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Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 118.91K | Year: 2015

As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), is critical for turbine hot-section static and rotating components. Such advanced materials have demonstrated the promise to significantly increase the engine temperature capability relative to conventional super alloy metallic blades. They also show the potential to enable longer life, reduced emissions, growth margin, reduced weight and increased performance relative to super alloy blade materials. MR&D is proposing to perform a combined analytical and experimental program to develop a durability model for CMC Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBC). EBCs are required for CMCs in turbine exhaust environments because of the presence of high temperature water. The EBC protects the CMC and significantly slows recession. However, the durability of these materials is not well understood making life prediction very challenging. This program will be the first step in developing a tool to accurately evaluate the life of the EBC for a CMC turbine blade helping to facilitate their inclusion in future engine designs. This will be done by developing a custom, user defined element formulation for finite element modeling to simulate the kinetic reactions of the EBC with the turbine exhaust. It will be built on the back of earlier work developing such an element to model the oxidation of carbon fiber in reentry environments.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.88K | Year: 2016

As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), is critical for turbine hot-section static and rotating components. Such advanced materials have demonstrated the promise to significantly increase the engine temperature capability relative to conventional super alloy metallic blades. They also show the potential to enable longer life, reduced emissions, growth margin, reduced weight and increased performance relative to super alloy blade materials. MR&D is proposing to perform a combined analytical and experimental program to develop a durability model for CMC Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBC). EBCs are required for CMCs in turbine exhaust environments because of the presence of high temperature water. The EBC protects the CMC and significantly slows recession. However, the durability of these materials is not well understood making life prediction very challenging. This program seeks to enhance the durability model developed in Phase I to accurately evaluate the life of the EBC for a CMC turbine blade helping to facilitate their inclusion in future engine designs. This goal will be accomplished by grounding the model with experimental tests, which will provide both fundamental properties of the EBC system and a realistic simulation of the engine environment. The engine simulation tests will provide a way for MR&D to validate the model.


Eyert V.,University of Augsburg | Eyert V.,Materials Research and Design, Inc.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

New calculations for vanadium dioxide, one of the most controversially discussed materials for decades, reveal that band theory as based on density functional theory is well capable of correctly describing the electronic and magnetic properties of the metallic as well as both the insulating M1 and M2 phases. Considerable progress in the understanding of the physics of VO2 is achieved by the use of the recently developed hybrid functionals, which include part of the electron-electron interaction exactly and thereby improve on the weaknesses of semilocal exchange functionals as provided by the local density and generalized gradient approximations. Much better agreement with photoemission data as compared to previous calculations is found and a consistent description of the rutile-type early transition-metal dioxides is achieved. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 125.00K | Year: 2016

Abstract


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 125.00K | Year: 2013

Based on the recent success of the Mars Exploration Program and the Mars Science Laboratory mission, NASA has a desire to expand on the technology developed under each effort in order to increase future mission capabilities, namely an increase in payload capacity for entry to Mars, Venus and other Outer-Planets. Such a goal requires an innovative solution to the vehicle's entry, decent and landing system (EDL). In order to address this goal,NASA has recently invested in the development of low ballistic coefficient aeroshell technology concepts which typically consist of a flexible 3D woven carbon cloth that can be stowed during flight and deployed to serve as a semi-rigid aeroshell on atmospheric entry. The ability of individual groups of fibers within yarn bundles to undulate in multiple orientations relative to the major axis of the yarn bundle results in full anisotropy for the 3D woven preforms. In addition to adding more complexity to the accompanying analytical models, the testing of such materials is also complicated as compared to isotropic and transversely orthotropic materials. Within the proposed Phase I effort, Materials Research & Design will develop test methods for the materials characterization of a hybrid, woven 3D fabric for use in a flexible TPS application. The program willinvolve analytical, fabrication and experimental tasks to achieve the overall program goal of maturing technologies for advanced EDL systems. A few select tests will be performed at Southern Research Institute with strain data being captured for use in the anisotropic compliance matrix calculations. Finite element simulations, using a homogeneous representation of the anisotropic material, will be used to simulate each test and aide in the design of test specimens sufficient to generate measurable strain levels while simultaneously allowing the anisotropic material to deform naturally.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.84K | Year: 2013

As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), is critical for turbine hot-section static and rotating components. Such advanced materials have demonstrated the promise to significantly increase the engine operating temperature relative to conventional super alloy metallic blades. They also show the potential to enable longer life, reduced emissions, growth margin, reduced weight and increased performance relative to super alloy blade materials.MR & D is proposing to perform a combined analytical, fabrication and experimental program to achieve the program objectives of developing innovative approaches to improving foreign object damage (FOD) resistance of CMC materials, specifically with Hyper-Therm High Temperature Ceramics's material system as this will be used by Rolls Royce for turbine engine hot-section components. MR & D will develop finite element math models of the CMC material specimens and the high velocity metal projectiles to simulate impact testing. The models will first be verified by reproducing experimental data measured on impacted baseline CMC specimens. Thereafter, candidate methods for potential improvement of the FOD resistance will be analytically investigated through mathematical simulations of impact tests.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.94K | Year: 2015

