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Ngai E.Y.,Chemically Speaking LLC | Fuhrhop R.,Praxair Inc. | Chen J.-R.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology | Chao J.,Factory Mutual Research Corporation | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2014

In early 2011, the G-13 Silane Modeling Task Force of the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) proposed a series of tests to better define pyrophoric behavior during unintentional, large-scale releases of silane. The tests were conducted in two phases under the direction of CGA and its guidelines. Phase I took place from June 27 to June 30, 2011, focusing primarily on thermal radiation and the heat transfer from flame impingement due to silane release from a fully open pressure relief device (PRD) on a tonner. Phase II took place on June 19 and 20, 2012, focusing on thermal radiation and explosion overpressure. The results were subsequently utilized to revise CGA G-13 guidelines on the safe handling of silane. In the present two-part papers, the results from the tests are summarized in order to highlight the key findings. The first part of summary described the results of the flame impingement and thermal radiation tests. Three different test series were conducted, including shakedown tests using nitrogen instead of silane, silane flame-impingement tests onto an adjacent target tonner, and heat-flux tests. For comparison with known values in the published literature, thermal radiation of ethylene flame jets was also measured. In addition, metallurgical analyses of the target tonner indicated that the metallurgical properties of the cylinder material were not altered by the flame impingement. The steel surface temperature at the point of impingement was estimated to be below 853.15K and definitely did not exceed 950.15K. Thus, the combination of internal pressure and vessel metal temperature was unlikely to exceed the rupture pressure of the ton cylinder. © 2014.


Ngai E.Y.,Chemically Speaking LLC | Fuhrhop R.,Praxair Inc. | Chen J.-R.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology | Chao J.,Factory Mutual Research Corporation | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2014

A series of large-scale field trials to better understand the explosion characteristics of silane-air was conducted by the G-13 Silane Task Group under the direction of the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) and its guidelines. Silane was released from a high-pressure source into the open atmosphere, and overpressure measurements of unconfined silane-air explosions were taken at different locations away from the explosion centre. It was found that significant blast effects can result from relatively small releases of silane (around 0.1. kg). It is possible to achieve these small releases during an accidental discharge from a “pigtail“ connection (a small-diameter coiled tube that connects a silane tube trailer to a process). Therefore, accidental silane explosions should be recognized as significant and possible events when handling silane. These results were also used in the proposed revision of ANSI/CGA G-13 Storage and Handling of Silane and Silane Mixtures. © 2014.


Chung K.,Matheson | Brabant P.,Matheson | Shinriki M.,Matheson | Hasaka S.,Matheson | And 3 more authors.
ECS Transactions | Year: 2012

In this paper, silicon gas-source depletion of silane, disilane, and a high-order silane, TF, is studied on oxide wafers. Two different growth mechanisms were discovered for TF. The faster mechanism depletes readily at temperatures as low as 525°C. The "slower" mechanism does not deplete even at temperatures as high as 600°C. This second growth mechanism has a growth rate as high as 13 nm/min at 550°C and 43 nm/min at 600°C under a chamber pressure 100 Torr. Two techniques, of reducing growth temperature and reducing growth pressure, are shown to suppress gas-source depletion. After the suppression of gas-source depletion, the faster mechanism exhibited a growth rate of 35 nm/min at 550°C and a chamber pressure of 10 torr. Due to the two different growth mechanisms of TF, uniform growth deposition can be achieved for both low and high pressures for temperatures up to 600°C. ©The Electrochemical Society.


