Olafsson K.,University of Iceland |
Olafsson K.,Matis Ltd. |
Pampoulie C.,Iceland Marine Research Institute |
Hjorleifsdottir S.,Matis Ltd. |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Due to an improved understanding of past climatological conditions, it has now become possible to study the potential concordance between former climatological models and present-day genetic structure. Genetic variability was assessed in 26 samples from different rivers of Atlantic salmon in Iceland (total of 2,352 individuals), using 15 microsatellite loci. F-statistics revealed significant differences between the majority of the populations that were sampled. Bayesian cluster analyses using both prior information and no prior information on sampling location revealed the presence of two distinguishable genetic pools - namely, the Northern (Group 1) and Southern (Group 2) regions of Iceland. Furthermore, the random permutation of different allele sizes among allelic states revealed a significant mutational component to the genetic differentiation at four microsatellite loci (SsaD144, Ssa171, SSsp2201 and SsaF3), and supported the proposition of a historical origin behind the observed variation. The estimated time of divergence, using two different ABC methods, suggested that the observed genetic pattern originated from between the Last Glacial Maximum to the Younger Dryas, which serves as additional evidence of the relative immaturity of Icelandic fish populations, on account of the recolonisation of this young environment following the Last Glacial Maximum. Additional analyses suggested the presence of several genetic entities which were likely to originate from the original groups detected. © 2014 Olafsson et al.
PubMed | University of Aarhus, University of Oslo, Matis Ltd., The Faroese Environment Agency and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014
As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. 16PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (lftafjrur, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (safjrur, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjifjrur, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of 16PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from safjrur, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjifjrur, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Srenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment.
PubMed | University of Iceland, Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Matis Ltd. and Iceland Marine Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014
Due to an improved understanding of past climatological conditions, it has now become possible to study the potential concordance between former climatological models and present-day genetic structure. Genetic variability was assessed in 26 samples from different rivers of Atlantic salmon in Iceland (total of 2,352 individuals), using 15 microsatellite loci. F-statistics revealed significant differences between the majority of the populations that were sampled. Bayesian cluster analyses using both prior information and no prior information on sampling location revealed the presence of two distinguishable genetic pools - namely, the Northern (Group 1) and Southern (Group 2) regions of Iceland. Furthermore, the random permutation of different allele sizes among allelic states revealed a significant mutational component to the genetic differentiation at four microsatellite loci (SsaD144, Ssa171, SSsp2201 and SsaF3), and supported the proposition of a historical origin behind the observed variation. The estimated time of divergence, using two different ABC methods, suggested that the observed genetic pattern originated from between the Last Glacial Maximum to the Younger Dryas, which serves as additional evidence of the relative immaturity of Icelandic fish populations, on account of the re-colonisation of this young environment following the Last Glacial Maximum. Additional analyses suggested the presence of several genetic entities which were likely to originate from the original groups detected.
PubMed | IPMA, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Brown University, University of Florida and 94 more.
Type: | Journal: GigaScience | Year: 2015
Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the worlds oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.
PubMed | Chalmers University of Technology, University of Ljubljana and Matis Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016
The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in haemoglobin-fortified washed cod mince and iron-containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. The progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as loss of redness and protein carbonyls in the cod system.The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had a high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion.The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro-oxidants present.
Margeirsson B.,Matis Ltd. |
Margeirsson B.,University of Iceland |
Lauzon H.L.,Matis Ltd. |
Palsson H.,University of Iceland |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2012
A study was carried out to evaluate temperature variation and quality deterioration of packaged cod fillets as influenced by the box type used and their position on pallets under dynamic temperature storage. Storage life of thermally abused fillets was compared to that of fillets stored at steady temperature. Thermal performance of fish boxes, made of corrugated plastic on one hand and expanded polystyrene on the other hand, was also compared. Fillet temperature at multiple positions on the pallets along with environmental temperature and humidity were monitored during storage. Differences in product temperature of up to 10.5 °C were recorded on the thermally abused pallets stored for 6.4 h at mean ambient temperature of 18.5 °C. A reduction in storage life of 1.5-3 days was observed depending on the box position on the abused pallets compared to steady temperature storage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.
