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Cambridge, MA, United States

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the northern bank of the Charles River basin.MIT, with five schools and one college which contain a total of 32 departments, is traditionally known for research and education in the physical science and engineering, and more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, and management as well. The "Engineers" sponsor 31 sports, most teams of which compete in the NCAA Division III's New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.MIT is often cited as among the world's top universities. As of 2014, 81 Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 38 MacArthur Fellows, and 2 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT. MIT has a strong entrepreneurial culture and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. Wikipedia.


Schrock R.R.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusSome of the most readily available and inexpensive monomers for ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) are norbornenes or substituted norbornadienes. Polymers made from them have tacticities (the stereochemical relationship between monomer units in the polymer chain) that remain after the C=C bonds in the polymer backbone are hydrogenated. Formation of polymers with exclusively a single structure (one tacticity) was rare until approximately 20 years ago, when well-defined ROMP catalysts based on molybdenum imido alkylidene complexes that contain a chiral biphenolate or binaphtholate ligand were shown to yield cis,isotactic-poly(2,3-dicarbomethoxynorbornadiene) and related polymers through addition of the monomer to the same side of the M=C bond in each step. Over the past few years, molybdenum and tungsten monoaryloxide pyrrolide (MAP) imido alkylidene initiators have been found to produce cis,syndiotactic polynorbornenes and substituted norbornadienes through addition of the monomer to one side of the M=C bond in one step followed by addition to the other side of the M=C bond in the next step. This "stereogenic metal control" is possible as a consequence of the fact that the configuration of the stereogenic metal center switches with each step in the polymerization. Stereogenic metal control also allows syndiotactic polymers to be prepared from racemic monomers in which enantiomers of the monomer are incorporated alternately into the main chain. Because pure trans polymers have not yet been prepared through some predictable mechanism of stereochemical control, it seems unlikely that all four basic polymer structures from a single given monomer can be prepared simply by choosing the right initiator. However, because tactic, and relatively oxygen-stable, hydrogenated polymers are often a desirable goal, the ability to form pure cis,isotactic polymers (through enantiomorphic site control) and cis,syndiotactic polymers (through stereogenic metal control) is sufficient for preparing hydrogenated polymers with a single structure. It is hoped that the principles of forming polymers that have a single structure through ring-opening metathesis polymerization will be general for a relatively large number of monomers and that some important problems in ROMP polymer chemistry can benefit from knowledge of polymer structure at a molecular level. With an increase in knowledge concerning the mechanistic details of polymerization by well-defined initiators, more elaborate ROMP polymers and copolymers with stereoregular structures may be possible. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Wilczek F.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Some subtleties and apparent difficulties associated with the notion of spontaneous breaking of time-translation symmetry in quantum mechanics are identified and resolved. A model exhibiting that phenomenon is displayed. The possibility and significance of breaking of imaginary time-translation symmetry is discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Zhang S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

One important question in prebiotic chemistry is the search for simple structures that might have enclosed biological molecules in a cell-like space. Phospholipids, the components of biological membranes, are highly complex. Instead, we looked for molecules that might have been available on prebiotic Earth. Simple peptides with hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads that are made up of merely a combination of these robust, abiotically synthesized amino acids and could self-assemble into nanotubes or nanovesicles fulfilled our initial requirements. These molecules could provide a primitive enclosure for the earliest enzymes based on either RNA or peptides and other molecular structures with a variety of functions.We discovered and designed a class of these simple lipid-like peptides, which we describe in this Account. These peptides consist of natural amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, and arginine) and exhibit lipid-like dynamic behaviors. These structures further undergo spontaneous assembly to form ordered arrangements including micelles, nanovesicles, and nanotubes with visible openings. Because of their simplicity and stability in water, such assemblies could provide examples of prebiotic molecular evolution that may predate the RNA world. These short and simple peptides have the potential to self-organize to form simple enclosures that stabilize other fragile molecules, to bring low concentration molecules into a local environment, and to enhance higher local concentration. As a result, these structures plausibly could not only accelerate the dehydration process for new chemical bond formation but also facilitate further self-organization and prebiotic evolution in a dynamic manner.We also expect that this class of lipid-like peptides will likely find a wide range of uses in the real world. Because of their favorable interactions with lipids, these lipid-like peptides have been used to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins, both for scientific studies and for the fabrication of nanobiotechological devices. They can also increase the solubility of other water-insoluble molecules and increase long-term stability of some water-soluble proteins. Likewise, because of their lipophilicity, these structures can deliver molecular cargo, such as small molecules, siRNA, and DNA, in vivo for potential therapeutic applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Mayers J.R.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nature Medicine | Year: 2014

Most patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are diagnosed with advanced disease and survive less than 12 months. PDAC has been linked with obesity and glucose intolerance, but whether changes in circulating metabolites are associated with early cancer progression is unknown. To better understand metabolic derangements associated with early disease, we profiled metabolites in prediagnostic plasma from individuals with pancreatic cancer (cases) and matched controls from four prospective cohort studies. We find that elevated plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with a greater than twofold increased risk of future pancreatic cancer diagnosis. This elevated risk was independent of known predisposing factors, with the strongest association observed among subjects with samples collected 2 to 5 years before diagnosis, when occult disease is probably present. We show that plasma BCAAs are also elevated in mice with early-stage pancreatic cancers driven by mutant Kras expression but not in mice with Kras-driven tumors in other tissues, and that breakdown of tissue protein accounts for the increase in plasma BCAAs that accompanies early-stage disease. Together, these findings suggest that increased whole-body protein breakdown is an early event in development of PDAC. Source


Ebert M.S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cell | Year: 2012

Biological systems use a variety of mechanisms to maintain their functions in the face of environmental and genetic perturbations. Increasing evidence suggests that, among their roles as posttranscriptional repressors of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) help to confer robustness to biological processes by reinforcing transcriptional programs and attenuating aberrant transcripts, and they may in some network contexts help suppress random fluctuations in transcript copy number. These activities have important consequences for normal development and physiology, disease, and evolution. Here, we will discuss examples and principles of miRNAs that contribute to robustness in animal systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Beste M.T.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Science translational medicine | Year: 2014

Clinical management of endometriosis is limited by the complex relationship between symptom severity, heterogeneous surgical presentation, and variability in clinical outcomes. As a complement to visual classification schemes, molecular profiles of disease activity may improve risk stratification to better inform treatment decisions and identify new approaches to targeted treatment. We use a network analysis of information flow within and between inflammatory cells to discern consensus behaviors characterizing patient subpopulations. Unsupervised multivariate analysis of cytokine profiles quantified by multiplex immunoassays identified a subset of patients with a shared "consensus signature" of 13 elevated cytokines that was associated with common clinical features of endometriosis, but was not observed among patient subpopulations defined by morphologic presentation alone. Enrichment analysis of consensus markers reinforced the primacy of peritoneal macrophage infiltration and activation, which was demonstrably elevated in ex vivo cultures. Although familiar targets of the nuclear factor κB family emerged among overrepresented transcriptional binding sites for consensus markers, our analysis provides evidence for an unexpected contribution from c-Jun, c-Fos, and AP-1 effectors of mitogen-associated kinase signaling. Their crucial involvement in propagation of macrophage-driven inflammatory networks was confirmed via targeted inhibition of upstream kinases. Collectively, these analyses suggest a clinically relevant inflammatory network that may serve as an objective measure for guiding treatment decisions for endometriosis management, and in the future may provide a mechanistic endpoint for assessing efficacy of new agents aimed at curtailing inflammatory mechanisms that drive disease progression. Source


