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Guerrero L.,IRTA Monells | Claret A.,IRTA Monells | Verbeke W.,Ghent University | Vanhonacker F.,Ghent University | And 4 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2012

Traditional food products (TFPs) are an important element of human culture, identity and heritage. However, their production still relies on traditional manufacturing practices, often with low competitiveness, efficiency and R&D investment. The introduction of innovations could help producers to increase the market share of TFP, although some innovations could have a negative impact on their traditional character and image. The objective of this study was to understand the meaning of the concepts "Traditional" and "Innovation" in a cross-cultural context by means of a sorting task. The study was done in four regions of four European countries (Belgium, France, Norway and Spain). A total of 476 participants performed a sorting task with 13 different key words written on cards (one word per card), including the words "Traditional" and "Innovation" An additional affective evaluation was carried out by each participant by assessing how they perceived each key word in a food context. The sorting task proved to be an efficient method to conceptualize the words "Traditional" and "Innovation" from a consumer perspective. The affective test complemented the sorting task and helped to better understand the groups obtained. A noticeable incompatibility between the two concepts, "Traditional" and "Innovation" was detected as well as the relative unhealthy character of some traditional food products. The information provided in this study may help producers of TFP to improve the image of this category of foods and to implement potentially successful innovations in the European traditional food sector. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Heggen E.,University of Oslo | Granlund L.,Mills DA | Pedersen J.I.,University of Oslo | Holme I.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Background and aims: Data comparing the impact of different sources of plant sterols on CVD risk factors and antioxidant levels is scarce. We evaluated the effects of plant sterols from rapeseed and tall oils on serum lipids, lipoproteins, fat-soluble vitamins and plant sterol concentrations. Methods and results: This was a double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial in which 59 hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed 25 g/day of margarine for 4 weeks separated by 1 week washout periods. The two experimental margarines provided 2 g/day of plant sterols from rapeseed or tall oil. The control margarine had no added plant sterols. The control margarine reduced LDL cholesterol by 4.5% (95% CI 1.4, 7.6%). The tall and rapeseed sterol margarines additionally reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.0% (95% CI 5.5, 12.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 5.2, 11.4%) and apolipoprotein B by 5.3% (95% CI 1.0, 9.6%) and 6.9% (95% CI 3.6, 10.2%), respectively. Lipid-adjusted β-carotene concentrations were reduced by both sterol margarines (P < 0.017). α-Tocopherol concentrations were reduced by the tall sterol compared to the rapeseed sterol margarine (P = 0.001). Campesterol concentrations increased more markedly with the rapeseed sterol versus tall sterol margarine (P < 0.001). The rapeseed sterol margarine increased while the tall sterol margarine decreased brassicasterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Plant sterols from tall and rapeseed oils reduce atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins similarly. The rapeseed sterol margarine may have more favorable effects on serum α-tocopherol concentrations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Iceland, MATFORSK AS, Alpha Mos and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

Volatile compounds in cold smoked salmon products were identified by gas chromatography to study their suitability for rapid detection as indicators to predict sensory quality evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. Smoked salmon odour contributed by guaiacol, boiled potato- and mushroom-like odours characteristic for fish lipid degradation and sweet odours associated with the microbial metabolites 3-methyl-butanal and 3-hydroxybutanone were the most intense odours. Other key volatiles were present in high levels but contributed less to the odours. These included furan-like compounds originating from the smoking, spoilage compounds like ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-butanone, and acetic acid along with oxidatively derived compounds like 1-penten-3-ol, hexanal, nonanal and decanal. Partial least square regression models based on data from storage studies of cold smoked salmon from Iceland and Norway verified that selected key volatile compounds performed better as predictors to explain variation in sensory attributes (smoked, sweet/sour rancid and off odour and flavour) than traditional chemical and microbial variables.

