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Yarnpakdee S.,Prince of Songkla University | Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University | Kristinsson H.G.,Matis Icelandic Food and Biotechnology R & D | Kristinsson H.G.,University of Florida
International Aquatic Research | Year: 2012

Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) have gained increasing attention as nutritious fish products. Lipid oxidation associated with fishy odor in FPH limits its utility. Thus, an appropriate pretreatment of fish mince prior to hydrolysis by lowering pro-oxidants and lipid substrates could tackle such a problem. Different pretreatments of Nile tilapia minces including (1) washing (W), (2) washing and membrane removal (W-MR), and (3) washing/membrane removal followed by acid or alkaline solubilization (W-MR-Ac or W-MR-Al) were conducted prior to hydrolysis. During the hydrolysis process, degree of hydrolysis (DH) and chemical changes were monitored. Color and sensory properties of milk fortified with hydrolysates prepared from mince without and with pretreatment were also determined. Among the pretreated mince samples, W-MR-Al contained the lowest remaining myoglobin and heme iron contents and also showed the lowest total lipid and phospholipid contents (P < 0.05). When mince and W-MR-Al were hydrolyzed using Alcalase for up to 120 min, higher DH were found in W-MR-Al. Furthermore, lower peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and non-heme iron contents of hydrolysates from W-MR-Al were also observed (P < 0.05). When FPH powder from mince and W-MR-Al (0.3% to 0.5%) were fortified in milk, the former yielded a lower likeness score (P < 0.05) at all levels used. The addition of the latter up to 0.5% had no effect on likeness of all attributes, compared with control (without FPH). An appropriate pretreatment of mince was a promising approach to lower fishy odor problem, caused by lipid oxidation in FPH. © 2012, Yarnpakdee et al.; licensee Springer.


Yarnpakdee S.,Prince of Songkla University | Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University | Kristinsson H.G.,Matis Icelandic Food and Biotechnology R & D | Kristinsson H.G.,University of Florida | Kishimura H.,Hokkaido University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Antioxidant and sensory properties of Nile tilapia protein hydrolysates prepared by one- and two-step hydrolysis using commercial proteases were investigated. Hydrolysates prepared using single protease including Alcalase (HA), Flavourzyme (HF), Protamex (HPr) and papain (HPa) had increases in antioxidant activities as the degree of hydrolysis (DH) increased up to 40 % (P < 0.05). Amongst all hydrolysates, HA having 40 % DH showed the highest antioxidant activities. When HA was further hydrolysed by papain, the resulting hydrolysate (HAPa) exhibited the highest antioxidant activities for all assays tested (P < 0.05). ABTS radical scavenging activity and metal chelating of HAPa generally remained constant in a wide pH range (1–11) and during heating at 30–100 °C. Both activities increased in the simulated gastrointestinal tract model system, especially in intestine condition. HAPa (100–1,000 ppm) could retard lipid oxidation in β-carotene-linoleate and lecithin-liposome model systems in a dose dependent manner. Peptides in both HA and HAPa with molecular weight of 513 Da and 1,484 Da possessed the strongest ABTS radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity, respectively. The amino acid profile of both HA and HAPa contained a high amount of hydrophobic amino acids (38.26–38.85 %) and had glutamic acid/glutamine, lysine and aspartic acid/asparagine as the dominant amino acids. However, HAPa showed a higher acceptability than did HA, owing to the lower bitterness. Therefore, the use of Alcalase in combination with papain for hydrolysis of protein isolate rendered the hydrolysate with antioxidant properties and reduced bitterness, which could serve as the functional supplement. © 2014, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

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