspicuous hair lines on the superior surface of the thallus, and reproductive organs (oogonia and tetrasporangia) in small groups or discontinuous sori under thin flakes of calcium on the inferior surface; P. undulata sp. nov., circular or semicircular thallus with undulate margin, conspicuous hair lines on both surfaces of the thallus, oogonial and tetrasporangial sori in continuous or discontinuous lines covered with a persistent indusium, and cylindrical oogonia; P. terricolor sp. nov., grayish brown on the inferior surface of the thallus, and oogonial and tetrasporangial sori in continuous lines covered with a persistent indusium; P. fasciata sp. nov., broad white stripes on both surfaces of the thallus due to unique calcification, and oogonial and tetrasporangial sori in continuous lines, which are entirely embedded in a gelatinous layer, on the inferior surface of the thallus. In addition, the independence of Padina japonica from Padina sanctae-crucis is suggested on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence.

Jyothibabu R.,National Institute of Oceanography of India | Win N.N.,Mawlamyine University | Shenoy D.M.,National Institute of Oceanography of India | Swe U.T.,Mawlamyine University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2014

The northern Andaman Sea including the Myanmar waters is one of the least studied regions of the northern Indian Ocean. The freshwater and suspended sediments carried by Ayeyawady/Irrawaddy, the peculiar surface circulation, coastline morphology and shallow bathymetry in the Gulf of Mottama facilitate several diverse environmental settings in the study region. In order to understand the environmental settings and their linkages to the plankton community in the study region, this paper combined in situ data of 'First India-Myanmar Joint Oceanographic Expedition' with satellite oceanography observations. The study period was the Spring Intermonsoon (March-May), which was characterized by high tidal activity in the Gulf of Mottama region (tidal height 6-8. m) causing strong tidal currents and re-suspension of sediments. The tidal currents and eastward advection of Ayeyawady influx caused the lowest salinity, highest concentration of nutrients, suspended sediments and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mottama region. Conversely, high salinity, highest temperature, lowest nutrients and suspended sediments prevalent in the offshore waters of the northern Andaman Sea induced a massive bloom of Trichodesmium erythraeum, which was mostly in the declining phase during the observation. The in situ and satellite remote sensing data clearly showed that the T. erythraeum bloom observed in the offshore waters was closely linked to a warm core eddy. The decomposition of the bloom favored swarms of siphonophores and hydromedusae through a trophic link involving copepods and appendicularians. Aided by satellite remote sensing data and multivariate statistical tools, five diverse environmental settings have been identified in the study domain. The analysis showed a close coupling between phytoplankton biomass and nutrients with their higher values in the Gulf of Mottama, off Rakhine, Ayeyawady and Thanintharyi region as compared to the offshore waters in the northern Andaman Sea. The zooplankton community dominated by copepods and chaetognaths preferred regions with high salinity, chlorophyll, deep mixed layer and low suspended sediments as existed off Rakhine, Ayeyawady and Thanintharyi regions. The study evidences, for the first time, the spatial segregation of environmental settings and its linkages to the plankton community off Myanmar during the Spring Intermonsoon. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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