Resano H.,Ghent University | Perez-Cueto F.J.A.,Ghent University | de Barcellos M.D.,University of Aarhus | de Barcellos M.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2011

This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume, with adequate promotion of its healthfulness, and with a good price/quality relationship appears to be the key factor to satisfy pork consumers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Vanhonacker F.,Ghent University | Lengard V.,Matforsk AS | Hersleth M.,Matforsk AS | Verbeke W.,Ghent University
British Food Journal | Year: 2010

Purpose: The paper seeks to provide a picture of the profile of European traditional food consumers (TFC) in terms of their socio-demographics, attitudes, life-style orientations and behavioural characteristics. Design/methodology/approach: Cross-sectional data were collected through a pan-European consumer survey (n = 4,828) conducted in November and December 2007, with samples representative for gender, age and region, collected from six European countries: Spain, Italy, France, Belgium, Poland and Norway. First, information about the consumption of traditional food and the image of a typical TFC was provided through descriptive analysis. Next, the actual characteristics of TFC were assessed using partial least squares regression and these were discussed in the context of the theory of self-image congruity. Findings: Traditional food consumption patterns are stronger in the south than in the north of Europe. TFC across Europe are typically middle-aged to elderly, health-conscious, ethnocentric, food connoisseurs, who are attached to familiarity in their food choices and who very much enjoy cooking. Practical implications: The information about the profile, the image and the actual characteristics of TFC has practical implications for marketing and communicating about traditional foods, including their identification, differentiation, research and development and positioning in the European food market. Originality/value: Traditional food is currently undergoing a revival, with increased sales, consumer and regulatory interest. This paper provides cross-cultural results from a large pan-European consumer sample that provides highly relevant and useful information about the market potentials of the traditional food industry, which mostly consists of small-and medium-sized enterprises. The application of the self-image congruity theory to validate the results contributes to the originality of the paper. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Torri L.,University of Gastronomic Sciences | Dinnella C.,University of Florence | Recchia A.,University of Florence | Naes T.,Matforsk AS | And 3 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

The perceptions of differences in the aroma of high quality Italian red wines were compared in experts and consumers by Projective Mapping. Quality and typicality assessments from experts, and liking ratings from consumers, were collected on the same wine set. The sensory profiles of the wines were described by a panel of trained subjects. The results suggest that product separation by experts was mainly based on the perceived overall quality rather than on specific sensory differences. Product differentiation by consumers was poor and worse than that of experts and trained subjects. Consumers' internal preference map showed a good sample separation based on liking data and allowed the identification of the aroma attributes that drove their preferences. Results from consumer tests indicated that differences among samples based on liking data were more evident than those from Projective Mapping. An increased differentiation ability was observed for those consumers able to match the duplicate samples in the Projective Mapping test. In this group, sample differentiation based mainly on liking was observed. The socio-cognitive traits of these subjects highlighted their high level of wine knowledge.In general, the results indicate that Projective Mapping can be a valuable method for investigating the perceived similarities/dissimilarities among samples with subtle sensory differences when assessors share a high level of knowledge and experience about the product. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Matforsk AS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

The proteome is expressed from the genome, influenced by environmental and processing conditions, and can be seen as the molecular link between the genome and the functional quality characteristics of the meat. In contrast to traditional biochemical methods where one protein is studied at a time, several hundred proteins can be studied simultaneously. Proteomics is a promising and powerful tool in meat science and this is reflected by the increasing number of studies emerging in the literature using proteomics as the key tool to unleash the molecular mechanisms behind different genetic backgrounds or processing techniques of meat. Thus understanding the variations and different components of the proteome with regard to a certain meat quality or process parameter will lead to knowledge that can be used in optimising the conversion of muscles to meat. At present, there has been focus on development of techniques and mapping of proteomes according to genotypes and muscle types. In the future, focus should be more towards understanding and finding markers for meat quality traits. This review will focus on the methods used in the published proteome analyses of meat, with emphasis on the challenges related to statistical analysis of proteome data, and on the different topics of meat science that are investigated.

The aim of this study was to investigate how manipulation of glycolytic rate by post-mortem processing conditions influences quality of aged beef of two bovine muscles of different physiological character, longissimus dorsi (LD) and adductor (AD). Post-mortem glycolysis was manipulated by low-voltage electrical stimulation (LV-ES) of half carcasses and by chilling rate of the muscles. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to visualise the data, while ANOVA was used to identify significant effects and interactions. As expected there was a significant effect of LV-ES on the pH decline in the first hours post-mortem in both muscles. Moreover, significant effects of LV-ES on WB shear force measured 2 and 8 days after slaughter were observed for LD at both chilling temperatures, while for AD no effect on WB shear force was observed. Furthermore, the results revealed a large individual variation in the response of LV-ES on both pH decline and WB shear force, and this variation did not always correlate for the two responses. Some animals showed no response of LV-ES on pH decline, but still had an improved WB shear force, and vice versa. The results from this study indicate that there probably are other mechanisms than accelerated pH decline and prevention of cold-shortening, by which LV-ES can affect meat tenderness.

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