Centola D.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Science | Year: 2010

How do social networks affect the spread of behavior? A popular hypothesis states that networks with many clustered ties and a high degree of separation will be less effective for behavioral diffusion than networks in which locally redundant ties are rewired to provide shortcuts across the social space. A competing hypothesis argues that when behaviors require social reinforcement, a network with more clustering may be more advantageous, even if the network as a whole has a larger diameter. I investigated the effects of network structure on diffusion by studying the spread of health behavior through artificially structured online communities. Individual adoption was much more likely when participants received social reinforcement from multiple neighbors in the social network. The behavior spread farther and faster across clustered-lattice networks than across corresponding random networks. Source


Kim D.H.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2013

The molecular genetic analysis of longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans has yielded fundamental insights into evolutionarily conserved pathways and processes governing the physiology of aging. Recent studies suggest that interactions between C elegans and its microbial environment may influence the aging and longevity of this simple host organism. Experimental evidence supports a role for bacteria in affecting longevity through distinct mechanisms-as a nutrient source, as a potential pathogen that induces double-edged innate immune and stress responses, and as a coevolved sensory stimulus that modulates neuronal signaling pathways regulating longevity. Motivating this review is the anticipation that the molecular genetic dissection of the integrated host immune, stress, and neuroendocrine responses to microbes in C elegans will uncover basic insights into the cellular and organismal physiology that governs aging and longevity. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Boyden E.S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Over the last 10 years, optogenetics has become widespread in neuroscience for the study of how specific cell types contribute to brain functions and brain disorder states. The full impact of optogenetics will emerge only when other toolsets mature, including neural connectivity and cell phenotyping tools and neural recording and imaging tools. The latter tools are rapidly improving, in part because optogenetics has helped galvanize broad interest in neurotechnology development. Source


Young R.A.,Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Young R.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cell | Year: 2011

Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. These cells can be propagated in culture in an undifferentiated state but can be induced to differentiate into specialized cell types. Moreover, these cells provide a powerful model system for studies of cellular identity and early mammalian development. Recent studies have provided insights into the transcriptional control of embryonic stem cell state, including the regulatory circuitry underlying pluripotency. These studies have, as a consequence, uncovered fundamental mechanisms that control mammalian gene expression, connect gene expression to chromosome structure, and contribute to human disease. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Senthil T.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2015

We describe recent progress in our understanding of the interplay between interactions, symmetry, and topology in states of quantum matter. We focus on a minimal generalization of the celebrated topological band insulators (TBIs) to interacting many-particle systems known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. As with the TBIs, these states have a bulk gap and no exotic excitations but have nontrivial surface states that are protected by symmetry. We describe the various possible phases and their properties in three-dimensional systems with realistic symmetries. We develop many key ideas for the theory of these states using simple examples. The emphasis is on physical rather than mathematical properties. We survey insights obtained from the study of SPT phases for a number of other theoretical problems. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. Source


Janak P.H.,Johns Hopkins University | Tye K.M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nature | Year: 2015

The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of behaviours requires the study of distinct amygdala circuits. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Gilbert W.V.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2011

Ribosomes are highly conserved macromolecular machines that are responsible for protein synthesis in all living organisms. Work published in the past year has shown that changes to the ribosome core can affect the mechanism of translation initiation that is favored in the cell, which potentially leads to specific changes in the relative efficiencies with which different proteins are made. Here, I examine recent data from expression and proteomic studies that suggest that cells make slightly different ribosomes under different growth conditions, and discuss genetic evidence that such differences are functional. In particular, I argue that eukaryotic cells probably produce ribosomes that lack one or more core ribosomal proteins (RPs) under some conditions, and that core RPs contribute differentially to translation of distinct subpopulations of mRNAs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Thompson C.V.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Materials Research | Year: 2012

Solid films are usually metastable or unstable in the as-deposited state, and they will dewet or agglomerate to form islands when heated to sufficiently high temperatures. This process is driven by surface energy minimization and can occur via surface diffusion well below a film's melting temperature, especially when the film is very thin. Dewetting during processing of films for use in micro- and nanosystems is often undesirable, and means of avoiding dewetting are important in this context. However, dewetting can also be useful in making arrays of nanoscale particles for electronic and photonic devices and for catalyzing growth of nanotubes and nanowires. Templating of dewetting using patterned surface topography or prepatterning of films can be used to create ordered arrays of particles and complex patterns of partially dewetted structures. Studies of dewetting can also provide fundamental new insight into the effects of surface energy anisotropy and facets on shape evolution. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Ghoniem A.F.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2011

Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Guarente L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

Sirtuins were originally identified as antiaging proteins in model genetic organisms and have emerged as mediators of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in mammals. The mammalian Sir2 orthologue, SIRT1, is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that is involved in many central pathways governing physiology and stress management. Genetic or pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 can benefit numerous diseases in murine models. Indeed, two different SIRT1-activating compounds are now in a diverse set of phase 1 or phase 2 human trials (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00937326, NCT00964340, NCT01014117, NCT01018017, NCT01018628, NCT01262911, NCT01031108, and NCT01154101). Beyond SIRT1, there are six other mammalian sirtuins (SIRT2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7), and all may turn out to have therapeutic potential with the use of activators or inhibitors. Among these sirtuins, SIRT3 is extremely interesting, because it appears to suppress one of the contributing causes of aging itself, reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Indeed, genetic polymorphisms in the SIRT3 promoter have been associated with extreme longevity in an Italian population,89,90 although these studies will have to be replicated in other groups. In conclusion, sirtuins are a unique class of proteins that link protein acetylation to metabolism and exert profound effects on mammalian physiology and diseases of aging. The development of drugs that target sirtuins to treat these diseases is ongoing. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Guarente L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cell | Year: 2014

The 40thanniversary of Cell coincides with that of the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Indeed, Cell papers on NIA-funded research helped move the field into a genetic and molecular era. Now is a fair time to ask whether we are far down a trail leading to a deep understanding of aging or whether we are still tiptoeing cautiously at the trailhead. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Rus D.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Tolley M.T.,University of California at San Diego
Nature | Year: 2015

Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Nepf H.M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2011

This review describes mean and turbulent flow and mass transport in the presence of aquatic vegetation. Within emergent canopies, the turbulent length scales are set by the stem diameter and spacing, and the mean flow is determined by the distribution of the canopy frontal area. Near sparse submerged canopies, the bed roughness and near-bed turbulence are enhanced, but the velocity profile remains logarithmic. For dense submerged canopies, the drag discontinuity at the top of the canopy generates a shear layer, which contains canopy-scale vortices that control the exchange of mass and momentum between the canopy and the overflow. The canopy-scale vortices penetrate a finite distance into the canopy, δe, set by the canopy drag. This length scale segregates the canopy into two regions: The upper canopy experiences energetic turbulent transport, controlled by canopy-scale vortices, whereas the lower canopy experiences diminished transport, associated with the smaller stem-scale turbulence. The canopy-scale vortices induce a waving motion in flexible blades, called a monami. Source


Nocera D.G.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP + reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm 2) illumination.This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H 2O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn 3CaO 4-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a corner-sharing, head-to-tail dimer.The ability to perform the oxygen-evolving reaction in water at neutral or near-neutral conditions has several consequences for the construction of the artificial leaf. The NiMoZn alloy may be used in place of Pt to generate hydrogen. To stabilize silicon in water, its surface is coated with a conducting metal oxide onto which the Co-OEC may be deposited. The net result is that immersing a triple-junction Si wafer coated with NiMoZn and Co-OEC in water and holding it up to sunlight can effect direct solar energy conversion via water splitting. By constructing a simple, stand-alone device composed of earth-abundant materials, the artificial leaf provides a means for an inexpensive and highly distributed solar-to-fuels system that employs low-cost systems engineering and manufacturing. Through this type of system, solar energy can become a viable energy supply to those in the non-legacy world. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Guarente L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Genes and Development | Year: 2013

