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Iafusco D.,The Second University of Naples | Massa O.,Laboratory of Mendelian Diabetes | Pasquino B.,Regional Hospital | Colombo C.,Laboratory of Mendelian Diabetes | And 14 more authors.
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2012

Until early 2000, permanent and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM), defined as diabetes with onset within 6 weeks from birth that requires insulin therapy for at least 2 weeks, were considered exceedingly rare conditions, with a global incidence of 1:500,000-1:400,000 live births. The new definition of NDM recently adopted, that includes patients with diabetes onset within 6 months of age, has prompted studies that have set the incidence of the permanent form alone between 1:210,000 and 1:260,000 live births. Aim of the present work was to ascertain the incidence of NDM (i.e. permanent + transient form) in Italy for years 2005-2010. Patients referred to the Italian reference laboratory for NDM between years 2005 and 2010 and screened for mutations in common NDM genes (KCNJ11, ABCC8, and INS) and for uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6 (UDP6) were reviewed. A questionnaire aimed at identifying NDM cases investigated in other laboratories was sent to 54 Italian reference centers for pediatric diabetes. Twenty-seven patients with NDM born between 2005 and 2010 were referred to the reference laboratory. In this group, a mutation of either KCNJ11, ABCC8 or INS was found in 18 patients, and a case with UDP6 was identified. Questionnaires revealed 4 additional cases with transient neonatal diabetes due to UDP6. Incidence of NDM was calculated at 1:90,000 (CI: 1:63,000-1:132,000) live births. Thus, with the definition currently in use, about 6 new cases with NDM are expected to be born in Italy each year. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


De Cunto A.,University of Trieste | Bensa M.,Maurizio Bufalini Hospital | Tonelli A.,E Medea Scientific Institute
Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2012

Hemiplegic migraine constitutes an unusual form, characterized by periodic attacks of migraine with a motor component (hemiplegia). Familial forms are dominantly inherited, and are attributable to mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in ion transportation, including ATP1A2, which codes for the α-2 isoform of the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, a P-type cation transport adenosine triphosphatase, and responsible for the so-called familial hemiplegic migraine type 2. We describe a 9-year-old boy affected by familial hemiplegic migraine, with a novel ATP1A2 gene mutation (c.1799T>C p.V600A) in exon 13. Long-term treatment with flunarizine resulted in a good clinical response and the prevention of further attacks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yang X.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Brown K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Landi M.T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Ghiorzo P.,University of Genoa | And 13 more authors.
Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research | Year: 2012

Copy number variations (CNVs) have been shown to contribute substantially to disease susceptibility in several inherited diseases including cancer. We conducted a genome-wide search for CNVs in blood-derived DNA from 79 individuals (62 melanoma patients and 17 spouse controls) of 30 high-risk melanoma-prone families without known segregating mutations using genome-wide comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) tiling arrays. We identified a duplicated region on chromosome 4q13 in germline DNA of all melanoma patients in a melanoma-prone family with three affected siblings. We confirmed the duplication using quantitative PCR and a custom-made CGH array design spanning the 4q13 region. The duplicated region contains 10 genes, most of which encode CXC chemokines. Among them, CXCL1 (melanoma growth-stimulating activity α) and IL8 (interleukin 8) have been shown to stimulate melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that the alteration of CXC chemokine genes may confer susceptibility to melanoma. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Source


Shi J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Yang X.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Ballew B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Rotunno M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 56 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Although CDKN2A is the most frequent high-risk melanoma susceptibility gene, the underlying genetic factors for most melanoma-prone families remain unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a rare variant that arose as a founder mutation in the telomere shelterin gene POT1 (chromosome 7, g.124493086C>T; p.Ser270Asn) in five unrelated melanoma-prone families from Romagna, Italy. Carriers of this variant had increased telomere lengths and numbers of fragile telomeres, suggesting that this variant perturbs telomere maintenance. Two additional rare POT1 variants were identified in all cases sequenced in two separate Italian families, one variant per family, yielding a frequency for POT1 variants comparable to that for CDKN2A mutations in this population. These variants were not found in public databases or in 2,038 genotyped Italian controls. We also identified two rare recurrent POT1 variants in US and French familial melanoma cases. Our findings suggest that POT1 is a major susceptibility gene for familial melanoma in several populations. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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