Cambridge, MA, United States

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

mit.edu/
Cambridge, MA, United States

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the northern bank of the Charles River basin.MIT, with five schools and one college which contain a total of 32 departments, is traditionally known for research and education in the physical science and engineering, and more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, and management as well. The "Engineers" sponsor 31 sports, most teams of which compete in the NCAA Division III's New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.MIT is often cited as among the world's top universities. As of 2014, 81 Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 38 MacArthur Fellows, and 2 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT. MIT has a strong entrepreneurial culture and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. Wikipedia.

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Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University | Date: 2017-03-22

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-09-06

The present invention generally relates to methods of identifying modulators of central nervous system diseases and the use of the moduiators in treatment and diagnosis. The methods utilize a novel high throughput screen that includes injection of a library of barcoded viral vectors expressing shRNAs, CRISPR/Cas systems or cDNAs into animal models of disease and detecting synthetic lethality.


Patent
German Electron Synchrotron and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-09-27

A method of generating THz radiation comprises the steps of generating optical input radiation with an input radiation source device (10), irradiating a first conversion crystal device (30) with the optical input radiation, wherein the first conversion crystal device (30) is arranged in a single pass configuration, and generating the THz radiation having a THz frequency in the first conversion crystal device (30) in response to the optical input radiation by an optical-to-THz-conversion process, wherein a multi-line frequency spectrum is provided by the optical input radiation in the first conversion crystal device (30), and the optical-to-THz-conversion process includes cascaded difference frequency generation using the multi-line frequency spectrum. Furthermore, a THz source apparatus being adapted for generating THz radiation and applications thereof are described.


Xu W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2011

Activity-dependent modification of excitatory synaptic transmission is a fundamental mechanism for developmental plasticity of the neural circuits and experience-dependent plasticity. Synaptic glutamatergic receptors including AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs) are embedded in the postsynaptic density, a highly organized protein network. Overwhelming data have shown that PSD-95-like membrane associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs), a major family of scaffold proteins at glutamatergic synapses, regulate basal synaptic AMPAR function and trafficking. It is now clear that PSD-MAGUKs have multifaceted functions in regulating both basal synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Here we discuss recent advancements in understanding the roles of PSD-95 and other family members of PSD-MAGUKs in synaptic plasticity, both as an anchoring protein for synaptic AMPARs and as a signaling scaffold for mediating the interaction of the signaling complex and NMDARs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Schulz L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2012

Analogies between scientific theories and children's folk theories have been central to the study of cognitive development for decades. In support of the comparison, numerous studies have shown that children have abstract, ontologically committed causal beliefs across a range of content domains. However, recent research suggests that the comparison with science is informative not only about how children represent knowledge but also how they acquire it: many of the epistemic practices essential to and characteristic of scientific inquiry emerge in infancy and early childhood. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Berwick R.C.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Trends in cognitive sciences | Year: 2013

Language serves as a cornerstone for human cognition, yet much about its evolution remains puzzling. Recent research on this question parallels Darwin's attempt to explain both the unity of all species and their diversity. What has emerged from this research is that the unified nature of human language arises from a shared, species-specific computational ability. This ability has identifiable correlates in the brain and has remained fixed since the origin of language approximately 100 thousand years ago. Although songbirds share with humans a vocal imitation learning ability, with a similar underlying neural organization, language is uniquely human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pattabiraman D.R.,Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Weinberg R.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2014

Since their identification in 1994, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been objects of intensive study. Their properties and mechanisms of formation have become a major focus of current cancer research, in part because of their enhanced ability to initiate and drive tumour growth and their intrinsic resistance to conventional therapeutics. The discovery that activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme in carcinoma cells can give rise to cells with stem-like properties has provided one possible mechanism explaining how CSCs arise and presents a possible avenue for their therapeutic manipulation. Here we address recent developments in CSC research, focusing on carcinomas that are able to undergo EMT. We discuss the signalling pathways that create these cells, cell-intrinsic mechanisms that could be exploited for selective elimination or induction of their differentiation, and the role of the tumour microenvironment in sustaining them. Finally, we propose ways to use our current knowledge of the complex biology of CSCs to design novel therapies to eliminate them. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Ebert M.S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cell | Year: 2012

Biological systems use a variety of mechanisms to maintain their functions in the face of environmental and genetic perturbations. Increasing evidence suggests that, among their roles as posttranscriptional repressors of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) help to confer robustness to biological processes by reinforcing transcriptional programs and attenuating aberrant transcripts, and they may in some network contexts help suppress random fluctuations in transcript copy number. These activities have important consequences for normal development and physiology, disease, and evolution. Here, we will discuss examples and principles of miRNAs that contribute to robustness in animal systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Guarente L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Genes and Development | Year: 2013

Calorie or dietary restriction (CR) has attracted attention because it is the oldest and most robust way to extend rodent life span. The idea that the nutrient sensors, termed sirtuins, might mediate effects of CR was proposed 13 years ago and has been challenged in the intervening years. This review addresses these challenges and draws from a great body of new data in the sirtuin field that shows a systematic redirection of mammalian physiology in response to diet by sirtuins. The prospects for drugs that can deliver at least a subset of the benefits of CR seems very real. © 2013 Guarente.


Nocera D.G.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP + reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm 2) illumination.This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H 2O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn 3CaO 4-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a corner-sharing, head-to-tail dimer.The ability to perform the oxygen-evolving reaction in water at neutral or near-neutral conditions has several consequences for the construction of the artificial leaf. The NiMoZn alloy may be used in place of Pt to generate hydrogen. To stabilize silicon in water, its surface is coated with a conducting metal oxide onto which the Co-OEC may be deposited. The net result is that immersing a triple-junction Si wafer coated with NiMoZn and Co-OEC in water and holding it up to sunlight can effect direct solar energy conversion via water splitting. By constructing a simple, stand-alone device composed of earth-abundant materials, the artificial leaf provides a means for an inexpensive and highly distributed solar-to-fuels system that employs low-cost systems engineering and manufacturing. Through this type of system, solar energy can become a viable energy supply to those in the non-legacy world. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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