Palmerston North, New Zealand
Palmerston North, New Zealand

Massey University is a university located in Palmerston North, New Zealand, Albany, New Zealand and Wellington, New Zealand. Massey University has approximately 35,000 students, 17,000 of whom are extramural or distance learning students.Massey University has campuses in Palmerston North , Wellington and Auckland . It also has a business school accredited by The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Research is undertaken on all three campuses. More than 3000 international students from more than 100 countries study at the university.Massey University is the only university in New Zealand offering degrees in aviation, dispute resolution, veterinary medicine and nanoscience. Massey's veterinary school is accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association and is recognised in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Britain. Its agriculture programme is the highest ranked in New Zealand and 19th in Quacquarelli Symonds' world university subject rankings. Massey's Bachelor of Aviation is an internationally recognised and accredited qualification and is the first non-engineering degree to be recognised by the Royal Aeronautical Society and has ISO9001-2000 accreditation. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Agency For Science and Massey University | Date: 2015-03-19

The present disclosure relates to a sensor for indicating food quality comprising a semi-permeable film layer, the semi-permeable film layer comprising at least one integrally formed well having at least one sensing element disposed therein; wherein the well is sealed by a second film layer, the semi-permeable film layer being impermeable to said sensing element but is permeable to at least one analyte detectable by said sensing element.


News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

(AP) — A Chinese leader on Tuesday urged international representatives to strike a "proper balance" between environmental and economic interests in Antarctica, as the frozen continent's vulnerability to climate change raises worries that some nations could seek to exploit its natural resources. China is seeking to carve out a greater role in determining the continent's future while hosting delegates from more than two dozen nations that have agreed to an Antarctic protection treaty. Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli — who sits on the Communist Party's all-powerful, seven-member Politburo Standing Committee — told participants that the fate of Antarctica's fragile environment bears on human survival. "There needs to be a proper balance between the protection and utilization of Antarctica in order to keep the environment green and sustain economic growth and cultural stability for mankind," Zhang said. His reference to economic interests fed into speculation that China and other nations are maneuvering to exploit mineral resources that could be exposed by a shrinking southern ice cap. U.S. delegate Kelly Falkner said that's highly unlikely under international agreements linked to the 1959 treaty. There also are practical concerns, given Antarctica's remoteness and harsh weather for much of the year. Environmental protection protocols under the Antarctic treaty are due to come up for reconsideration in 2048. But Falkner said it would require consensus among the treaty nations to change an existing framework that includes a mining ban. A bigger worry for the U.S. is that China could overtake it as the global leader in polar research, said Falkner, who heads the Office of Polar Programs for the National Science Foundation. Liu Zhenmin, a Chinese vice foreign minister, said Zhang's statements about economic growth referred to rising numbers of Antarctic tourists from China and its commercial fishing vessels in the area. Liu told The Associated Press that China's interpretation of the treaty was that mining "would be prohibited forever." China acceded to the Antarctic treaty in 1983 and has since established four research stations. It plans to start construction of an airfield later this year and a fifth research station as early as 2018. It also has a new icebreaker under construction to augment the Xue Long, a Ukrainian-built vessel currently used to service its Antarctic missions. Yet while China has publicly emphasized its scientific ambitions, it also appears to be hedging against possible future development opportunities, said Marc Lanteigne, a senior lecturer on China and the polar regions at New Zealand's Massey University. Seven countries have made land claims in Antarctica. The United States and Russia have said they don't recognize the claims but have reserved the right to make future claims of their own. "In theory, there is the possibility of mining on the perimeter of Antarctica. More and more land might come open" due to climate change, Lanteigne said. "China and the other participants have expressed support (for the treaty) and don't want to seem like they're undermining it, but there is that level of uncertainty."


