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Fan Y.F.,Maternal and Child Health Hospital
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2010

To study the relationship of bodyweight gain and the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy, and analyze the effect of the nutritional therapy on the outcome of GDM. We collected 265 pregnant women who were diagnosed to be GDM and 571 pregnant women as the control group in the Xiamen Maternal and Child Health Hospital during 2007 - 2009. The general information of the subjects were collected. The bodyweight of the subjects were measured before the 20(th) week of pregnancy, 26 - 27(th) week (mid-gestation), 35 - 36(th) week (late-gestation) of pregnancy and prior to delivery. The bodyweight gain of different pregnancy weeks of the two groups and the effect of bodyweight on GMD occurrence before 28(th) week of pregnancy were analyzed by ages (< 25, 25-, 30-, ≥ 35). Meanwhile, we prescribed the nutrition therapy to the GDM pregnant woman and the effect of the blood sugar control on the outcome of the pregnancy were evaluated. The bodyweight gain of 25-, 30-, older than 35 year-old subjects of the GDM group were (16.9 ± 6.3), (16.8 ± 6.1), (16.5 ± 6.0) kg, respectively, the bodyweight gain of the control group were (13.9 ± 3.0), (13.8 ± 2.7), (13.3 ± 2.7) kg (t = 6.259, 5.885, 3.533, respectively, all P values < 0.05). During the 20(th) to 27(th) week of the pregnancy, the bodyweight gain of the subjects younger than 25, 25-, 30-year-old in GDM group were (5.2 ± 1.0), (5.4 ± 1.7), (4.8 ± 1.3) kg, respectively, the bodyweight gain of the control group were (3.3 ± 1.3), (3.7 ± 1.6) and (3.5 ± 0.7) kg (t = 5.026, 9.659, 11.19, respectively, all P values < 0.05). During the period between 26(th) to 36(th) week, the bodyweight gain of subjects older than 35 year-old in GDP group was (3.6 ± 2.0) kg which was less than the control group ((4.0 ± 0.9) kg, t = -2.449, P < 0.05). 41.22% (54/131) and 44.94% (40/89) of 25-, 30-year-old subjects in GDM group showed bodyweight gain more than 13 kg, but 30.04% (76/253) and 26.07% (55/211) in the control group (OR values were 1.633 and 2.315, both P values < 0.05). The rate of the abnormal birth weight of the GDM group with blood sugar controlled and the control group were 6.6% (12/182) and 9.4% (54/571) which was lower than the GDP group with blood sugar control failure (20.5% (17/83)) (χ(2) values were 11.460, 9.119, respectively, both P values < 0.0125). The rate of premature delivery was 21.7%(18/83), higher than the control group (10.8%, 62/571) (χ(2) = 7.945, P < 0.0125). The rate of the cesarean in the control group was 25.4%(145/571) which was lower than the two GDM groups, including the group which the blood sugar was well controlled (46.7%, 85/182) and not well controlled (65.0%, 54/83) (χ(2) values were 29.540, 53.860, respectively, both P values < 0.0125). The bodyweight gain in the mid-gestation could affect the occurrence of GDM. The bodyweight gain should be less than 13 kg before 28(th) week of the pregnancy whose age was 25-year-old. Nutritional therapy and blood sugar control in GDM pregnant women could improve the pregnancy outcome. Source

Al Serouri A.W.,Sanaa University | Al Rukeimi A.,Sanaa University | Bin Afif M.,Maternal and Child Health Hospital | Al Zoberi A.,Community Participation Directorate | And 3 more authors.
Reproductive Health Matters | Year: 2012

Recent reviews suggest that it is unlikely Yemen will reach Millennium Development Goal 5 on maternal health by 2015. We conducted a needs assessment in 2010 to identify the human resources constraints in delivery of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC), in one urban and three under-served rural governorates. The assessment tools were adapted from the UN Guidelines for Monitoring Availability and Use of EmONC. Findings showed that while the urban governorate (total population 666,210 with 26,648 expectant mothers yearly) had 54 obstetricians, 10 anaesthetists and 72 paediatricians, the three rural governorates (total population 1,885,371 with 75,414 expectant mothers yearly) together had only three obstetricians, three anaesthetists, and eight paediatricians. Furthermore, in the rural governorates, with an 0.5% caesarean section rate, which is far below the 5% minimum for this UN indicator, no district hospital had an operating surgeon or an anaesthetist. There was also a marked scarcity of female general physicians and a large disparity in the proportion of births with a skilled attendant between the rural (12%) and urban (34%) governorates. Findings emphasize the need for increasing the coverage of EmONC nationally, but especially in rural areas, through more equitable staff distribution and promotion of task shifting. Developing a national human resources plan and ensuring an enabling policy are prerequisites. © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Source