Calorie or dietary restriction (CR) has attracted attention because it is the oldest and most robust way to extend rodent life span. The idea that the nutrient sensors, termed sirtuins, might mediate effects of CR was proposed 13 years ago and has been challenged in the intervening years. This review addresses these challenges and draws from a great body of new data in the sirtuin field that shows a systematic redirection of mammalian physiology in response to diet by sirtuins. The prospects for drugs that can deliver at least a subset of the benefits of CR seems very real. © 2013 Guarente. Source


Lee P.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physical Review X | Year: 2014

The enigmatic pseudogap phase in underdoped cuprate high-Tc superconductors has long been recognized as a central puzzle of the Tc problem. Recent data show that the pseudogap is likely a distinct phase, characterized by a medium range and quasistatic charge ordering. However, the origin of the ordering wave vector and the mechanism of the charge order is unknown. At the same time, earlier data show that precursive superconducting fluctuations are also associated with this phase. We propose that the pseudogap phase is a novel pairing state where electrons on the same side of the Fermi surface are paired, in strong contrast with conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory which pairs electrons on opposite sides of the Fermi surface. In this state the Cooper pair carries a net momentum and belongs to a general class called pair density wave. The microscopic pairing mechanism comes from a gauge theory formulation of the resonating valence bond (RVB) picture, where spinons traveling in the same direction feel an attractive force in analogy with Ampere's effects in electromagnetism. We call this Amperean pairing. Charge order automatically appears as a subsidiary order parameter even when long-range pair order is destroyed by phase fluctuations. Our theory gives a prediction of the ordering wave vector which is in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the quasiparticle spectrum from our model explains many of the unusual features reported in photoemission experiments. The Fermi arc, the unusual way the tip of the arc terminates, and the relation of the spanning vector of the arc tips to the charge ordering wave vector also come out naturally. Finally, we propose an experiment that can directly test the notion of Amperean pairing. Source


O'Gorman P.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2012

Precipitation extremes increase in intensity over many regions of the globe in simulations of a warming climate. The rate of increase of precipitation extremes in the extratropics is consistent across global climate models, but the rate of increase in the tropics varies widely, depending on the model used. The behaviour of tropical precipitation can, however, be constrained by observations of interannual variability in the current climate. Here I show that, across state-of-the-art climate models, the response of tropical precipitation extremes to interannual climate variability is strongly correlated with their response to longer-term climate change, although these responses are different. I then use satellite observations to estimate the response of tropical precipitation extremes to the interannual variability. Applying this observational constraint to the climate simulations and exploiting the relationship between the simulated responses to interannual variability and climate change, I estimate a sensitivity of the 99.9th percentile of daily tropical precipitation to climate change at 10% per K of surface warming, with a 90% confidence interval of 6-14%a €‰K -1. This tropical sensitivity is higher than expectations for the extratropics of about 5%a €‰K -1. The inferred percentage increase in tropical precipitation extremes is similar when considering only land regions, where the impacts of extreme precipitation can be severe. Source


Autor D.H.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Science | Year: 2014

The singular focus of public debate on the "top 1 percent" of households overlooks the component of earnings inequality that is arguably most consequential for the "other 99 percent" of citizens: the dramatic growth in the wage premium associated with higher education and cognitive ability. This Review documents the central role of both the supply and demand for skills in shaping inequality, discusses why skill demands have persistently risen in industrialized countries, and considers the economic value of inequality alongside its potential social costs. I conclude by highlighting the constructive role for public policy in fostering skills formation and preserving economic mobility. Source


Formaggio J.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Zeller G.P.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

Since its original postulation by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, the neutrino has played a prominent role in our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. In the intervening 80 years, scientists have detected and measured neutrinos from a variety of sources, both man made and natural. Underlying all of these observations, and any inferences we may have made from them, is an understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter. Knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections is an important and necessary ingredient in any neutrino measurement. With the advent of new precision experiments, the demands on our understanding of neutrino interactions is becoming even greater. The purpose of this article is to survey our current knowledge of neutrino cross sections across all known energy scales: from the very lowest energies to the highest that we hope to observe. The article covers a wide range of neutrino interactions including coherent scattering, neutrino capture, inverse beta decay, low-energy nuclear interactions, quasielastic scattering, resonant pion production, kaon production, deep inelastic scattering, and ultrahigh energy interactions. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental data whenever such measurements are available. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Bush J.W.M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2015

Yves Couder, Emmanuel Fort, and coworkers recently discovered that a millimetric droplet sustained on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath may self-propel through a resonant interaction with its own wave field. This article reviews experimental evidence indicating that the walking droplets exhibit certain features previously thought to be exclusive to the microscopic, quantum realm. It then reviews theoretical descriptions of this hydrodynamic pilot-wave system that yield insight into the origins of its quantum-like behavior. Quantization arises from the dynamic constraint imposed on the droplet by its pilot-wave field, and multimodal statistics appear to be a feature of chaotic pilot-wave dynamics. I attempt to assess the potential and limitations of this hydrodynamic system as a quantum analog. This fluid system is compared to quantum pilot-wave theories, shown to be markedly different from Bohmian mechanics and more closely related to de Broglie's original conception of quantum dynamics, his double-solution theory, and its relatively recent extensions through researchers in stochastic electrodynamics. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Kanwisher N.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of humancognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide variety of cognitive processes? For nearly two centuries, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain - from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky and Fodor - have jousted with the proponents of distributed cognitive and neural processing - from Flourens to Lashley to McClelland and Rumelhart. I argue here that research using functional MRI is beginning to answer this long-standing question with new clarity and precision by indicating that at least a few specific aspects of cognition are implemented in brain regions that are highly specialized for that process alone. Cortical regions have been identified that are specialized not only for basic sensory and motor processes but also for the high-level perceptual analysis of faces, places, bodies, visually presented words, and even for the very abstract cognitive function of thinking about another person's thoughts. I further consider the as-yet unanswered questions of how much of the mind and brain are made up of these functionally specialized components and how they arise developmentally. Source


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-07-01

The present disclosure provides polyamine-fatty acid derived lipidoids (e.g., compounds of Formula (I) or (II)) and methods of preparing the lipidoids. A described lipidoid includes RC(O)O moieties (where R is a lipid moiety), which may be hydrolyzed into non-toxic fatty acids. Also provided are compositions including a described lipidoid and an agent (e.g., polynucleotide, small molecule, peptide, or protein). The present disclosure also provides methods, kits, and uses that involve the lipidoids or compositions for delivering an agent to a subject, tissue, or cell and/or for treating and/or preventing a range of diseases, such as genetic diseases, proliferative diseases, hematological diseases, neurological diseases, immunological diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory diseases, painful conditions, psychiatric disorders, and metabolic disorders.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2014-08-12