News Article | May 5, 2017
Site: www.sciencemag.org

Saving the Spanish imperial eagle was never going to be easy. This enormous bird, which once dominated the skies above Spain, Portugal, and northern Morocco, saw its numbers drop to just 380 breeding pairs in 2014, thanks to habitat loss, poaching, poisoning from farmers and hunters, and electrocution from power lines. Now, a new study highlights a potential way of restoring eagle populations to their former glory: dropping them into long-abandoned habitat. One common approach for bringing threatened species back from the brink is to reintroduce them to the places they were last known to live. For example, the sea eagle in Scotland—which was hunted to extinction on the Isle of Skye in 1916—was successfully reintroduced in 1975 to Rùm Island near its last known breeding ground. But not all such efforts bear fruit: When scientists tried to release the same bird to its former range in western Ireland in 2007, the newcomers fell victim to the same poisoning that had done them in 107 years earlier. “The tendency is to think that the last place that an animal was present is the best place for the species, but this isn't always the case,” says Virginia Morandini, a biologist with the Spanish National Research Council’s Doñana Biological Station near Seville. So Morandini and her colleagues teamed up with conservation biologist Miguel Ferrer of the Migres Foundation at Doñana to try a different approach. Along with the Andalusian government’s Spanish Imperial Eagle Action Plan, they introduced imperial eagles into a territory they last inhabited some 50 years ago, far from established populations. Their method had some strong theoretical underpinnings because relict populations that have been pushed into small, low-quality habitats—often the “last known address” of threatened species—are thought to have relatively low breeding rates. From 2002 to 2015, the Doñana team monitored 87 eagles that had been released in the south of Cádiz province of Spain, some 85 kilometers from the nearest established eagles. Meanwhile, the researchers monitored a naturally occurring population of eagles in south-central Spain. When scientists analyzed the breeding success of the two groups—a proxy for how well the eagles might survive over the long run—they found that the relocated population produced nearly twice as many chicks, they reported last month in . Morandini attributes their success to the ready availability of prey and breeding partners, as well as efforts to reduce threats from hunters and exposed power lines. The results suggest such reintroductions can be helpful in recovering endangered populations, especially when natural range expansion isn’t a possibility, says Doug Armstrong, a conservation biologist at Massey University in Palmerston North, New Zealand. But Armstrong, who was instrumental in rehabilitation efforts in New Zealand of a honeyeater-like bird called the hihi, also warns that this method won’t work for every threatened species. Lots of factors can lead to failure: selecting an inappropriate site, unpredictable environmental factors, and stress after reintroduction. Cornell University ecologist Amanda Rodewald says that—even with its upsides—the approach should be seen as a last resort. “With ongoing climate change and habitat destruction, we are likely to be turning to [reintroduction] methods more and more,” she says. “However, taking proactive conservation steps such as habitat protection before a species becomes critically endangered is always going to be the most cost-effective and successful approach.”


