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Guildford, United Kingdom

Arends J.B.A.,Ghent University | Blondeel E.,Ghent University | Tennison S.R.,MAST Carbon International Ltd | Boon N.,Ghent University | Verstraete W.,Ghent University
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2012

Purpose: Sediment microbial fuel cells (S-MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices that are able to oxidize organic matter directly into harvestable electrical power. The flux of organic matter into the sediment is rather low; therefore, other researchers have introduced plants for a continuous supply of organic matter to the anode electrode. Until now only interconnected materials have been considered as anode materials in S-MFCs. Here, granular carbon materials were investigated for their suitability as an anode material in S-MFCs. Materials and methods: Laboratory microcosms with eight different electrode materials (granules, felts and cloths) were examined with controlled organic matter addition under brackish conditions. Current density, organic matter removal and microbial community composition were monitored using 16S rRNA gene PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The main parameters investigated were the influence of the amount of electrode material applied to the sediment, the size of the granular material and the electrode configuration. Results and discussion: Felt material had an overall superior performance in terms of current density per amount of applied electrode material; felt and granular anode obtained similar current densities (approx. 50-60 mA m-2), but felt materials required 29 % less material to be applied. Yet, when growing plants, granular carbon is more suited because it is considered to restore, upon disturbance, the electrical connectivity within the anode compartment. Small granules (0. 25-0. 5 mm) gave the highest current density compared to larger granules (1-5 mm) of the same material. Granules with a rough surface had a better performance compared to smooth granules of the same size. The different granular materials lead to a selection of distinct microbial communities for each material, as shown by DGGE. Conclusions: Granular carbon is suitable as an anode material for S-MFCs. This opens the possibility for application of S-MFCs in cultivated areas. In a wider context, the application of granular carbon electrodes can also be an option for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

University of Brighton and MAST Carbon International Ltd | Date: 2010-12-09

Whole blood is treated extracorporeally to remove substances contrary to health using mesoporous/microporous or macroporopus/microporous carbon in the form of beads or a channel monolith. The carbon may be the result of carbonising a mesoporous or macroporous phenolic resin. Substances contrary to health include externally introduced toxins such as bacterially derived staphylococcus enterotoxins A, B, TSST-1 or autologous, biologically active molecules with harmful, systemic effects when their activity is excessive or unregulated. Examples include the removal of inappropriate amounts of pro- or anti-inflammatory molecules and toxic mediators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome related to sepsis, cardio-pulmonary by-pass surgery, ischaemic reperfusioninjury; the removal of larger molecular weight and protein bound uremic toxins related to kidney and hepatic toxins related to liver failure and the removal of toxins relevant to biological and chemical warfare.

Nikolaev V.G.,R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology | Sarnatskaya V.V.,R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology | Sidorenko A.N.,R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology | Bardakhivskaya K.I.,R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology | And 7 more authors.
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2011

In this work structural and sorption properties of granulated carbonic sorbents obtained by deep pyrolysis of synthetic resins, are described. It has been shown that these sorbents possess high (up to 2.7 cm3 g -1) pore volume, low (up to 0.06 g cm-3) bulk density, well developed supermicro- and mesoporosity and significantly fractal structure in the range from 75 to 900 Å. Upon contact with solutions of human serum albumin (HSA), they efficiently adsorb protein-bound ligands with association constants from 103 to 108 M-1. These sorbents coded as HSGD (from HemoSorbent Granulated Deliganding) demonstrate adsorption capacity for unconjugated bilirubin, fatty and bile acids, phenols, CMPF, hippuric acid and indoxyl sulfate, which is tenfold higher than that for conventional granulated synthetic carbon hemosorbents. At the same time capacity of HSGD for freely soluble low molecular weight compounds, such as creatinine and methylene blue increases insignificantly. Simultaneously HSGD demonstrates high adsorption capacity for inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 that could be further enhanced by coating of the carbonic surface with native DNA or dextrane sulfate. Hemocompatibility of HSGD may be significantly increased by adding citrate to blood or by coating its surface with serum albumin. Finally, HSGD capacity coated with HSA for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is by 15-20% higher than that of uncoated one. The use of certain molecular or pH-conformers of HSA for HSGD coating creates a diffusion " transparent" layer that practically does not affect the adsorption capacity of the carbonic matrix towards protein-bound ligands. It has been demonstrated that the deep pyrolysis technology used to produce HSGD can be applied to other carbonic sorbents made from granular synthetic, natural and fibrous raw materials. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Fan X.,University of Manchester | Sans V.,University of Nottingham | Sharma S.K.,University of Bath | Plucinski P.K.,University of Bath | And 5 more authors.
Catalysis Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Two new types of phenolic resin-derived synthetic carbons with bi-modal and tri-modal pore-size distributions were used as supports for Pd catalysts. The catalysts were tested in chemoselective hydrogenation and hydrodehalogenation reactions in a compact multichannel flow reactor. Bi-modal and tri-modal micro-mesoporous structures of the synthetic carbons were characterised by N2 adsorption. HR-TEM, PXRD and XPS analyses were performed for characterising the synthesised catalysts. N2 adsorption revealed that tri-modal synthetic carbon possesses a well-developed hierarchical mesoporous structure (with 6.5 nm and 42 nm pores), contributing to a larger mesopore volume than the bi-modal carbon (1.57 cm3 g-1versus 1.23 cm3 g-1). It was found that the tri-modal carbon promotes a better size distribution of Pd nanoparticles than the bi-modal carbon due to presence of hierarchical mesopore limitting the growth of Pd nanoparticles. For all the model reactions investigated, the Pd catalyst based on tri-modal synthetic carbon (Pd/triC) show high activity as well as high stability and reproducibility. The trend in reactivities of different functional groups over the Pd/triC catalyst follows a general order alkyne ≫ nitro > bromo ≫ aldehyde. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. Source

Gun'ko V.M.,University of Brighton | Gun'ko V.M.,Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry | Meikle S.T.,University of Brighton | Kozynchenko O.P.,MAST Carbon International Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

A variety of activated carbons (ACs) with different burnoff degrees (0-60%) and polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene (PSDVB) were studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption methods. The ACs demonstrate increased deviation of the pore shape from the model of slit-shaped pores with increasing burnoff degree and parallel increasing contributions of pores in the 0.3-50 nm range. The pore size distributions (PSDs) calculated using SAXS and density functional theory (DFT) methods have similar shapes but a more detailed picture for broad pores with SAXS PSDs. The PSDs and chord length distributions of ACs and PSDVB adsorbents have certain close features depending on the specific surface area because contributions of narrower pores and thinner pore walls increase with increasing specific surface area practically independent of the material type. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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