The invention provides methods and compounds for the treatment of neurological disorders, including Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), traumatic brain injury, ischemic brain injury or a stroke. In one aspect the compounds are HDAC1 activators. Exemplary HDAC1 activators include metal chelators, iron chelators, deferoxamin, flavonoids, compounds comprising a catechol moity, ginkgetin K, Chembridge 5104434, sciadopilysin, tetrahydrogamboic acid, TAM-11, LY 235959, CGS 19755, SK&F 97541, etidronic acid, levonordefrin, methyldopa, ampicillin trihydrate, D-aspartic acid, gamma-D-glutamylaminomethylsulfonic acid, phenazopyridine to hydrochloride, oxalamine citrate salt, podophyllotoxin, SK&F 97541, (+)-4-amino-3-(5-chloro-2-thienyl)-butanoic acid, (RS)-(tetrazol-5-yl) glycine, R(+)-SKF-81297, gambogic acid, and derivatives thereof.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-07-23

A spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy apparatus can have a housing with an inlet and an outlet that define an analyte flow path. A laser can define a laser pathway generally transverse to an intersecting the analyte flow path. A pair of electrodes, which can have insulating shields, can be mounted within the housing and can define a spark path. An optical detection element defines an optical path. The apparatus can be used to identify an aerosolized analyte.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-25

A method of obtaining an absolute time reference for a high-frequency (HF) sounding signal includes transmitting a reference signal at a first location and transmitting a sounding signal in close proximity to the transmitting of the reference signal at the first location. The method additionally includes receiving the reference signal at a second location and receiving the sounding signal at the second location. The method further includes determining a relative delay at the second location of the sounding signal in relation to the reference signal. The method also includes determining a propagation mode based upon the relative delay. The method additionally includes determining an absolute time reference based upon the propagation mode being observed. Additional methods and associated systems for implementing the methods are also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-19

Injectable insulin loaded microgels that are capable of modifying the amount of insulin released based on the patients tissue glucose levels, methods for making and using these compositions have been developed. The microgels contain insulin, glucose oxidase entrapped in or bound to the microgels, and an agent that reduces hydrogen peroxide, entrapped in or bound to the microgels, wherein the polymeric microgel expands when pH decreases from physiological pH and shrinks when pH increases towards physiological pH, thereby releasing insulin at a rate corresponding to the glucose concentration. In one embodiment, the glucose oxidase and/or the agent reducing hydrogen peroxide are encapsulated in nanogels, then encapsulated within the microgel.


Patent
Childrens Medical Center Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-25

Devices and methods for the treatment of open and closed wound spinal cord injuries are disclosed. For example, described herein are devices and methods for mitigating secondary injury to, and promoting recovery of, spinal cord primary injuries. More particularly, certain embodiments of the present invention are directed to polymeric mini-tubes that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. In addition, other embodiments are directed to polymeric fill-in bandages that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. For example, an erodible, or biodegradable, form of biocompatible polymer of the present invention is fabricated for surgical implantation into the site of the spinal cord injury.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-04

The present invention generally relates to articles, devices, systems, and methods relating to the storage of solar energy and/or solar energy utilization. In some embodiments, the articles, devices, and systems may be used to carry out photocatalytic reactions, for example, the photocatalytic production of oxygen and/or hydrogen gases from water.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-07-24

Stimulating emission via thuliums lasing transition from the


Patent
Children's Medical Center Dallas and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-18

An instrument port for introducing instruments into a surgical site, including a port body having a channel running therethrough from a proximal end to a distal end, an instrument sleeve in slidable contact with the channel, creating a gap therebetween, and fluid flow for removing emboli efficiently from the instrument port, wherein the fluid flow includes the gap is provided. A fluid flow system for use in an instrument port is provided. A method of removably securing an instrument sleeve to a port body by anchoring the instrument port to heart tissue, making at least one flood line in a channel, flushing out emboli, and performing surgery with the instrument port.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-22

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
University of Washington and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-07

An electronic intravascular device is placed in tight contact with vessel walls and is used for electrical stimulation and/or electrical recording of the vessel wall and surrounding target tissue. The electrodes may operate via connectors interfacing them to external hardware or may incorporate electronics to allow wireless power, information transfer, and control. The device includes an internal skeleton, a flexible substrate attached to the exterior of the skeleton, at least one pair of electrodes located on the substrate, and power and control circuitry connected to the electrodes. The power and control circuitry may include connectors for direct powering of the electrodes or circuit elements for wireless powering of the device by RF-based, optical-based, ultrasound-based, piezoelectric, or vibrational energy harvesting methods. The power and control circuitry may include circuit elements for wireless communication, including between the device and the external environment, and may include on-board processing for control of the electrodes.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-08

A light-trapping geometry enhances the sensitivity of strain, temperature, and/or electromagnetic field measurements using nitrogen vacancies in bulk diamond, which have exterior dimensions on the order of millimeters. In an example light-trapping geometry, a laser beam enters the bulk diamond, which may be at room temperature, through a facet or notch. The beam propagates along a path inside the bulk diamond that includes many total internal reflections off the diamonds surfaces. The NVs inside the bulk diamonds absorb the beam as it propagates. Photodetectors measure the transmitted beam or fluorescence emitted by the NVs. The resulting transmission or emission spectrum represents the NVs quantum mechanical states, which in turn vary with temperature, magnetic field strength, electric field strength, strain/pressure, etc.


Next-generation electrochemical energy storage for integrated microsystems and consumer electronic devices requires novel electrode materials with engineered architectures to meet the requirements of high performance, low cost, and robustness. However, conventional electrode fabrication processes such as doctor blading afford limited control over the electrode thickness and structure at the nanoscale and require the incorporation of insulating binder and other additives, which can promote agglomeration and reduce active surface area, limiting the inherent advantages attainable from nanoscale materials. We have engineered a route for the synthesis of highly stable, sub-8 nm TiO2 nanoparticles and their subsequent incorporation with acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into nanostructured electrodes using aqueous-based layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly. Using this approach, binder-free thin film electrodes with highly controllable thicknesses up to the micrometer scale were developed with well-dispersed, nonagglomerated TiO2 nanoparticles on MWNTs. Upon testing in an Li electrochemical half-cell, these electrodes demonstrate high capacity (>150 mAh/gel(ectrode) at 0.1 A/gel(ectrode)), good rate capability (>100 mAh/gel(ectrode) up to 1 A/g(electrode)) and nearly no capacity loss up to 200 cycles for electrodes with thicknesses up to 1480 nm, indicating their promise as thin-film negative electrodes for future Li storage applications. Source