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: www.theguardian.com

I’m 24 years old, and I believe that water and climate change are the defining issues of my generation. The way I see it, listening is a form of activism. This Saturday I will be in Washington DC for the People’s Climate March, and I will have my audio recorder with me as part of my mission to collect 1,001 audio interviews about how climate change and water have impacted their lives. My journeys as a poet-activist-touring cyclist began three years ago at the People’s Climate March in New York. I wore a cardboard sign around my neck that said “tell me a story about water” on one side and “tell me a story about climate change” on the other, joining a rising tide of 400,000 activists. That day people told stories about all sorts of things: of the health impacts of paper mill pollution on a community in northern China; climate change’s threats to Vermont’s maple syrup industry; and the experience of being stuck in an office building for 62 hours during Hurricane Sandy. Since the 2014 People’s Climate March I have been traveling through 11 countries, mostly by bicycle (and sometimes by boat). To date I have recorded interviews with more than 600 storytellers in the US, Fiji, Tuvalu, New Zealand, Australia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Qatar, Morocco and the UK. You can follow my progress on my 1,001 stories website. Here is a sample of some of the stories I have recorded on my journeys so far. I met Rebecca and her daughter Athena at the September 2014 People’s Climate March in NYC. At the time, Athena was five months old; she slept on her mother’s chest as we walked. Rebecca told me that she and her husband moved to Ojai, California because they wanted to “start a family and get out of the big city of Los Angeles.” “We moved to a five acre avocado ranch in Ojai and we have 300-plus avocado trees,” Rebecca said. “Our whole goal is to build and create this farm so that we could raise our daughter Athena that she could live on for her whole life and have her children.” Their goal was to have a farm that could be passed down through generations. A prolonged drought made that goal more complex than Rebecca anticipated. “We’re now at the end of a five year drought and our water is running out, and so our trees are extremely thirsty,” she said at the time. “The cost of water is soaring. We’re not sure if we’re going to be able to keep our trees or not because of how water consumptive it is.” All of the water in Ojai comes from Lake Casitas. After five years of drought, the reservoir was then on its last reserves. “The climate, just since we’ve moved to Ojai, has completely changed,” Rebecca said, “and so our big dream and our vision of moving to this beautiful place where we could grow our own food and we could live sustainably on the earth is starting to die, quite literally. It’s drying up.” The highest point on this low-lying coral atoll nation in the Pacific is only four meters (12.5ft) above sea level. With a population just shy of 11,000, Tuvalu is one of the smallest and most remote countries on the planet. I lived in Tuvalu for a month, from December 2014 to January 2015, and during that time I made friends with Losite, a Tuvaluan my age, who invited me to the outer island of Nukufetau to spend Christmas with her family. Losite’s mother, Nisikata, works as a primary school teacher in Nukufetau. We sat overlooking the sea. She told me the story of a drought that lasted from April to December 2013: “Our local taro crops [and] the fish died because of the drought,” she said. “We usually get water from rain. And when we [went to] fetch water from our tank … it’s all empty. “The underground well water [was] also salty,” Nisikata said. “There used to be a freshwater lens under Tuvalu. In the last 15 years, due to sea level change, that freshwater lens has become salty and impossible to drink.” “With the drought, so many things that affected our life, like our livestocks. We depend on pigs, [and were] also facing problem by finding food. Coconuts are not bearing fruit … green nuts are all falling down. [It was] very hard to find anything to drink,” she said. “Donors from overseas gave bottles of water and those waters [were] distributed to each island and also into schools by the government of Tuvalu. And from there we can survive.” Rations of food were also provided to each island. “Bit by bit we used those and when we run out of the ration, the government still providing us with more until we were back again to our normal weather: sunny, warm and then sometimes rain.” I met Dr Mike Joy, a senior lecturer at Massey University, during my bike trip down the length of Aotearoa. Joy told me this story from his home in the Horowhenua, on the lower north island, in February 2015. “Water and climate change are totally interrelated here, as I guess they are everywhere,” Joy said. “As a country we are going along a very clear path towards maximizing agricultural production. Our government has decided that it wants to double agricultural production in the next decade or two. “We already have extreme effects of intensification of farming,” he said. “62% of the length of all our rivers in the country are unswimmable through pathogens, mostly from farming but also from urban impacts. “Pretty much anywhere in lowland New Zealand you’ll find polluted waterways, and in the conservation estate, which is mostly the alpine areas, we have amazingly clean lakes and rivers,” Joy said. With the intensification of dairy agriculture, “we now have 6.5m dairy cows in this country,” Joy said. “If you want to think about the impact of 6.5m dairy cows, a very conservative comparison is that one dairy cow produces as much waste as 14 humans. So you multiply that out … a country the size of the United Kingdom and has 90 million human equivalents.” The current human population of New Zealand is 4.8 million: “The waste from these animals doesn’t get some form of treatment like human waste would in a developed country. It mostly just goes into waterways. “The other big downside to that is more than 50% of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture, and so we effectively, while our CO2 emissions are relatively OK because we’re quite a low human population, our greenhouse gas emissions in total are massively increasing,” Joy said. “We trade on this clean green image, but in reality we’ve trashed an amazingly unique and diverse country, and we’ve trashed it in the name of producing a very low-value commodity – that’s milk powder. Of the milk that’s traded in the world, more than 35% of it comes from New Zealand. We’re a major player in global markets, but only at the cheapest possible end of the scale.” And at what cost? “The other reality that’s well hidden here is that New Zealand has the highest proportion globally of threatened species overall. We have the highest incidence of waterborne diseases of any developed country as well.” Partway through my six months of cycling up Australia’s east coast, I pedalled through Wooyung, in New South Wales. Enticed by hand-painted signs for peaches, nectarines, lychees and mangoes, I pulled into Wooyung Rd Fruit and Vegetable Stall. I propped my bicycle next to an array of coconuts. I bought a banana and a nectarine and listened as Terry, a lifelong farmer in Wooyung, told me the story of how floods are more unpredictable than ever before. He said: “Here we used to get floods in January, February. March was your wet monsoon. Now they can come any time from winter. The biggest flood we had, 2005, was the end of June – 34 inches in about three days.” This unpredictability impacts which crops Terry is able to plant. “There’s risk planting any crops on the flats now,” Terry said. “You used to be able to plant watermelons, rockmelons, and things on the flats and you seldom got flooded out before maybe January, February. Now, anytime, there’s such a risk,” he said. “Too much money involved to put many crops down on the flats,” Terry said.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-ADG | Phase: ERC-ADG-2014 | Award Amount: 2.35M | Year: 2016

Fifteen years ago it was widely believed that asthma was an allergic/atopic disease caused by allergen exposure in infancy; this produced atopic sensitization and continued exposure resulted in eosinophilic airways inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and reversible airflow obstruction. It is now clear that this model is at best incomplete. Less than one-half of asthma cases involve allergic (atopic) mechanisms, and most asthma in low-and-middle income countries is non-atopic. Westernization may be contributing to the global increases in asthma prevalence, but this process appears to involve changes in asthma susceptibility rather than increased exposure to established asthma risk factors. Understanding why these changes are occurring is essential in order to halt the growing global asthma epidemic.This will require a combination of epidemiological, clinical and basic science studies in a variety of environments. A key task is to reclassify asthma phenotypes. These are important to: (i) better understand the aetiological mechanisms of asthma; (ii) identify new causes; and (iii) identify new therapeutic measures. There are major opportunities to address these issues using new techniques for sample collection from the airways (sputum induction, nasal lavage), new methods of analysis (microbiome, epigenetics), and new bioinformatics methods for integrating data from multiple sources and levels. There is an unprecedented potential to go beyond the old atopic/non-atopic categorization of phenotypes. I will therefore conduct analyses to re-examine and reclassify asthma phenotypes. The key features are the inclusion of: (i) both high and low prevalence centres from both high income countries and low-and-middle income countries; (ii) much more detailed biomarker information than has been used for previous studies of asthma phenotypes; and (iii) new bioinformatics methods for integrating data from multiple sources and levels.