He H.,IBM | Brabant P.,Matheson | Chung K.,Matheson | Shinriki M.,Matheson | And 5 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2012

Performance improvement of strained p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) via embedded SiGe (e-SiGe) is well established. Strain scaling of p-MOSFETs since 90 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor node has been accomplished by increasing Ge content in e-SiGe from nominally < 20% in 90 nm p-MOSFETs to > 35% Ge in 32 nm p-MOSFETs. Further strain enhancement for 22 nm and beyond p-MOSFETs is required due to disproportionate reduction in device area per generation caused by non-scaled gate length. Relaxation of SiGe with > 35% Ge during epitaxial growth and subsequent processing is a major concern. Specifically low temperature growth is required to achieve meta-stable pseudomorphic SiGe film with high Ge%. Currently, selective SiGe epitaxial film in reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD) epitaxy is grown with conventional Si gas precursors and co-flow etch using HCl at temperatures higher than 625 °C. At temperatures lower than 625°C in RPCVD epitaxy, however, HCl has negligible etch capability making selectivity difficult to achieve during epitaxial growth. Hence, cyclic deposit and etch epitaxial growth in conjunction with a low temperature etching chemistry is desirable to achieve selectivity at temperatures lower than 625°C. In this paper, we apply the above concept to achieve selective growth of high strain SiGe (> 35%) at 500°C on test patterns corresponding to 65 nm node. SiGe is grown non-selectively first at 500°C with high order of silane as Si source, and Germane as Ge source followed by an etching chemistry also at 500°C to achieve selectivity. In addition, the growth rate of SiGe epitaxial film and the Ge concentration in the deposited epitaxial film were studied as a function of Si precursor flow; the effect of HCl introduction on Ge concentration and film growth rate was discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shinriki M.,Matheson | Chung K.,Matheson | Hasaka S.,Matheson | Brabant P.,Matheson | And 3 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2012

Gas phase particle formation and elimination in silicon epitaxial layers grown on Si (100) substrates using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition at low temperatures (< 600°C) are investigated. High-order silane precursors (Si nH 2n + 2; n = 3, n > 3) are useful for high growth rate epitaxy at low temperature. However, particulates are observed on the surface of the epitaxial layers grown with high-order silanes. These particulates are attributed to gas phase particles. As atomically smooth epitaxial films are desired, the elimination of gas phase particles is required. Cyclical deposition and etch process and/or low pressure deposition enables atomically smooth SiCP epitaxial films with a high-order silane. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Marone M.,MATHESON | Geib R.,MATHESON
Reading for the R and D Community | Year: 2011

The proper equipment and procedures ensure optimal gas system performance. The first consideration for evaluating gas delivery systems and components is the hazardous nature of the gas service and the safe handling of this gas. The purpose of a gas cabinet in such a system is to confine and control a gas hazard within the cabinet while preserving the safety of the working environment outside of the cabinet. Purity requirements of the intended gas service are divided into three categories, such as general purpose, high purity, and ultra high purity. Lower purity gases and economy-grade regulators and other equipment are unsuitable for laboratory use. Material compatibility with the intended gas service is important when selecting regulators, while pressure service is another critical factor involved in regulator selection.


Marone M.,MATHESON | Geib R.,MATHESON
American Laboratory | Year: 2011

In any laboratory or production setting, there are numerous circumstances that can lead to an unsafe condition, resulting in injury or even loss of life. There is, of course, no substitute for the "human factor"-personal preparation, training, and vigilance. However, safety equipment is designed to add mechanization and automation to safety programs. Careful attention to gases, applications, and equipment choices will help to ensure safe gas delivery to the point of use.


Marone M.,MATHESON | Geib R.,MATHESON
American Laboratory | Year: 2011

Suppliers of compressed gases go out of their way to deliver gas products that meet customer requirements for purity, mixture accuracy, and other specifi cations. Most gases are delivered in conventional high-pressure cylinders, while other gas products are delivered in bulk or small bulk containers and dewars. Whatever the means of delivery and storage, these gases are handled, regulated, and distributed by the user. In the process, the gases are exposed to different equipment and systems that can either maintain or degrade gas purity. This article discusses materials of construction, selection criteria, general precautions, and other issues pertaining to gas pressure regulators.


News Article | November 16, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.com

SACRAMENTO, Calif., Nov. 16, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Matheson Trucking, Inc. has been named as having one of the Top 50 Green Fleets in the nation for 2016 by Heavy Duty Trucking (HDT) magazine, an award recognizing trucking companies that are leading the industry in the adoption of green,...

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