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Paynter J.M.,AEIOU Foundation | Paynter J.M.,Materials Research Institute UQ | Keen D.,Griffith University
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Year: 2015

This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use of EBPs compared to emerging and unsupported practices. Knowledge and use of EBPs were linked to each other independent of significant correlations with organisational culture and attitudes. Knowledge and use of EBPs was greater in metropolitan than regional locations and paraprofessionals reported greater use of unsupported practices and lower levels of knowledge and use of EBPs than professionals. The implications of these findings for the facilitation of knowledge transfer are discussed. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Venkatesh B.,University of Queensland | Pilcher D.,Alfred Hospital | Pilcher D.,Center for Outcome and Resource Evaluation | Prins J.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Background: Over the last two decades, there have been several improvements in the management of diabetes. Whether this has impacted on the epidemiology and outcome of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission is unknown. Method: This was a retrospective study of 8533 patients with the diagnosis of DKA admitted to 171 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand between 2000-2013 with separate independent analysis of those on established insulin (Group I) or not on insulin (Group NI) at the time of hospitalisation. Results: Of the 8553 patients, 2344 (27 %) were identified as NI. The incidence of ICU admission with DKA progressively increased fivefold from 0.97/100,000 (95 % CI 0.84-1.10) in 2000 to 5.3/100,000 (95 % CI 4.98-5.53) in 2013 (P < 0.0001), with the proportions between I and NI remaining stable. Rising incidences were observed mainly in rural and metropolitan hospitals (P < 0.01). In the first 24 hours in the ICU, mean worst pH increased over the study period from 7.20 ± 0.02 to 7.24 ± 0.01 (P < 0.0001), and mean lowest plasma bicarbonate from 12.1 ± 6.6 to 13.8 ± 6.6 mmol/L (P < 0.0001). In contrast, mean highest plasma glucose decreased from 26.3 ± 14 to 23.2 ± 13.1 mmol/L (P < 0.0001). Hospital mortality was significantly greater in NI as compared to I (2.4 % vs 1.1 %, P > 0.0001). Elevated plasma urea in the first 24 hours (≥25 mmol/L, adjusted odds ratio 20.6 (6.54-65.7), P < 0.0001) was the strongest individual predictor of mortality. Conclusions: The incidence of ICU admission of patients with DKA in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold over the last decade, with a significant proportion of patients not on insulin at presentation. Overall physiological status in the first 24 hours of ICU admission has progressively improved and mortality rates have remained stable. However, DKA patients not on established insulin therapy at presentation had significantly worse outcomes. This notion has epidemiologic, diagnostic and management implications. © 2015 Venkatesh et al. Source


Paynter J.M.,AEIOU Foundation | Riley E.P.,AEIOU Foundation | Beamish W.,Griffith University | Scott J.G.,University of Queensland | Heussler H.S.,Materials Research Institute UQ
International Journal of Special Education | Year: 2015

There is a relative paucity of evidence examining the effectiveness of early intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in particular those delivered through educationally-based programmes. This study aimed to evaluate the real world effectiveness of a community-based autism-specific early learning and intervention programme in Australia. Children enrolled between February 2010 and May 2013 who had a diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder was eligible to participate in the study. Fifty-nine children with a mean age of 3.98 years participated. Cognitive ability, language, autistic symptoms, and motor skills were assessed at baseline and follow up (12 months or at programme exit) using standardised measures. Pre- and post-measures were compared using paired sample t-tests. Significant improvements were found in receptive and expressive language, autism symptoms, and overall adaptive behaviour. No significant change was found in motor skills. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder attending the community-based programme had significant gains particularly in domains of cognition and language. Study limitations are discussed. © 2015, International Journal of Special Education. All rights reserved. Source


Raggatt L.J.,University of Queensland | Wullschleger M.E.,University of Queensland | Alexander K.A.,University of Queensland | Alexander K.A.,Queensland Institute for Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

The distribution, phenotype, and requirement of macrophages for fracture-associated inflammation and/or early anabolic progression during endochondral callus formation were investigated. A murine femoral fracture model [internally fixed using a flexible plate (MouseFix)] was used to facilitate reproducible fracture reduction. IHC demonstrated that inflammatory macrophages (F4/80+Mac-2+) were localized with initiating chondrification centers and persisted within granulation tissue at the expanding soft callus front. They were also associated with key events during soft-to-hard callus transition. Resident macrophages (F4/80+Mac-2neg), including osteal macrophages, predominated in the maturing hard callus. Macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis transgenic mice were used to induce macrophage depletion in vivo in the femoral fracture model. Callus formation was completely abolished when macrophage depletion was initiated at the time of surgery and was significantly reduced when depletion was delayed to coincide with initiation of early anabolic phase. Treatment initiating 5 days after fracture with the pro-macrophage cytokine colony stimulating factor-1 significantly enhanced soft callus formation. The data support that inflammatory macrophages were required for initiation of fracture repair, whereas both inflammatory and resident macrophages promoted anabolic mechanisms during endochondral callus formation. Overall, macrophages make substantive and prolonged contributions to fracture healing and can be targeted as a therapeutic approach for enhancing repair mechanisms. Thus, macrophages represent a viable target for the development of pro-anabolic fracture treatments with a potentially broad therapeutic window. © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Kildea S.,University of Queensland | Kildea S.,Materials Research Institute UQ | Gao Y.,University of Queensland | Gao Y.,Materials Research Institute UQ | And 11 more authors.
Midwifery | Year: 2016

Objective: to compare the quality of care before and after the introduction of the new Midwifery Group Practice. Design: a cohort study. Setting: the health centers (HCs) in two of the largest remote Aboriginal communities (population 2200-2600) in the Top End of the Northern Territory (NT), each located approximately 500 km from Darwin. The third study site was the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) which provides tertiary care. Methods: a 2004-06 retrospective cohort (n=412 maternity cases) provided baseline data. A clinical redesign of maternity services occurring from 2009 onwards focused on increasing Continuity of Carer, Communication, Choice, Collaboration and Co-ordination of Care (5Cs). Data from a 2009-11 prospective cohort (n=310 maternity cases) were collected to evaluate the service redesign. Outcome measures included indicators on the quality of care delivery, adherence to recommended antenatal guidelines and maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Findings: statistically significant improvements were recorded in many areas reflecting improved access to, and quality of, care. For example: fewer women had <4 visits in pregnancy (14% versus 8%), a higher proportion of women had routine antenatal tests recorded (86% versus 97%) and improved screening rates for urine (82% versus 87%) and sexual tract infections (78% versus 93%). However, the treatment of conditions according to recommended guidelines worsened significantly in some areas; for example antibiotics prescribed for urine infections (86% versus 52%) and treatment for anaemia in pregnancy (77% versus 67%). High preterm (21% versus 20%), low birth weight (18% versus 20%) and PPH (29% versus 31%) rates did not change over time. The out of hospital birth rate remained high and unchanged in both cohorts (10% versus 10%). Conclusion: this model addresses some of the disparities in care for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women. However, much work still needs to occur before maternity care and outcomes are equal to that of non-Aboriginal women. Targeted program interventions with stronger clinical governance frameworks to improve the quality of care are essential. A complete rethink of service delivery and engagement may deliver better results. © 2016. Source

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