Entity

Time filter

Source Type

ASHLAND, MA, United States

Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.21M | Year: 2009

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): During Phase 1 research, the effects of 6 model test materials on a highly differentiated vaginal- ectocervical (VEC) tissue model were studied. Effects on tissue viability, structure, barrier function, and inflammatory cytokine release were monitored. Many of the assays gave results which supported one another and increased confidence in the in vitro results. For instance, histological damage and cytokine release paralleled losses in tissue viability. In addition, decreases in barrier function were measured when tissue viability decreased although the data indicated that barrier function was a more sensitive endpoint (i.e. decreases in barrier function occurred at lower concentrations that did not decrease tissue viability). Importantly, the one material which was mildly irritating in the rabbit vaginal irritation test induced significant decreases in tissue viability and barrier function and increased inflammatory mediator release. In addition, an economic analysis showed the in vitro method to be a cost-effective alternative to the currently used rabbit vaginal irritation test methodology. During Phase 2, the utility of the in vitro assay system will be further expanded to predict vaginal irritation following chronic, repeat exposure. Using the endpoints developed in Phase 1, a prediction model will be developed to accurately assess the in vivo vaginal irritation of test materials and formulations. The method will be transferred to outside contract testing labs and a multi-lab GLP validation study will be performed. In addition, the short and long term reproducibility of the assay will be assessed, and a high throughput version of the assay method will be developed. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: A predictive test system for assessing the vaginal irritation potential of chemicals and formulations will have far reaching application in industries involved in women's care products, microbicide, contraceptives, excipient development, and topical pharmaceutical products. Evaluation of vaginal irritation is important to minimize chemical hazards to millions of women. The proposed human reconstructed tissue based system will provide a sensitive and validated assay method for screening of chemicals/formulations with vaginal irritation potential. Furthermore, the assay method will be cost effective and reduce the use of laboratory animals for experimentation.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 819.10K | Year: 2009

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): As part of a standard toxicological evaluation, all new products must be tested to insure they are not genotoxic. Animal tests are available but European legislation that takes effect in 2009 will ban animal testing. This legislation will affect almost all large US multinational personal care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical companies. Non-animal, in vitro tests exist; however, they lack specificity and result in an unacceptably high rate of false positives. This leads to a large number of materials being excluded from further development even though are safe. The long term goal of the proposal is to validate an in vitro test method to accurately determine human skin genotoxicity. Phase 1 research made significant progress in developing a reconstructed skin micronucleus (RSMN) assay for genotoxicity testing. A standardized protocol, a pre- screen cytotoxicity assay, and a prediction model (based on statistically significant increases in micronuclei in dividing cells) were defined and tested. A previously published method was improved to increase the sensitivity of the assay for detecting genotoxins requiring metabolic activation. In addition, long term reproducibility studies utilizing tissue from multiple donors showed highly reproducible results. Phase 2 will further build on Phase 1 results to optimize the assay method, automate scoring, expand the database of materials tested, demonstrate interlaboratory reproducibility, and adapt the assay to a high throughput format. These studies will lay the groundwork for formal validation and regulatory acceptance of the assay. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Current genotoxicity test methods rely on animals or in vitro tests. However, the in vitro methods give an unacceptable percentage of false positive test results and animal testing will be banned for US based multinational companies due to pending legislation. This project will develop an in vitro assay which accurately predicts human genotoxicity.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 221.24K | Year: 2009

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of the current proposal is to apply state of the art gene modification technology including lentiviral delivery systems and RNA interference technology to commercially available tissue engineered human in vitro models. These models will consist of differentiated 3-D epidermal cultures and tracheal/bronchial epithelial cultures, as well as epidermal and airway epithelia co-cultured with mesenchymal cells. In Phase I research, the technology will be used to produce 3 types of genetically modified tissue engineered culture products: 1) stable addition of a functional gene, 2) stable silencing of a gene, and 3) stable introduction of a reporter for detection of gene activation. During Phase II, the techniques will be applied to additional tissue engineered human in vitro models, and the inventory of available gene modified products will be expanded. These proposed commercially available in vitro model systems will provide researchers in the pharmaceutical industry and academic research laboratories a readily available means for studying the functional genomics of nearly any gene in human epithelial cells, as well as crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells in the differentiated organotypic state. Use of these models will aid in identification and validation of targets for development of novel therapeutics for treatment of human skin and airway epithelial diseases including cancers, chronic wounds, blistering diseases, scarring, and airway remodeling associated with asthma and COPD. Public Health Relevance: The gene modified tissue engineered models to be produced by the current project will provide researchers in the pharmaceutical industry and academic research laboratories a readily available means for studying the functional genomics of nearly any gene in human epithelial cells, as well as crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells in the differentiated organotypic state. The models will be utilized to identify and validate targets for the development of novel therapeutics for treatment of human skin and airway epithelial diseases including cancers, chronic wounds, blistering diseases, scarring, and airway remodeling associated with asthma and COPD.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 255.95K | Year: 2008

