Cantanhede, Portugal
Cantanhede, Portugal

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Zucchini S.,S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital | Scaramuzza A.E.,University of Milan | Bonfanti R.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Buono P.,UOSD Pediatric Diabetology | And 90 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Research | Year: 2016

We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0-18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05-0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers. © 2016 Stefano Zucchini et al.

Botequim D.,Matera | Maia J.,Matera | Lino M.M.F.,Matera | Lopes L.M.F.,University of Lisbon | And 3 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2012

Here, we present new antimicrobial nanoparticles based on silica nanoparticles (SNPs) coated with a quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). Depending on the initial concentration of DDAB, SNPs immobilize between 45 and 275 μg of DDAB per milligram of nanoparticle. For high concentrations of DDAB adsorbed to SNP, a bilayer is formed as confirmed by zeta potential measurements, thermogravimetry, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) analyses. Interestingly, these nanoparticles have lower minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against bacteria and fungi than soluble surfactant. The electrostatic interaction of the DDAB with the SNP is strong, since no measurable loss of antimicrobial activity was observed after suspension in aqueous solution for 60 days. We further show that the antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticle does not require the leaching of the surfactant from the surface of the NPs. The SNPs may be immobilized onto surfaces with different chemistry while maintaining their antimicrobial activity, in this case extended to a virucidal activity. The versatility, relative facility in preparation, low cost, and large antimicrobial activity of our platform makes it attractive as a coating for large surfaces. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Santos T.,University of Coimbra | Santos T.,University of Southern California | Maia J.,Matera | Agasse F.,University of Coimbra | And 6 more authors.
Integrative Biology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

The subventricular zone (SVZ) and the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) comprise two main germinal niches in the adult mammalian brain. Within these regions there are self-renewing and multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) which can ultimately give rise to new neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Understanding how to efficiently trigger NSCs differentiation is crucial to devise new cellular therapies aimed to repair the damaged brain. A large amount of data ranging from epigenetic alterations, chromatin remodelling and signalling pathways involved in NSCs differentiation are now within reach. Furthermore, a vast array of proteins and molecules have been described to modulate NSCs fate and tested in innovative therapeutic applications, however with little success so far. Nowadays, the main focus is on how to manipulate these factors to our full advantage. Unfortunately, concerns related to solubility, stability, concentration or spatial and temporal positioning can hinder their desirable effects. Biomaterials emerge as the ideal support to overcome these limitations and consequently boost NSCs differentiation towards desired phenotypes. However, the balance between biomaterials and differentiating factors must be well established, since the bioaccumulation and concomitant toxicity can be an undesired side-effect. Currently, innovative materials and formulations including more degradable carriers allow a controlled and efficient release of bioactive factors with minimal side-effects. Recently, micro- and nanoparticles have been successfully used to deliver molecules able to induce neurogenesis. This review presents recent research that highlights the role of both extracellular environmental factors as well as molecular remodelling mechanisms in the control of NSCs differentiation processes. Appropriate biomaterials that may trigger an efficient delivery of therapeutic molecules will be also discussed. Therefore, the interface between NSCs biology and tissue engineering may offer great potential in future therapeutics for treatment or amelioration of neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Santos T.,University of Coimbra | Ferreira R.,University of Coimbra | Maia J.,Matera | Agasse F.,University of Coimbra | And 7 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Herein, we report the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles as a potent tool to induce the neuronal differentiation of subventricular zone neural stem cells. The intracellular delivery of retinoic acid by the nanoparticles activated nuclear retinoic acid receptors, decreased stemness, and increased proneurogenic gene expression. Importantly, this work reports for the first time a nanoparticle formulation able to modulate in vivo the subventricular zone neurogenic niche. The work further compares the dynamics of initial stages of differentiation between SVZ cells treated with retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and solubilized retinoic acid. The nanoparticle formulation developed here may ultimately offer new perspectives to treat neurodegenerative diseases. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Guarini A.,Nuovo Regina Margherita Hospital | De Marinis F.,Nuovo Regina Margherita Hospital | Kohn A.,San Camillo Forlanini Hospital | Orzes N.,Gastroenterology Unit | And 76 more authors.
Annals of Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Background Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. Among the working team, the role of IBD nurse is expected to be particularly relevant when managing patients receiving biological therapies. We performed a survey to assess the presence of IBD nurse in centers where patients were receiving biologics. Methods For this Italian nationwide survey a specific questionnaire was prepared. IBD nurse was defined as a nurse directly involved in all phases of biological therapy, from pre-therapy screening, administration and monitoring during therapy, to follow up performed by a dedicated helpline, completed a specific training on biological therapy therapy, and observed international guidelines. Results A total of 53 Italian IBD centers participated in the survey, and 91 valid questionnaires were collected. Overall, 34 (37.4%) nurses could be classified as IBD specialists. IBD nurses had a significantly higher educational level than other nurses, they were more frequently operating in Central or Southern than in Northern Italy, they were working in an Academic center rather than in a General hospital, and in IBD centers with >25 patients on biological therapy. On the contrary, mean age, gender distribution, years of nursing, and years working in the IBD unit did not significantly differ between IBD and other nurses. Conclusions Our nationwide survey showed that the presence of an IBD nurse is still lacking in the majority of Italian IBD centers where patients receive biological therapies, suggesting a prompt implementation. © 2016 Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology.

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