Bjornsson H.,University of Iceland |
Marteinsson V.P.,Matis Ltd. |
Fridjonsson O.,Matis Ltd. |
Linke D.,Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology |
Benediktsdottir E.,University of Iceland
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011
Aims: Moritella viscosa is a Gram-negative psychrophilic bacterium that causes winter ulcer disease in farmed fish. The aim of the study was to describe an outer membrane protein of roughly 20kDa in pathogenic M. viscosa and to compare the coincident protein of strains isolated from different fish species and geographical locations. Methods and Results: The protein was isolated from a pathogenic strain of M. viscosa. An oligopeptide sequence obtained with MS/MS analysis showed homology to Escherichia coli OmpA and Neisseria surface protein A. The protein was named Moritella viscosa outer membrane protein 1 (MvOmp1), and sequence analysis confirmed that it is an integral membrane protein consisting of eight antiparallel β-strands, three short periplasmic turns and four long hydrophilic extracellular loops. The encoding gene, mvomp1, was fully sequenced in nine strains representing different serotypes and phenotypes. The results revealed some differences in the extracellular loops between strains. The mvomp1 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant product was recognized by anti-M. viscosa polyclonal antisera. Conclusions: The results indicate that MvOmp1 is a major protective antigen of M. viscosa. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results open up possibilities for use of the protein as a part of a subunit vaccine in the future. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Sturludottir E.,University of Iceland |
Sturludottir E.,Matis ltd. |
Gunnlaugsdottir H.,Matis ltd. |
Jorundsdottir H.O.,Matis ltd. |
And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013
Contaminants have been determined in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at 11 locations around the Icelandic coastline from 1990 to 2010. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there has been a change in concentration of contaminants around the Icelandic coastline for the last two decades and if the concentrations and changes, if present, were consistent between locations. Concentrations of the persistent organic pollutants, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-153) and trans-nonachlor, have decreased at most of the sampling locations in Iceland in recent years. However, an increasing trend was found at a few locations that could be explained by anthropogenic activity. The concentration levels of the persistent organics were much lower than found at the Norwegian, USA and Chinese coasts, especially levels of p,p'-DDE. The concentration of copper and selenium had a consistent pattern of change and concentration between locations over the period which showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and zinc showed more variation in concentration between locations, the concentration of arsenic, mercury and zinc was fairly stable over the period, whereas there were fluctuations in cadmium concentrations. The concentrations of cadmium and zinc were observed to be somewhat higher than found in mussels from Norway, USA and China but values of mercury and lead were much lower in the mussel sampled in Iceland. The higher concentrations of cadmium and zinc can be explained by the volcanic activity in Iceland but no major anthropogenic sources of trace elements are known in Iceland. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Jorundsdottir H.,University of Stockholm |
Jorundsdottir H.,Matis Ltd. |
Lofstrand K.,University of Stockholm |
Svavarsson J.,University of Iceland |
And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013
Data on distribution, concentration and trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) is scarce in biota from the sub-Arctic region of the Atlantic. The present study is an investigation on PBDE and HBCD concentrations in eggs from seven marine bird species from Iceland, i.e. common eider (Somateria mollissima), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), guillemot (Uria aalge), fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus) and great skua (Stercorarius skua). Concentrations of sum PBDEs ranged from 44ngg-1fat in eider eggs to 2400ngg-1fat in great skua eggs. The contribution of different PBDE congeners to the sum concentration differed between species. Concentration of HBCDs (sum of α-,β- and γ-HBCD) ranged from 1.3ngg-1fat in arctic tern eggs to 41ngg-1fat in great black-backed gull. PCA on PBDE and HBCD shows different trends between the two BFR groups, further indicating different sources/usage. Investigations on any potential health or population effects of environmental pollutants on the great skua are advised since both the PBDE and HBCD concentrations are high. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.