Bazant M.Z.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Advances in the fields of catalysis and electrochemical energy conversion often involve nanoparticles, which can have kinetics surprisingly different from the bulk material. Classical theories of chemical kinetics assume independent reactions in dilute solutions, whose rates are determined by mean concentrations. In condensed matter, strong interactions alter chemical activities and create variations that can dramatically affect the reaction rate. The extreme case is that of a reaction coupled to a phase transformation, whose kinetics must depend not only on the order parameter but also on its gradients at phase boundaries. Reaction-driven phase transformations are common in electrochemistry, when charge transfer is accompanied by ion intercalation or deposition in a solid phase. Examples abound in Li-ion, metal-air, and lead-acid batteries, as well as metal electrodeposition-dissolution. Despite complex thermodynamics, however, the standard kinetic model is the Butler-Volmer equation, based on a dilute solution approximation. The Marcus theory of charge transfer likewise considers isolated reactants and neglects elastic stress, configurational entropy, and other nonidealities in condensed phases.The limitations of existing theories recently became apparent for the Li-ion battery material LixFePO4 (LFP). It has a strong tendency to separate into Li-rich and Li-poor solid phases, which scientists believe limits its performance. Chemists first modeled phase separation in LFP as an isotropic "shrinking core" within each particle, but experiments later revealed striped phase boundaries on the active crystal facet. This raised the question: What is the reaction rate at a surface undergoing a phase transformation? Meanwhile, dramatic rate enhancement was attained with LFP nanoparticles, and classical battery models could not predict the roles of phase separation and surface modification.In this Account, I present a general theory of chemical kinetics, developed over the past 7 years, which is capable of answering these questions. The reaction rate is a nonlinear function of the thermodynamic driving force, the free energy of reaction, expressed in terms of variational chemical potentials. The theory unifies and extends the Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn equations through a master equation for nonequilibrium chemical thermodynamics. For electrochemistry, I have also generalized both Marcus and Butler-Volmer kinetics for concentrated solutions and ionic solids.This new theory provides a quantitative description of LFP phase behavior. Concentration gradients and elastic coherency strain enhance the intercalation rate. At low currents, the charge-transfer rate is focused on exposed phase boundaries, which propagate as "intercalation waves", nucleated by surface wetting. Unexpectedly, homogeneous reactions are favored above a critical current and below a critical size, which helps to explain the rate capability of LFP nanoparticles. Contrary to other mechanisms, elevated temperatures and currents may enhance battery performance and lifetime by suppressing phase separation. The theory has also been extended to porous electrodes and could be used for battery engineering with multiphase active materials.More broadly, the theory describes nonequilibrium chemical systems at mesoscopic length and time scales, beyond the reach of molecular simulations and bulk continuum models. The reaction rate is consistently defined for inhomogeneous, nonequilibrium states, for example, with phase separation, large electric fields, or mechanical stresses. This research is also potentially applicable to fluid extraction from nanoporous solids, pattern formation in electrophoretic deposition, and electrochemical dynamics in biological cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-30

A method includes determining, by a base station including a number of transmitting coils, a first number of mutual magnetic parameters, each mutual magnetic parameter being associated with one of the transmitting coils and a receiving coil of at least one receiving coil associated with at least one electronic device remotely located from and to be remotely charged by the base station, determining a plurality of control signals based on the first number of mutual magnetic parameters, each control signal being associated with a corresponding one of the transmitting coils, providing each control signal to a driving circuit coupled to the control signals corresponding transmitting coil, and using each control signal to cause the driving circuit coupled to the control signals corresponding transmitting coil to cause a current with a magnitude and phase determined from the control signal to flow in the corresponding transmitting coil.


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-06-16

Systems and methods for single cell culture and analysis by microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry are disclosed. The systems and methods isolate a plurality of cells in a plurality of wells such that a predetermined number of the plurality of wells contain one and only one cell. The plurality of wells allow for optical interrogation of the cells and subsequent matrix assisted laser desorption ionizing of molecules within the cells.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-08-25

A method, apparatus and computer program product for utilizing network coding for multi-resolution multicast is presented. A network source partitions source content into a base layer and one or more refinement layers. The network source receives a respective one or more push-back messages from one or more network destination receivers, the push-back messages identifying the one or more refinement layers suited for each one of the one or more network destination receivers. The network source computes a network code involving the base layer and the one or more refinement layers for at least one of the one or more network destination receivers, and transmits the network code to the one or more network destination receivers in accordance with the push-back messages.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-08-14

Contrary to conventional wisdom, which holds that light-emitting diodes (LEDs) should be cooled to increase efficiency, the LEDs disclosed herein are heated to increase efficiency. Heating an LED operating at low forward bias voltage (e.g., V


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-13

The present invention generally relates to electrodes formed by oxidative chemical vapor deposition and related methods and devices.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-05

Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-16

In some implementations, bending or other shape changes of a device are actuated by inflating or deflating a bladder in the device. Then, once the desired new shape is achieved by this actuation, another bladder in the device is layer-jammed, to make the device rigid in the new shape. In some cases, sheets in the layer-jamming bladder are coated with abrasive particles. In some cases, layer jamming bladders are interwoven to form a woven device. The rigidity of the woven device can be anisotropically controlled. Layer jamming some, but not all, of the bladders in the woven device causes the woven device to have a rigidity that varies by direction. In some cases, a layer-jamming bladder includes a solid layer with a crease in it. As a result, the bladder can easily bend at the crease.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-08-11

A power combining and outphasing system and related techniques for simultaneously providing both wide-bandwidth linear amplification and high average efficiency is described. Providing linear amplification encompasses the ability to dynamically control an RF output power level over a wide range while still operating over a wide frequency bandwidth. The system and techniques described herein also operate to maintain high efficiency across a wide range of output power levels, such that a high average efficiency can be achieved for highly modulated output waveforms.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-08-14

Network coding and multiple packet reception (MPR) are used together to improve message dissemination speed in a wireless network using half duplex communication. In at least one embodiment, MPR is used to initially distribute data packets from a number of source nodes in the network to the other nodes of the network. Network coding techniques may then be used to perform backfilling within the network to supply data packets to the source nodes that were originally missed due to the half duplex constraint.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-26

The present invention provides, among other things, a particle which includes a core comprised of self-assembled one or more nucleic acid molecules, the core being characterized by an ability to adopt at least two configurations: a first configuration having a first greatest dimension greater than 2 m and; a second configuration having a second greatest dimension less than 500 nm, wherein addition of a film coating converts the core from its first configuration to its second configuration. Methods of making and using of provided particles are also disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-02

Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and UChicago Argonne LLC | Date: 2015-02-18

Described herein are redox flow batteries comprising a first aqueous electrolyte comprising a first type of redox active material and a second aqueous electrolyte comprising a second type of redox active material. The first type of redox active material may comprise one or more types of quinoxalines, or salts thereof. Methods for storing and releasing energy utilizing the described redox flow batteries are also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Michigan and The Regents Of The University Of California | Date: 2015-05-19

Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-06

An alkali metal ion source with a moderate rate of release of the ion (e.g. potassium) is formed by a method that includes: 1) combining an particulate ore that contains at least one of an alkali metal ion-bearing framework silicate (e.g. syenite ore) with at least one of an oxide and hydroxide of at least one of an alkali metal and alkaline earth metal such as calcium hydroxide; 2) milling the mixture of these two components optionally, with water, optionally, milling the dry components separately and blended thereafter, optionally, with water; 3) forming a mixture by adding water to the solid mixture after milling, if water was not added before milling; 4) exposing the mixture to an elevated temperature and pressure to form a gel that includes silica and the alkali metal of the framework silicate.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-20

High throughput system for in vivo screens on vertebrate larvae. The system includes a source of vertebrate larvae in a liquid medium and loading tube means for aspirating a larva. A detector assembly is provided to differentiate passage of a larva from bubbles and/or debris. An imaging means is provided for both confocal imaging and wide-field fluorescence imaging of the larva. A laser is provided for optical manipulation of the larva.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-13

A circuit and method for long term electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is implemented with the goal of reducing power consumption, battery size, and consequently device size. In one embodiment, the integrated circuit includes an amplifier cell having a plurality of input terminals and an output terminal; a QRS amplifier cell in communication with the output of the amplifier cell; a baseline amplifier cell in communication with the output of the amplifier cell; a comparator cell having a first input terminal in communication with the output terminal of the QRS amplifier cell; and a V


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-19

Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-07

Flexural digital materials are discrete parts that can be assembled into a lattice structure to produce an actuatable structure capable of coordinated reversible spatially-distributed deformation. The structure comprises a set of discrete flexural digital material units assembled according to a lattice geometry, with a majority of the discrete units being connected, or adapted to be connected, to at least two other units according to the geometry. In response to certain types of loading of the structure, a coordinated reversible spatially-distributed deformation of at least part of the structure occurs. The deformation of the structure is due to the shape or material composition of the discrete units, the configuration of connections between the units, and/or the configuration of the lattice geometry. Exemplary types of such actuatable structures include airplane wing sections and robotic leg structures. An automated process may be employed for constructing an actuatable structure from flexural digital materials.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-18