Zhang Y.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhao W.,Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy | Jiang Y.,Maternal and Child Health Hospital | Zhang R.,Nanjing Medical University | And 9 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2011

This study compared the ultrastructural differences of term placentae from human pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) with term placentae from spontaneous human pregnancies. Term placentae were taken from women who had undergone an ART procedure (n = 8) and matched with term placentae from women who had had a spontaneous pregnancy (controls, n = 15). Using light microscopy (LM) and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), terminal villi were evaluated with respect to the placental blood barrier, fetal capillaries, villous stroma, as well as cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (ST) along with their substructures. No obvious differences were found between the ARTderived and control placentae when LM was used. With TEM, however, differences in the ultrastructural features were seen in the ART-derived placentae, specifically degenerative alterations of the terminal villi, mainly in ST, including a thicker placental barrier, decreased apical microvilli, and increased multiple vacuoles. The results demonstrate that some ultrastructural differences exist between ART-derived and control placentae with respect to the placental blood barrier, which may suggest maternofetal traffic downregulation following ART treatment. Further studies are required to understand the ultrastructural changes and their potential functional aspects in ART pregnancies. © 2011 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc. Source

Qin Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Zhao H.,Shandong University of Technology | Xu J.,Fudan University | Shi Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 11 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a complex heritable disorder known to be caused by chromosomal abnormalities and to date a limited number of known mutations, often autosomal. We sought to identify additional genetic loci associated with POF by performing the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS). GWAS, using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 chip, was conducted in an initial discovery set of 391 well-documented (follicle-stimulating hormone >40 IU/ml) Chinese Han POF patients, compared with 895 unrelated Chinese female controls. A replication study on the most significant loci was then performed in an independent set of 400 cases and 800 controls. Suggestive significant associations were observed at 8q22.3. Replication of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10464815, rs10808365, rs3847152, rs3847153, rs3847154, rs3843552, rs10955242, rs3843555) (P ≤ 3.86 × 10 -6) was confirmed in verification sets. No specific candidate gene was found in the immediate region of 8q22.3. This GWAS, involving by far the largest sample of POF cases accumulated to date, revealed heretofore unrecognized association between POF and a novel genetic locus or region of unknown nature on 8q22.3. We speculate existence of a long-distance regulatory region that has relevance to the control of ovarian differentiation or oogenesis. Given failure to find association with any of the other autosomal regions known to harbor genes causing ovarian failure, our findings also underscore the likelihood of considerable genetic and etiologic heterogeneity in POF and the need for additional approaches like whole-genome sequencing. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Xie D.,Maternal and Child Health Hospital | Nie G.,Peking University
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2012

Objective: China has been concerned about the serious problem of drinking and driving road crashes, and it has made good progress by establishing strict laws, imposing serious penalties, and initiating a rigorous enforcement program since 2008. This study has assessed the magnitude and nature of the problem and reviewed the legislation, current practices, and institutional capacities for preventing drinking and driving.Methods: Data and information were collected using existing reports and by consulting officials and experts from a number of agencies.Results: Although there were no national statistics on levels of drinking and driving, random breath test surveys in 2 southern cities showed that between 4.5 and 4.6 percent of drivers were driving over the minimum legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit of 20 mg/100 mL. Preliminary results from crash data also showed that at least 20 percent of serious road crashes were alcohol related in these cities. The national published figure for fatal crashes caused by drinking and driving was much lower, only 4 percent, but alcohol was not often identified as the main cause because of measurement difficulties. China's legislation sets 2 BAC limits that are comparable with international norms. It has recently increased the penalties for drunk driving, the more serious of the 2 offenses, with a minimum driving ban of 5 years. The police are actively enforcing the laws through frequent roadside checking but they need more resources. Alcohol breath tests before and after a combined publicity and enforcement campaign indicated reductions of 87 and 68 percent of drivers over the legal limit in 2 southern cities.Conclusions: China has made progress in strengthening its approach to preventing drinking and driving, particularly in the area of law enforcement. However, it is not possible to evaluate the potential benefits because of data issues. Recommendations for the future include the need to improve the national road crash and injury database, strengthen the coordination of key agencies, and provide more effective and sustained public information campaigns that target vulnerable drivers and are integrated with enforcement strategies. Evaluation and research are important to improve future prevention programs. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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