To address the need for low-ballistic coefficient aeroshells with minimal impact on vehicle weight, NASA is investigating flexible thermal protection system (TPS) options. These designs typically consist of a flexible three-directional (3D) woven carbon cloth that can be stowed during flight and deployed on command to serve as a semi-rigid aeroshell during atmospheric entry. For some planned entry trajectories, the woven TPS is subjected to short duration, but extremely high heat flux levels. Since current plans call for the use of as-received non-heat treated carbon fibers in the WTPS, MR&D aims to investigate whether exposure to high temperature, short duration temperatures alters the graphitic microstructure and thus the properties of PAN-based carbon fibers.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.52K | Year: 2014

The design concepts being considered for Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) rely on the use of 3D woven carbon fiber preforms. Therefore, there is a need to be able to predict the properties and performance of a woven material. Validation of predictive modeling tools would allow for the use of these tools to design and optimize the 3D weaves, significantly reducing the cost of fabrication and testing of a variety of configurations. While there are proven tools for the prediction of laminate composite properties, textile composites are relatively new materials and much less effort has been focused on modeling this class of materials. Therefore, MR&D is proposing to use the lessons learned from the Phase I effort, to improve the strength prediction capabilities, evaluate the effects of porosity and molding of curved panels, and deliver a beta version of a 3D weave design optimization tool. A combined analytical and experimental program has been proposed. The analytical effort involves modifying the current version of the 3D weave modeling tool, based on the lessons learned in the Phase I program, to include things such as unique bundle strengths for the different yarn types and improved failure criteria to improve the strength prediction capabilities. It also includes increasing the current capabilities to allow for estimating properties of 3D woven composites with varying levels of porosity or that have been molded into curved panels. The experimental effort involves fabrication and testing of various 3D woven reinforced composites (flat, curved, partially densified). The properties obtained from this experimental effort will enable improved calibration of the modeling tools. Finally, the final portion of the Phase II effort will focus on the preparation of a beta version of the 3D weave design optimization tool for delivery to NASA for use in heat shield design as well as other applications requiring the use of 3D woven preforms.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.36K | Year: 2014

As the power density of advanced engines increases, the need for new materials that are capable of higher operating temperatures, such as ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), is critical for turbine hot-section static and rotating components. Such advanced materials have demonstrated the promise to significantly increase the engine temperature capability relative to conventional super alloy metallic blades. They also show the potential to enable longer life, reduced emissions, growth margin, reduced weight and increased performance relative to super alloy blade materials. MR&D is proposed a program focused on improving the impact resistance of CMCs using 3D woven reinforcement. This approach was shown in the Phase I program to hold promise for increased performance is of specific interest to Rolls Royce as a candidate material for vanes and blades in their turbine engines. MR&D will expand the capability of its analysis tool which was developed during the Phase I program by incorporating failure criteria tailored for 3D woven preforms as well as executing analyses to predict the exact locations of the fiber tows after weaving. Along with impact testing, an expansive testing program to characterize multiple 3D fiber architectures will be executed. The impact testing and associated non-destructive evaluation will be conducted at the University of Akron using state-of-the-art techniques to record the damage caused by the projectile in real time as well as detailed post-test evaluation. Material characterization tests will be conducted at Southern Research Institute and The Ohio State University. All of the data resulting from this extensive test program will enhance the analytical tools accuracy and utility.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.59K | Year: 2016

Woven TPS (WTPS) is an attractive option for thermal protection because it allows for a design to be tailored to a specific mission ? material composition can be adjusted by weaving different fiber types together and controlling their placement using computer-controlled, automated, 3D weaving technology. NASA?s HEEET program is responsible for the development of WTPS, with the objective of enabling a broad range of missions. With complex material systems such as WTPS, there exists a need for in situ Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) capability designed to diagnose and report any degradation in the capability of the structure. The primary objective of the proposed effort is to leverage MR&D?s micromechanics-based Program Suite to interpret measured temperature and strain data derived from fiber optic sensors that are structurally integrated in a 3D woven composite panel. Specifically, measured strains at the constituent level will be used to compute a local stress state in several 3D woven composite test specimens under a variety of thermal and structural loads. Measured temperature data will dictate which temperature-dependent constituent material properties to use in the micromechanics model. The proposed research offers a software solution for providing a physics based interpretation of sensor data acquired at the constituent level of a 3D woven structure and computes an effective composite level response for the purposes of evaluating structural health in near real time.

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