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Anjos L.D.,State University Londrina | Collins C.D.,Colby College | Holt R.D.,University of Florida | Volpato G.H.,Federal University of Parana | And 6 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2011

Developing a predictive theory for species responses to habitat fragmentation is a large, complex challenge in conservation biology, and meeting this challenge likely requires tailoring predictions to specific habitats and taxa. We evaluate the effects of fragmentation on forest birds living in three distinct forest ecosystems found in Brazilian Atlantic forest: seasonal semi-deciduous forest (SF), mixed rain forest (MF), and dense rain forest (DF). We test the hypotheses that (1) bird species most prevalent in SF (relative to other habitat types) will be least vulnerable to population declines in fragmented SF, and (2) species with stronger affiliations with DF or MF will be relatively more sensitive to fragmentation in SF. Using an exploratory statistical technique called "Rank Occupancy-Abundance Profiles (ROAPs)," we compared distribution and abundance of birds among large "continuous" areas of each forest type, then compared abundances in continuous SF forests with patterns of abundance in small fragments of SF, where edge effects could play a marked role in population dynamics. Overall, 39 species showed substantially lower local abundance, occupancy, or both in SF fragments versus continuous SF. As predicted, a higher proportion of bird species associated with DF appeared sensitive to fragmentation in SF; by contrast, species most abundant in SF and MF were similarly abundant in fragmented SF. Our study demonstrates how quantifying distribution and abundance in diverse habitats may enhance managers' ability to incorporate species-specific responses to human disturbances in their conservation plans, and points out ways that even small reserves may have significant conservation value. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mauricio G.N.,Federal University of Pelotas | Belmonte-Lopes R.,Materials Natura Institute Estudos Ambientais | Pacheco J.F.,Comite Brasileiro de Registros Ornitologicos | Silveira L.F.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Auk | Year: 2014

An isolated population of tapaculos attributed to Scytalopus speluncae has been known from the mountains of southeastern Bahia state, Brazil, since the early 1990s, and a second isolated population was discovered in 1999. Morphological and bioacoustic analyses of 11 specimens and several tape recordings indicated that these populations represent a new species, in agreement with a previous molecular phylogenetic study. This species is unambiguously distinguished from its closest relatives by 4 suites of characters: (1) morphometrics-body proportions, (2) plumage color, (3) vocalizations, and (4) genetics. Using each of these character sets, separately or in combination, one can distinguish with 100% confidence the new species from its sister lineages. The new species is known from only 5 localities distributed in 2 distinct mountain ranges, 1 on the eastern slopes of the Planalto da Conquista, between the municipalities of Boa Nova and Iguaí, and another in the Serra das Lontras, ∼100 km to the southeast and only 37 km from the coast. The new species primarily inhabits undisturbed montane forest, from 660 to 1,140 m a.s.l. We estimated an area of occupancy of the species of only 5,885 ha and a density of 0.49 individuals ha-1, resulting in a total estimated population of 2,883 individuals. Forest remnants are under severe pressure from clandestine timber extraction and outright deforestation. Under IUCN criteria, this new species should be classified as "Endangered.". Copyright © 2014 American Ornithologists' Union.

Pulido-Santacruz P.,Grande Rio University | Bornschein M.R.,Federal University of Parana | Bornschein M.R.,Materials Natura Institute Estudos Ambientais | Belmonte-Lopes R.,Federal University of Parana | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

The Atlantic Forest (AF) of South America harbors one of the world's highest bird species richness, but to date there is a deficient understanding of the spatial patterns of genetic diversity and the evolutionary history of this biome. Here we estimated the phylogenetic and populational history of the widespread Mouse-colored Tapaculo (Scytalopus speluncae) complex across the Brazilian AF, using data from two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellite loci. Both markers uncovered several cryptic, mostly allopatric and well-supported lineages that may represent distinct species-level taxa. We investigated whether diversification in S. speluncae is compatible with the Carnaval-Moritz model of Pleistocene refugia. We found that northern lineages have high levels of genetic diversity, agreeing with predictions of more stable forest refugia in these areas. In contrast, southern lineages have lower levels of mtDNA diversity with a signature of population expansion that occurred earlier (~0.2 Mya) than the last glacial maximum. This result suggests that the AF may be stable enough to maintain endemic taxa through glacial cycles. Moreover, we propose that the "mid-Pleistocene climate transition" between 1.2 and 0.7 million years ago, from a warmer to a colder climate, may have played an important but mostly overlooked role in the evolution of AF montane taxa. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Pie M.R.,Federal University of Parana | Pie M.R.,Materials Natura Institute Estudos Ambientais | Ribeiro L.F.,Federal University of Parana | Ribeiro L.F.,Materials Natura Institute Estudos Ambientais
PeerJ | Year: 2015

A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts, suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. © 2015 Pie and Ribeiro.

Reinert B.L.,Materials Natura Institute Estudos Ambientais | Belmonte-Lopes R.,Materials Natura Institute Estudos Ambientais | Belmonte-Lopes R.,Centro Polytechnic | Bornschein M.R.,Materials Natura Institute Estudos Ambientais | And 7 more authors.
Wilson Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2012

We describe the nest and eggs of the Marsh Antwren (Stymphalornis acutirostris), a recently described species which is the only member of the Thamnophilidae restricted to marsh habitats. We conducted 1,560 hrs of nest searching in tidal marshes of southern Brazil and found 178 nests. All nests were of dry fibers, straws, and silk. Nineteen plant species were used for nest attachment. All nests had a clutch of two white eggs with several irregular brown spots scattered over the entire egg, concentrated at the middle or the largest pole. The strategy of nest attachment to vertical structures used by the Marsh Antwren was previously unknown in the Thamnophilidae. © 2012 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

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