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Determination of skin irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement for hazard identification/assessment of chemicals, and is important in establishing procedures for the safe ha ndling, packaging, labeling and transport of chemicals and chemical mixtures, as well as evaluation of irritation potential of cosmetic products, ingredients and household productions. Recently enacted legislation including the European Union Registration, Labeling and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) program, the US EPA High Production Volume (HPV) Chemical Challenge and EU cosmetics directive ban on the testing of cosmetics on animals will dramatically increase the need for in vitro skin irritation as sessment methods. To fulfill the urgent need for a regulatory accepted in vitro skin irritation test method, the goal of the present grant proposal is to validate the EpiDerm in vitro human skin model for skin irritation according to the Globally Harmoniz ed System (GHS). Validation guidelines developed by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) will be utilized. Initially, test chemicals with known in vivo skin irritation potential will be applied to the EpiDerm model to identify in vitro skin irritation biomarkers. A prediction model will be established for converting in vitro biomarker responses into in vivo GHS skin irritation classific ations (i.e. irritant, mild irritant and non-irritants). The model and test methods will be further evaluated with a larger test set of chemicals to determine its validity and overall predictive ability. Finally, additional tests will determine intra-labor atory reproducibility and inter-laboratory transferability of the assay method. Successful completion of these Phase I Aims will constitute the pre-validation process for establishing the feasibility of proceeding to full formal validation in Phase II stud ies. Determination of skin irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement for hazard identification/assessment of chemicals, and is important in establishing procedures for the safe handling, packaging, labeling and transport of chemicals and chemical mixtures, as well as evaluation of irritation potential of cosmetic products, ingredients and household productions. Recently enacted legislation including the European Union Registration, Labeling and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) progra m, the US EPA High Production Volume (HPV) Chemical Challenge and EU cosmetics directive ban on the testing of cosmetics on animals will dramatically increase the need for in vitro skin irritation assessment methods. To fulfill the urgent need for a regu latory accepted in vitro skin irritation test method, the goal of the present grant proposal is to validate the EpiDerm in vitro human skin model for skin irritation according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS). Validation guidelines developed by th e Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) will be utilized. Initially, test chemicals with known in vivo skin irritation potential will be ap plied to the EpiDerm model to identify in vitro skin irritation biomarkers. A prediction model will be established for converting in vitro biomarker responses into in vivo GHS skin irritation classifications (i.e. irritant, mild irritant and non-irritants) . The model and test methods will be further evaluated with a larger test set of chemicals to determine its validity and overall predictive ability. Finally, additional tests will determine intra-laboratory reproducibility and inter- laboratory transferabi lity of the assay method. Successful completion of these Phase I Aims will constitute the pre-validation process for establishing the feasibility of proceed


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 835.98K | Year: 2011

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hazard assessment, including evaluation of acute inhalation toxicity potential, is a mandatory international regulatory requirement for chemicals utilized in international commerce. Acute inhalation toxicity or irritation potential is an important consideration in establishing procedures for the safe handling, packaging and labeling and transport of chemicals and chemical mixtures, and in formulating responses to emergency exposure situations. Recently enacted legislation including the European Union (EU) Registration, Labeling and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) program, and the US EPA High production Volume (HPV) Chemical Challenge will dramatically increase the need for inhalation toxicity information. The goal of the present grant proposal is to validate the EpiAirway in vitro human airway model for prediction of in vivo human inhalation toxicity hazard potential following Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and European Center for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) guidelines. Phase I experiments produced several prediction models that will be further tested in the current Phase II project. One hundred chemicals that have available in vivo human or animal inhalation toxicity data and established immediately Dangerous to Life or health (IDLH) concentrations established by NIOSH will be utilized in the Phase II validation project. Interlaboratory transferability of the method will also be evaluated in 4 laboratories using a subset of 30 chemicals chosen from the original 100 tested during the Phase II study. The study data will then be submitted for independent statistical analysis and the final results and report will be submitted to regulatory agencies (i.e. ICCVAM) in support of regulatory acceptance. The technology to be validated in the current Phase II proposal will address a critical barrier to implementation of worldwide requirements for inhalation toxicity testing of chemicals, and a technical capacity thatis urgently needed but that does not presently exist. The methodology developed will provide a transformative technology that will facilitate the paradigm shift from in vivo rodent to in vitro human inhalation toxicology testing envisioned in the resent National Research Council Report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy . PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Hazard assessment, including evaluation of acute inhalation toxicity potential, is a mandatory international regulatory requirement for chemicals utilized in international commerce. Acute inhalation toxicity or irritation potential is an important consideration in establishing procedures for the safe handling, packaging and labeling and transport of chemicals and chemical mixtures, and in formulating responses to emergency exposure situations. The technology to be validated in the current Phase II proposal will address a critical barrier to implementation of worldwide requirements for inhalation toxicity testing of chemicals, and provide a technical capability that is urgently needed but that does not presently exist.

Discover hidden collaborations