Hydrodynamic Trap Array. the array includes a serpentine bypassing channel including a plurality of trapping pockets disposed therein, the trapping pockets including a ramp entry portion to decrease flow velocity orthogonal to the trapping pocket to increase trapping efficiency. The relative fluid resistances of the trapping pockets and the serpentine bypassing channel are selected such that a slight majority of the flow is diverted to one of the trapping pockets. A pair of microfluidic bypass channels flank the array of traps allowing independent control of upstream and downstream pressures on each side of the array, thereby decoupling flow magnitude in the bypass channels from flow across the trapping pockets.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-23

Described are palladium precatalysts, and methods of making and using them. The palladium precatalysts show improved stability and improved reactivity in comparison to previously-described palladium precatalysts.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-08-05

A knee prosthesis comprises an agonist-antagonist arrangement of two series-elastic actuators in parallel, including a knee joint, flexion and extension actuators connected to the joint in parallel with a leg member, and a controller for independently energizing the actuators to control the movement of the knee joint and leg. The flexion actuator comprises the series combination of a flexion motor and a flexion elastic element and the extension actuator comprises the series combination of an extension motor and an extension elastic element. Sensors provide feedback to the controller. The flexion actuator and the extension actuator may be unidirectional, with the flexion and extension elastic elements being series springs. The extension actuator may alternatively be bidirectional, with the extension elastic element being a set of pre-compressed series springs. Alternatively, the flexion elastic element may be a non-linear softening spring and the extension elastic element may be a non-linear hardening spring.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-12

A tunable boiling system includes a fluid having a solvent and an ionic surfactant in the solvent, a counter electrode disposed within the fluid, and a working electrode having a surface in contact with the fluid. The system is configured to apply a voltage between the surface and the counter electrode in order to affect bubble formation in the fluid at the surface. Methods of making and using the system are also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and ENI S.p.A | Date: 2013-02-13

The present invention generally relates to cathode buffer materials and devices and methods comprising the cathode buffer materials.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-05

A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-26

A transparent electrode can include a graphene sheet on a substrate, a layer including a conductive polymer disposed over the graphene sheet, and a plurality of semiconducting nanowires, such as ZnO nanowires, disposed over the layer including the conductive polymer.


In a radio network having a plurality of first users on channel (FUOCs) and one or more second users on channel (SUOCs), a method and apparatus for a SUOC to select a channel to co-occupy based in part upon the expected impact on the FUOC. The FUOC collects signal parameters associated with the FUOC, such as actual rate, bandwidth, received signal power, and noise power, and uses the signal parameters to calculate the expected impact. In some embodiments, the expected impact is proportional to the ratio of the FUOCs actual rate and the FUOCs possible code rate.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-13

The disclosure relates to method and apparatus for micro-contact printing of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) in a solvent-free environment. The disclosed embodiments enable forming a composite membrane over a parylene layer and transferring the composite structure to a receiving structure to form one or more microcavities covered by the composite membrane. The parylene film may have a thickness in the range of about 100 nm-2 microns; 100 nm-1 micron, 200-300 nm, 300-500 nm, 500 nm to 1 micron and 1-30 microns. Next, one or more secondary layers are formed over the parylene to create a composite membrane. The composite membrane may have a thickness of about 100 nm to 700 nm to several microns. The composite membranes deflection in response to external forces can be measured to provide a contact-less detector. Conversely, the composite membrane may be actuated using an external bias to cause deflection commensurate with the applied bias. Applications of the disclosed embodiments include tunable lasers, microphones, microspeakers, remotely-activated contact-less pressure sensors and the like.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-14

A system and method for providing electromagnetic imaging through electroquasistatic sensing contains an electromagnetic sensor for imaging a sample. The electromagnetic sensor contains drive/sense electronics and a pixelated sensor array having an array of capacitive sensor electrodes that source electric fields that interact with the sample, and wherein the electrodes are individually drivable by the drive/sense electronics in a coordinated manner to establish a desired temporal and spatial pattern in which electrical properties of the electrodes are used to generate an image. Other components of the system include a precision motion controller, sensor head and associated electronics, and a computer for performing data acquisition and signal inversion.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-12-05

Monolithically integrated heat pump. The heat pump includes as adsorbent/absorbent condenser forming a hot terminal integrated with a phase change heat exchanger forming a cold terminal. The adsorbent/absorbent condenser and the phase change heat exchanger are integrated into a single pressure vessel.


Patent
University of Central Florida and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-13

A fiber is provided that has been thermally drawn from a fiber preform, having a longitudinal-axis length and including at least one core that has a longitudinal core axis parallel to the longitudinal axis and internally disposed to at least one outer fiber cladding material layer along the fiber length. The fiber is fed through a localized heating site having a heating site temperature, T, that is above a melting temperature of the fiber core, with a feed speed,


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-26

In one embodiment, a method of amplifying temporal variation in at least two images comprises examining pixel values of the at least two images. The temporal variation of the pixel values between the at least two images can be below a particular threshold. The method can further include applying signal processing to the pixel values.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-15

In an illustrative implementation of this invention, an animated holographic display is created as follows: Multiple HPO holograms in the shape of horizontal strips are recorded on an H2 medium. These horizontal strips are vertically displaced from each other. An animated real image is displayed by sequentially illuminating these HPO holograms. In illustrative implementations of this invention, the vertical perspective of at least some adjacent HPO stripes are identical.


An aqua-robotic pollutant removing device includes a buoyant body, an electromechanical housing coupled to the buoyant body, and a pollutant absorbing belt coupled to the electromechanical housing and extending outward from the buoyant body. The electromechanical housing is constructed and arranged to rotate the pollutant absorbing belt.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-08-07

In one aspect, a composition can include an organelle, and a nanoparticle having a zeta potential of less than 10 mV or greater than 10 mV contained within the organelle. In a preferred embodiment, the organelle can be a chloroplast and the nanoparticle can be a single-walled carbon nanotube associated with a strongly anionic or strongly cationic polymer.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-25

A system for providing a content neutral virtual collaborative environment is includes a server and a plurality of clients, including a data feed and a client device. The server is communication with the clients, and includes a memory, a processor, and a message bus configured to convey a plurality of entity messages for creating, modifying, or deleting entities. The processor is configured to convert data from clients into entity messages on the message bus. The processor parses the entity message to accordingly create, update, and/or remove entities, storing the entity message in the memory.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-06-02

Thermo-adsorptive batteries can provide the heating and cooling functions by taking advantage of the reversible adsorption/desorption cycles involving the pair of the zeolite adsorbent and condensable vapor adsorbate.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-27

An active imaging system, which includes a light source and light sensor, generates structured illumination. The light sensor captures transient light response data regarding reflections of light emitted by the light source. The transient light response data is wavelength-resolved. One or more processors process the transient light response data and data regarding the structured illumination to calculate a reflectance spectra map of an occluded surface. The processors also compute a 3D geometry of the occluded surface.


