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Poets C.F.,University of Tubingen | Wallwiener D.,University of Tubingen | Vetter K.,Maternity Hospital
Deutsches Arzteblatt International | Year: 2012

Background: There is an increasing trend towards delivery before 39 weeks of gestational age. The short- and longterm effects of early delivery on the infant have only recently received scientific attention. Methods: Selective review of the literature Results: Delivery at any time before 39 weeks is associated with significantly higher infant mortality and with an increase of the risk of impairments after birth from 8% to 11%. The increase in risks of various kinds is disproportionately more pronounced the earlier the child is delivered. For example, the risk of needing respiratory support or artificial ventilation after birth increases from 0.3% with delivery at 39-41 weeks of gestational age to 1.4% at 37 weeks and 10% at 35 weeks, while the risk of death or neurological complications increases from 0.15% at 39-41 weeks of gestation to 0.66% at 35 weeks. Delivery at 34.0 to 36.6 weeks of gestation also has long-term effects. Compared to delivery at term, the frequency of cerebral palsy rises threefold, from 0.14% to 0.43%; the risk of death in early adulthood rises by about half, from 0.046 to 0.065%; and the risk of dependence on government benefits in early adulthood also rises by about half, from 1.7% to 2.5%. Conclusion: Studies from the USA have shown that the number of medically indicated deliveries before 39 weeks can be lowered by 70% to 80% through consistently applied measures for quality improvement. If similar results could be achieved in Germany, the iatrogenic complications of delivery would become less common in this country as well.

Korkmazer E.,Giresun University | Solak N.,Maternity Hospital
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2015

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of postpartum type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and systemic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate further lipid profile and inflammatory status assessed by high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and TNF-α in GDM. Based on oral glucose tolerance testing, participants were stratifi ed into three groups: normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT), normal 100 g glucose tolerance test (NOGTT) (control group) (n = 40); abnormal GCT NOGTT (glucose intolerance) (n = 37); and GDM (n = 39), defined by Carpenter and Coustan. The three groups did not demonstrate significantly different hsCRP levels (p = 0.4180) and lipid profile parameters, such as total cholesterol (p = 0.4210) and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.4440) levels. Triglycerides (p = 0.0150) and atherogenic index of the plasma levels (p = 0.0280) were slightly higher in the GDM group. But, TNF-α levels increased significantly in the GDM (p < 0 .0001) and in glucose intolerance (p = 0.0062) groups as compared with the control group. Among the metabolic syndrome components, insulin resistance was apparently associated with TNF-α, whereas dyslipidaemia was slightly associated with hsCRP because of the effects of maternal age on lipid markers. These findings suggest that TNF-α has a stronger correlation with pregnancy-associated insulin resistance than hsCRP at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Gai L.,China Institute of Technology | Zhang J.,Shandong University | Zhang H.,China Institute of Technology | Gai P.,Shandong Provincial Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Contraception | Year: 2011

Background: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as a hormonal contraceptive is highly effective and widely used, but it may reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and increase the risk of osteoporosis. We compared BMD between users of intramuscular DMPA and nonhormonal subjects and evaluated the changes in BMD after discontinuation of DMPA. Study Design: The study included 68 women aged between 25 and 40 years using DMPA for 24 months and 59 women aged between 25 and 40 years using nonhormonal contraception as nonusers of hormonal contraception. Sixty-one women in the DMPA group and 52 women in the nonusers of hormonal contraception group completed the 2-year post-treatment periods. BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured every 12 months for 48 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, comparing mean BMD changes in DMPA users and discontinuers with nonusers. Results: At 24 months of treatment, as compared to baseline, the mean BMD of DMPA users in lumbar spine and femoral neck decreased by 5.52% and 6.35%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in women who used DMPA significantly decreased compared to the nonusers (p<.001). At 24 months after DMPA discontinuation, the mean BMD values in DMPA users increased significantly. Although the values of the lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in DMPA users were still 1.08% and 2.30%, respectively, below their baseline values, there were no significant difference when compared to nonusers (p>.05). Conclusion: These results show that BMD declined during use of DMPA in women aged 25 to 40 years. Bone loss occurring with DMPA use is reversible after DMPA discontinuation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Plavk R.,General Faculty Hospital | Simeoni U.,Assistance Publique | Stranak Z.,Maternity Hospital | Mosca F.,University of Milan | And 5 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: Early surfactant followed by extubation to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) compared with later surfactant and mechanical ventilation (MV) reduce the need for MV, air leaks, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This randomized, controlled trial investigated whether prophylactic surfactant followed by nCPAP compared with early nCPAP application with early selective surfactant would reduce the need for MV in the first 5 days of life. METHODS: A total of 208 inborn infants who were born at 25 to 28 weeks' gestation and were not intubated at birth were randomly assigned to prophylactic surfactant or nCPAP within 30 minutes of birth. Outcomes were assessed within the first 5 days of life and until death or discharge of the infants from hospital. RESULTS: Thirty-three (31.4%) infants in the prophylactic surfactant group needed MV in the first 5 days of life compared with 34 (33.0%) in the nCPAP group (risk ratio: 0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.64-1.41]; P = .80). Death and type of survival at 28 days of life and 36 weeks' postmenstrual age and incidence of main morbidities of prematurity (secondary outcomes) were similar in the 2 groups. A total of 78.1% of infants in the prophylactic surfactant group and 78.6% in the nCPAP group survived in room air at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic surfactant was not superior to nCPAP and early selective surfactant in decreasing the need for MV in the first 5 days of life and the incidence of main morbidities of prematurity in spontaneously breathing very preterm infants on nCPAP. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Mogra R.,University of Sydney | Alabbad N.,Maternity Hospital | Hyett J.,University of Sydney
Early Human Development | Year: 2012

Sonographic assessment of fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is the cornerstone of screening for chromosomal abnormality at 11-13+6weeks gestation. This marker was first recognized in pregnancies being karyotyped for advanced maternal age, but its underlying pathophysiology remains to be fully determined. Although increased NT is clearly associated with changes in both lymphatic and cardiac development, neither is an obvious causative agent. The association with cardiac defects has now being subjected to a significant amount of research, with a large body of evidence showing that this marker is also a screening tool for major cardiac defects - although it performs more modestly than for chromosomal abnormality. The field continues to change rapidly. Recent evidence that uses a combination of increased NT, tricuspid regurgitation and abnormal flow in the 'a' wave of the ductus venosus can provide an effective screening strategy to predict many major cardiac defects at this early stage of pregnancy. © 2012.

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