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Palmerston North, New Zealand

Massey University is a university located in Palmerston North, New Zealand, Albany, New Zealand and Wellington, New Zealand. Massey University has approximately 35,000 students, 17,000 of whom are extramural or distance learning students.Massey University has campuses in Palmerston North , Wellington and Auckland . It also has a business school accredited by The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Research is undertaken on all three campuses. More than 3000 international students from more than 100 countries study at the university.Massey University is the only university in New Zealand offering degrees in aviation, dispute resolution, veterinary medicine and nanoscience. Massey's veterinary school is accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association and is recognised in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Britain. Its agriculture programme is the highest ranked in New Zealand and 19th in Quacquarelli Symonds' world university subject rankings. Massey's Bachelor of Aviation is an internationally recognised and accredited qualification and is the first non-engineering degree to be recognised by the Royal Aeronautical Society and has ISO9001-2000 accreditation. Wikipedia.


Stowell K.M.,Massey University
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2014

The advent of the polymerase chain reaction and the availability of data from various global human genome projects should make it possible, using a DNA sample isolated from white blood cells, to diagnose rapidly and accurately almost any monogenic condition resulting from single nucleotide changes. DNA-based diagnosis for malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an attractive proposition, because it could replace the invasive and morbid caffeine-halothane/in vitro contracture tests of skeletal muscle biopsy tissue. Moreover, MH is preventable if an accurate diagnosis of susceptibility can be made before general anesthesia, the most common trigger of an MH episode. Diagnosis of MH using DNA was suggested as early as 1990 when the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), and a single point mutation therein, was linked to MH susceptibility. In 1994, a single point mutation in the α 1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor gene (CACNA1S) was identified and also subsequently shown to be causative of MH. In the succeeding years, the number of identified mutations in RYR1 has grown, as has the number of potential susceptibility loci, although no other gene has yet been definitively associated with MH. In addition, it has become clear that MH is associated with either of these 2 genes (RYR1 and CACNA1S) in only 50% to 70% of affected families. While DNA testing for MH susceptibility has now become widespread, it still does not replace the in vitro contracture tests. Whole exome sequence analysis makes it potentially possible to identify all variants within human coding regions, but the complexity of the genome, the heterogeneity of MH, the limitations of bioinformatic tools, and the lack of precise genotype/phenotype correlations are all confounding factors. In addition, the requirement for demonstration of causality, by in vitro functional analysis, of any familial mutation currently precludes DNA-based diagnosis as the sole test for MH susceptibility. Nevertheless, familial DNA testing for MH susceptibility is now widespread although limited to a positive diagnosis and to those few mutations that have been functionally characterized. Identification of new susceptibility genes remains elusive. When new genes are identified, it will be the role of the biochemists, physiologists, and biophysicists to devise functional assays in appropriate systems. This will remain the bottleneck unless high throughput platforms can be designed for functional work. Analysis of entire genomes from several individuals simultaneously is a reality. DNA testing for MH, based on current criteria, remains the dream. © 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source


Cockrem J.F.,Massey University
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2013

When stimuli from the environment are perceived to be a threat or potential threat then animals initiate stress responses, with activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and secretion of glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and corticosterone). Whilst standard deviation or standard error values are always reported, it is only when graphs of individual responses are shown that the extensive variation between animals is apparent. Some animals have little or no response to a stressor that evokes a relatively large response in others. Glucocorticoid responses of fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, and mammals are considered in this review. Comparisons of responses between animals and groups of animals focused on responses to restraint or confinement as relatively standard stressors. Individual graphs could not be found in the literature for glucocorticoid responses to capture or restraint in fish or reptiles, with just one graph in mammals with the first sample was collected when animals were initially restrained. Coefficients of variation (CVs) calculated for parameters of glucocorticoid stress responses showed that the relative magnitudes of variation were similar in different vertebrate groups. The overall mean CV for glucocorticoid concentrations in initial (0. min) samples was 74.5%, and CVs for samples collected over various times up to 4. h were consistently between 50% and 60%. The factors that lead to the observed individual variation and the extent to which this variation is adaptive or non-adaptive are little known in most animals, and future studies of glucocorticoid responses in animals can focus on individual responses and their origins and significance. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Chisti Y.,Massey University
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.V. Source


To compare the current status of global alcohol corporations with tobacco in terms of their role in global governance and to document the process by which this difference has been achieved and the consequences for alcohol control policy. Methods Participant observation in the global political arena, review of industry materials (submissions, publications, conference presentations, websites) and review of published literature formed the basis for the current analysis. Results Recent events in the global political arena have highlighted the difference in perception of the alcohol and tobacco industries which has allowed alcohol corporations to participate in the global governance arena in a way in which tobacco has not been able. The transnational producers of alcohol have waged a sophisticated and successful campaign during the past three decades, including sponsorship of intergovernmental events, funding of educational initiatives, research, publications and sponsoring sporting and cultural events. A key aspect has been the framing of arguments to undermine perceptions of the extent of alcohol-related harms to health by promoting ideas of a balance of benefits and harms. An emphasis on the heaviest drinkers has been used to promote the erroneous idea that 'moderate' drinkers experience no harm and a goal of alcohol policy should be to ensure they are unaffected by interventions. This leads to highly targeted interventions towards the heaviest drinkers rather than effective regulation of the alcohol market. Conclusion A sophisticated campaign by global alcohol corporations has promoted them as good corporate citizens and framed arguments with a focus on drinkers rather than the supply of alcohol. This has contributed to acceptance in the global governance arena dealing with policy development and implementation to an extent which is very different from tobacco. This approach, which obscures the contribution supply and marketing make to alcohol-related harm, has also contributed to failure by governments to adopt effective supply-side policies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source


Aims To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Methods Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Results Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. Conclusion The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

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