Patent
President And Fellows Of Harvard College, Childrens Medical Center Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-09-04

The present invention generally relates to nanoscale wires and tissue engineering. In various embodiments, cell scaffolds for growing cells or tissues can be formed that include nanoscale wires that can be connected to electronic circuits extending externally of the cell scaffold. The nanoscale wires may form an integral part of cells or tissues grown from the cell scaffold, and can even be determined or controlled, e.g., using various electronic circuits. This approach allows for the creation of fundamentally new types of functionalized cells and tissues, due to the high degree of electronic control offered by the nanoscale wires and electronic circuits. Accordingly, such cell scaffolds can be used to grow cells or tissues which can be determined and/or controlled at very high resolutions, due to the presence of the nanoscale wires, and such cell scaffolds will find use in a wide variety of novel applications, including applications in tissue engineering, prosthetics, pacemakers, implants, or the like.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-08

Multimode interference can be used to achieve ultra-high resolving powers (e.g., Q>10


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-31

Automatic process control of additive manufacturing. The system includes an additive manufacturing device for making an object and a local network computer controlling the device. At least one camera is provided with a view of a manufacturing volume of the device to generate network accessible images of the object. The computer is programmed to stop the manufacturing process when the object is defective based en the images of the object.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-15

Lipid conjugates for enhanced delivery of cargo to the lymph nodes are disclosed. The lipid conjugates typically include three domains: a lipophilic domain that binds to albumin, a polar block domain, and a cargo such as a molecular adjuvant or immunostimulatory compound (such as an oligonucleotide) or antigenic peptide. Depending on the cargo, the length and compositions of the polar block can be tailored to push the equilibrium toward albumin binding, stable micelle formation, or cell insertion. The conjugates can be administered to a subject, for example, a subject with cancer or an infection, to induce or enhance a robust immune response in the subject.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-25

The present invention provides, among other things, methods, reagents, and systems for the treatment, detection, analysis, and/or characterization of influenza infections.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-03

In exemplary implementations of this invention, a nozzle sprays foam, layer by layer, to fabricate a fabricated object according to a CAD model, and a subtractive fabrication tool removes material from the fabricated object according to a CAD model. The fabricated object comprises a mold or an interior form. The foam may be low-density, high strength and fast-curing. The foam may be used for large-scale 3D printing. For example, the foam may be used to 3D print molds for walls of homes. The foam molds may be left in place, after casting concrete in the molds, to serve as insulation. Or for example, the foam may be used to 3D print on site an internal form for a large wind turbine blade. The wind turbine blade may then be produced on site by depositing fiberglass on the outside of the internal form.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-18

The present invention is directed to a drug delivery composition comprising a self-assembled nanostructure and biologically active molecule, wherein the nanostructure comprises surfactant peptides, and wherein the biologically active molecule is encapsulated in the nanostructure. The invention also encompasses methods of administering a biologically active molecule to a subject comprising administering the drug delivery composition and methods for the preparation of said composition.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-15

Electrospinning of crystalline particles comprising active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) from suspensions yields fibrous compositions comprising the API. The morphology and size of the crystalline particles may be preserved. The particles may be predominantly retained by fibers and distributed throughout the fibrous mesh. Tablet forms of the APIs prepared from the fibrous compositions demonstrate higher dissolution rates than tablets prepared from compacted powders of the APIs.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-20

Provided in one embodiment is a method of identifying a stable phase of an ordering binary alloy system comprising a solute element and a solvent element, the method comprising: determining at least three thermodynamic parameters associated with grain boundary segregation, phase separation, and intermetallic compound formation of the ordering binary alloy system; and identifying the stable phase of the ordering binary alloy system based on the first thermodynamic parameter, the second thermodynamic parameter and the third thermodynamic parameter by comparing the first thermodynamic parameter, the second thermodynamic parameter and the third thermodynamic parameter with a predetermined set of respective thermodynamic parameters to identify the stable phase; wherein the stable phase is one of a stable nanocrystalline phase, a metastable nanocrystalline phase, and a non-nanocrystalline phase.


Patent
Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2013-10-28

The invention relates to methods for identifying compounds and compositions that target cancer stem cells. In some aspects, the invention relates to treatment methods that use compounds and compositions that specifically target cancer stem cells for inhibiting the growth and/or survival of cancer stem cells in a subject in need thereof. Other aspects of the invention relate to the use of cancer stem cell biomarkers in the selection of a treatment for inhibiting the growth and/or survival of cancer stem cells in a subject in need thereof.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-05

Described herein is a fixed-point piece-wise linear (FP PWL) approximation technique for computations of nonlinear functions. The technique results in circuit designs having relatively few and simple arithmetic operations, short arithmetic operands and small-sized look-up tables and the circuits resultant there from can be efficiently pipelined to run at multi-GSamples/s throughputs. In one exemplary embodiment, the FP PWL approximation technique was used in the design of an energy-efficient high-throughput and high-precision signal component separator (SCS) for use with in an asymmetric-multilevel-outphasing (AMO) power amplifier. The FP PWL approximation technique is appropriate for use in any application requiring high-throughput, area and power constrained hardware implementations of nonlinear functions.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Childrens Medical Center Corporation | Date: 2014-02-11

Devices and methods for the treatment of open and closed wound spinal cord injuries are disclosed. For example, described herein are devices and methods for mitigating secondary injury to, and promoting recovery of, spinal cord primary injuries. More particularly, certain embodiments of the present invention are directed to polymeric mini-tubes that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. In addition, other embodiments are directed to polymeric fill-in bandages that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. For example, an erodible, or biodegradable, form of biocompatible polymer of the present invention is fabricated for surgical implantation into the site of the spinal cord injury.


Patent
Massachusetts General Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-12-10

Nanoparticles for a selective, two stage delivery to tumors have been developed. The nanoparticles are initially sized so that they preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue as a result of leakage through the defective vascular in the solid tumors. Once in the tumor tissue, the nanoparticles are cleaved hydrolytically and/or by enzymatic cleavage over time to release smaller nanoparticles carrying therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic agents into the necrotic interior of the tumors. This provides a simple, elegant and highly effective means of delivery drug selectively not just to tumors generally, but, more importantly, into the poorly vascularized necrotic interiors which drugs are normally unable to penetrate. The nanoparticles have a number of advantages: less toxicity due to selective accumulation only in the tumors; access into the poorly vascularized necrotic interiors of the tumor; and sustained release over a period of time within the tumor.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-02

An Active Ankle Foot Orthosis (AAFO) is provided where the impedance of an orthotic joint is modulated throughout the walking cycle to treat ankle foot gait pathology, such as drop foot gait. During controlled plantar flexion, a biomimetic torsional spring control is applied where orthotic joint stiffness is actively adjusted to minimize forefoot collisions with the ground. Throughout late stance, joint impedance is minimized so as not to impede powered plantar flexion movements, and during the swing phase, a torsional spring-damper (PD) control lifts the foot to provide toe clearance. To assess the clinical effects of variable-impedance control, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on two drop foot participants wearing the AAFO. It has been found that actively adjusting joint impedance reduces the occurrence of slap foot, allows greater powered plantar flexion, and provides for less kinematic difference during swing when compared to normals.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Ximo AG | Date: 2014-05-01

The present application provides, among other things, novel compounds and methods for metathesis reactions. In some embodiments, a provided compound has the structure of formula I. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for preparing a compound of formula I. In some embodiments, the present invention provides metathesis methods comprising providing a compound of formula I.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Tokitae LLC | Date: 2014-12-16

