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Lechner E.,Childrens and Maternity Hospital | Hofer A.,General Hospital | Leitner-Peneder G.,Childrens and Maternity Hospital | Freynschlag R.,General Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Low cardiac output syndrome commonly complicates the postoperative course after open-heart surgery in children. To prevent low cardiac output syndrome, prophylactic administration of milrinone after cardiopulmonary bypass is commonly used in small children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of prophylactically administered levosimendan and milrinone on cardiac index in neonates and infants after corrective open-heart surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, double-blind, randomized pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary care center, postoperative pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. PATIENTS: After written informed consent, 40 infants undergoing corrective open-heart surgery were included. INTERVENTIONS: At weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, either a 24-hr infusion of 0.1 μg/kg/min levosimendan or of 0.5 μg/kg/min milrinone were administered. Cardiac output was evaluated at 2, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48 hrs after cardiopulmonary bypass using a transesophageal Doppler technique (Cardio-QP, Deltex Medical, Chichester, UK). Cardiac index was calculated from cardiac output and the patients' respective body surface area. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat data of 39 patients (19 in the levosimendan and 20 in the milrinone group) were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measurements for statistics. Analysis of variance revealed for both, cardiac index and cardiac output, similar results with no significant differences of the factors group and time. A significant interaction for cardiac output (p = .005) and cardiac index (p = .007) was found, which indicates different time courses of cardiac index in the two groups. Both drugs were well tolerated; no death or serious adverse event occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In our small study, postoperative cardiac index over time was similar in patients with prophylactically administered levosimendan and patients with prophylactically given milrinone. We observed an increase in cardiac output and cardiac index over time in the levosimendan group, whereas cardiac output and cardiac index remained stable in the milrinone group. This pilot study has primarily served to obtain experience using the new drug levosimendan in neonates and infants and to initiate further multicenter trials in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2012 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies.


Lechner E.,Childrens and Maternity Hospital | Weissensteiner M.,Childrens and Maternity Hospital | Wagner O.,Childrens and Maternity Hospital | Schreier-Lechner E.,Childrens and Maternity Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives: B-type natriuretic peptides have been shown to enable differentiation between heart and lung diseases in adults and children. In neonates, the role of natriuretic peptides for diagnosis of congenital heart defect (CHD) is not yet ascertained. The purpose of this single-center prospective study was to investigate aminoterminal B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations and their time courses during the first 5 days of life in neonates with CHD compared with neonates with respiratory distress. Design: Single-center prospective study. Setting: Tertiary-care neonatal ICU. Patients: Aminoterminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels of 40 neonates with arterial duct-dependent CHD and of 40 neonates with respiratory distress without CHD were analyzed on the first, second, third, and fifth day of life. Main results: Mean aminoterminal B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the CHD group were significantly higher on the second (14191 vs. 4872 pg/mL), third (17790 vs. 3524 pg/mL), and fifth day (17015 vs. 4044 pg/mL), but not on the first day of life. Repeated measurements analysis of variance revealed a significantly different time course of aminoterminal B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations between the two groups. Conclusions: On the first day of life, aminoterminal B-type natriuretic peptide cannot differentiate between CHD and respiratory distress without CHD in the neonate. From the second day onwards, aminoterminal B-type natriuretic peptide in neonates with CHD shows higher values and a different time course and enables differentiation between CHD and respiratory distress due to other than cardiac reasons. Copyright © 2013 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies.


PubMed | Childrens and Maternity Hospital
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies | Year: 2012

Low cardiac output syndrome commonly complicates the postoperative course after open-heart surgery in children. To prevent low cardiac output syndrome, prophylactic administration of milrinone after cardiopulmonary bypass is commonly used in small children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of prophylactically administered levosimendan and milrinone on cardiac index in neonates and infants after corrective open-heart surgery.Prospective, single-center, double-blind, randomized pilot study.Tertiary care center, postoperative pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.After written informed consent, 40 infants undergoing corrective open-heart surgery were included.At weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, either a 24-hr infusion of 0.1 g/kg/min levosimendan or of 0.5 g/kg/min milrinone were administered. Cardiac output was evaluated at 2, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48 hrs after cardiopulmonary bypass using a transesophageal Doppler technique (Cardio-QP, Deltex Medical, Chichester, UK). Cardiac index was calculated from cardiac output and the patients respective body surface area.Intention-to-treat data of 39 patients (19 in the levosimendan and 20 in the milrinone group) were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measurements for statistics. Analysis of variance revealed for both, cardiac index and cardiac output, similar results with no significant differences of the factors group and time. A significant interaction for cardiac output (p = .005) and cardiac index (p = .007) was found, which indicates different time courses of cardiac index in the two groups. Both drugs were well tolerated; no death or serious adverse event occurred.In our small study, postoperative cardiac index over time was similar in patients with prophylactically administered levosimendan and patients with prophylactically given milrinone. We observed an increase in cardiac output and cardiac index over time in the levosimendan group, whereas cardiac output and cardiac index remained stable in the milrinone group. This pilot study has primarily served to obtain experience using the new drug levosimendan in neonates and infants and to initiate further multicenter trials in pediatric patients.

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