Chisti Y.,Massey University
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.V.


Raubenheimer D.,Massey University
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2011

A recent area of progress in nutritional ecology is a growing awareness that nutritional phenotypes are best understood in a multidimensional context, where foraging is viewed as a process of balancing the intake and use of multiple nutrients to satisfy complex and dynamic nutrient needs. Numerous laboratory studies have shown that this view can yield novel insights into unresolved questions and provide a framework for generating new hypotheses. By contrast, progress with this multidimensional view has been slow in the arena of ultimate interest to functional biologists, the field. One reason for this is that the Geometric Framework for nutrition that has been extensively used in laboratory experiments focuses on amounts of nutrients (e.g., required, eaten, or retained), and such data are typically very difficult or impossible to collect for most free-ranging animals. Further, many problems in field-based nutritional ecology involve comparisons of mixtures that are expressed as proportions (e.g., food, diet, body, or fecal compositions), rather than absolute amounts. As yet, however, no geometric framework has been established in nutritional ecology for this. Here I recommend an approach for the geometric analysis of nutritional mixtures, and illustrate its use in a variety of contexts by reanalyzing published data. Despite its simplicity, this approach holds considerable promise for furthering the study of field-based nutritional ecology. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.


Prince R.,Massey University
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2014

Culture and creativity have been increasingly instrumentalised in policy programmes worldwide in recent decades. This has been associated with the rapid development of techniques for quantifying and measuring the sector. This paper argues that the development of these techniques has been central to the mobility of policies and policy concepts that instrumentalise culture and creativity. Using Ong and Collier's notion of global assemblage, it is argued that culture and creativity have been rendered technical in relation to the invention and circulation of a number of interlinked global forms, such as the 'creative industries' and the 'creative class', which are embedded in abstract, placeless, technical systems that provide them with an apparent universality. How this is achieved is examined in detail through a discussion of the work of a London-based consultancy specialising in cultural knowledge. The consultancy helps to produce this assemblage by doing the work of producing technical, calculative measures of culture and creativity that translate a messy social world into a set of ordered, rationalised representations that can be compared to similarly produced representations from elsewhere. Their work helps to convert topographical connections between places into topological relations across which appropriate global forms can move with relative ease. © 2013 The Author. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers © 2013 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).


To compare the current status of global alcohol corporations with tobacco in terms of their role in global governance and to document the process by which this difference has been achieved and the consequences for alcohol control policy. Methods Participant observation in the global political arena, review of industry materials (submissions, publications, conference presentations, websites) and review of published literature formed the basis for the current analysis. Results Recent events in the global political arena have highlighted the difference in perception of the alcohol and tobacco industries which has allowed alcohol corporations to participate in the global governance arena in a way in which tobacco has not been able. The transnational producers of alcohol have waged a sophisticated and successful campaign during the past three decades, including sponsorship of intergovernmental events, funding of educational initiatives, research, publications and sponsoring sporting and cultural events. A key aspect has been the framing of arguments to undermine perceptions of the extent of alcohol-related harms to health by promoting ideas of a balance of benefits and harms. An emphasis on the heaviest drinkers has been used to promote the erroneous idea that 'moderate' drinkers experience no harm and a goal of alcohol policy should be to ensure they are unaffected by interventions. This leads to highly targeted interventions towards the heaviest drinkers rather than effective regulation of the alcohol market. Conclusion A sophisticated campaign by global alcohol corporations has promoted them as good corporate citizens and framed arguments with a focus on drinkers rather than the supply of alcohol. This has contributed to acceptance in the global governance arena dealing with policy development and implementation to an extent which is very different from tobacco. This approach, which obscures the contribution supply and marketing make to alcohol-related harm, has also contributed to failure by governments to adopt effective supply-side policies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.


Conklin J.R.,Massey University
Nature communications | Year: 2010

Despite clear benefits of optimal arrival time on breeding grounds, migration schedules may vary with an individual bird's innate quality, non-breeding habitat or breeding destination. Here, we show that for the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica baueri), a shorebird that makes the longest known non-stop migratory flights of any bird, timing of migration for individual birds from a non-breeding site in New Zealand was strongly correlated with their specific breeding latitudes in Alaska, USA, a 16,000-18,000 km journey away. Furthermore, this variation carried over even to the southbound return migration, 6 months later, with birds returning to New Zealand in approximately the same order in which they departed. These tightly scheduled movements on a global scale suggest endogenously controlled routines, with breeding site as the primary driver of temporal variation throughout the annual cycle.

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