Emulsion-based and micromolded (MM) or three dimensional printed (3DP) polymeric formulations for single injection of antigen, preferably releasing at two or more time periods, have been developed. Formulations are preferably formed of biocompatible, biodegradable polymers. Discrete regions encapsulating antigen, alone or in combination with other antigens, adjuvants, stabilizers, and release modifiers, are present in the formulations. Antigen is preferably present in excipient at the time of administration, or on the surface of the formulation, for immediate release, and incorporated within the formulation for release at ten to 45 days after initial release of antigen, optionally at ten to 90 day intervals for release of antigen in one or more additional time periods. Antigen may be stabilized through the use of stabilizing agents such as trehalose glass. In a preferred embodiment for immunization against polio, antigen is released at the time of administration, and two, four and six months thereafter.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-21

Disclosed is a new approach for delivering compounds and drugs to the cytosol of living cells through the use of engineered protein transporters. The engineered protein transporters include a pore and a pore specific delivery protein, wherein a reagent such as a drug is attached to one or more of the engineered protein transporters.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-09-04

An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-10

A biotemplated nanomaterial can include a crystalline perovskite.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-01

The present invention provides novel 1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione derivatives, such as compounds of any one of Formulae (I) and (II), and salts thereof, and methods of preparing the compounds. Also provided are compositions including a compound of the invention and an agent (e.g., an siRNA, mRNA, or plasmid DNA). The present invention also provides methods and kits using the compositions for delivering an agent to a subject (e.g., to the liver, spleen, or lung of the subject) or cell and for treating and/or preventing a range of diseases, such as genetic diseases, proliferative diseases, hematological diseases, neurological diseases, liver diseases, and lung diseases.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-07-12

The invention relates to methods and related products for treatment or protozoan disease. The invention also relates to new compositions of matter useful in the treatment of protozoan disease and methods of identifying additional active compounds.


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-11

The invention provides methods and compositions for reducing, preventing or reversing cardio toxicity side effects associated with certain therapeutic agents. The invention also provides methods and compositions for treating heart dysfunction including heart failure, and for reversing the effects of myocardial infarction. The various aspects of the invention involve the use of ligand dimers, such as neuregulin dimers, that selectively induce the dimerization of certain EGF receptors in cardiac tissue.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Yeshiva University | Date: 2013-04-12

Methods and compositions are provided for diagnosing or inhibiting invasion or metastasis of a cancer in a subject based on Mena


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Tokitae LLC | Date: 2014-12-16

Salt formulations, which are resistant to moisture and cooking conditions, are described herein. The formulations provide particles of micronutrients and vitamins encapsulated within heat resistant pH-sensitive water-insoluble polymers, which are packaged within a salt shell. The pH-sensitive, water-insoluble, thermally stable materials stabilize the micronutrients, particularly at high temperatures, such as during food preparation and cooking, and release the micronutrients at the desired locations such as the stomach, small intestine, etc. Preferred pH-sensitive polymers release at a low pH, less than the pH present in the stomach. The particles can be used to deliver daily-recommended doses of micronutrients simultaneously with salt, eliminating the need for vitamin pills. This is particularly important in populations suffering from severe malnutrition.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-07-29

A method or corresponding apparatus in an example embodiment of the present invention relates to penetrating a particulate substrate using a compact, lightweight, low-energy, reversible, and dynamic device for burrowing through particulate substrates. In one preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes at least one vessel and a displacement module coupled with the vessel. The actuation of the displacement module fluidizes the particulate substrate proximate to the vessel and thereby reduces resistance of the particulate substrate to movement of the vessel and causes further penetration of the apparatus through the particulate substrate. The example embodiment utilizes volume contraction and localized fluidizing to efficiently move through substrates.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-14

An anisotropic spatial acousto-optic modulator for a holographic display system includes a substrate, an anisotropic waveguide that guides light into a single polarization, and a transducer that generates surface acoustic waves that propagate linearly with the guided, polarized light, converting at least some of the polarized light into a leaky mode of orthogonally polarized light. The acoustic waves may be encoded with holographic information. The modulator may include coupling devices for coupling light into the waveguide, which may have multiple channels. A holographic video display system includes at least one anisotropic spatial acousto-optic modulator. The pattern of the surface acoustic waves, encoded with holographic information, acts as a diffraction pattern that causes the modulator output to form a wavefront that becomes at least part of a holographic image. The system may have multiple channels in multiple waveguides, wherein each waveguide writes one or more lines of the holographic image.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-17

A full-parallax acousto-optic/electro-optic holographic video display includes a control layer and a piezo-electric layer, which includes a substrate and an array of anisotropic waveguide elements. Each waveguide element guides light into a single polarization and includes a horizontal grating, which diffracts light horizontally and comprises surface acoustic waves, and vertical grating, which diffracts light vertically and includes an electro-optic phased array. The surface acoustic waves propagate linearly with the guided, polarized light in the waveguide, converting the polarized light into a leaky mode of orthogonal polarized light. The combination of the horizontal and vertical gratings allows the waveguide element to focus light to multiple points and steer it in order to form a holographic image. The horizontal grating may be generated by interdigital acousto-optic transducers and the vertical grating may be controlled by electro-optic transducers. Each waveguide element may be subdivided into sub-waveguides that form the electro-optic phased array.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-04

Chimeric molecules that contain at least one pathogen-detection domain and at least one effector domain, and their methods of use in preventing or treating a pathogen infection in a cell or organism are described. The pathogen-detection domain and effector domain of the chimeric molecules are domains not typically found in nature to be associated together. Agents are also described herein having at least one pathogen-interacting molecular structure and at least one effector-mediating molecular structure, the agent being one that is non-naturally-occurring in a cell. The methods of prevention and treatment described herein are effective for a broad spectrum of pathogens and exhibit little or no toxic side-effects. Assays for the detection of a pathogen, pathogen component, or product produced or induced by a pathogen, are also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-01-09

A device for thermal energy harvesting can use pulsed heat.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-07

The present invention provides, among other things, multilayer film coating compositions, coated substrates and methods thereof. In some embodiments, a structure includes a substrate; and a multilayer film coated on the substrate, wherein adjacent layers of the multilayer film are associated with one another via one or more non-covalent interactions, wherein the multilayer film comprises a first nucleic acid agent present at a loading density, and further wherein the multilayer film is characterized in that, when the structure is placed on a subject so that the multilayer film contacts cells, the first nucleic acid agent is released with a profile characterized by a feature selected from the group consisting of 1) being a burst-free release; 2) being a sustained release; and 3) exhibiting in vitro and/or in vivo biological effectiveness.


The invention relates to a pharmaceutical formulation for sustained delivery of a therapeutic agent, preferably a protein, polypeptide, an antibody or an antibody fragment, comprising one or more gel forming peptides wherein the formulation exhibits sustained delivery for at least two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, five weeks, six weeks, seven weeks, eight weeks, nine weeks, ten weeks, eleven weeks, twelve weeks or more. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a formulation comprising self-assembling peptides that undergo sol-gel transition in the presence of an electrolyte solution such as biological fluids and salts. The formulation can provide sustained release of antibody and antibody fragments, in particular, IgG. Antibody diffusivities can be decreased with increasing hydrogel nanofiber density, providing a means to control the release kinetics.


A method and system for continuous measurement chromatograph involves stochastically modulating a system variable. The sample can be introduced into a chromatography column. The sample introduction can be modulated stochastically. The sample output from the column can be detected and processed with the stochastic input to provide a sample analysis.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-10-02

The present disclosure describes, among other things, new layered molybdenum oxides for lithium ion battery cathodes from solid solutions of Li


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-03

Exemplary embodiments provide dispensers and delivery devices that release their contents at sustained rates. An exemplary device may include one or more reservoirs for holding a solid, semisolid, liquid or gaseous substance that may be released outside the device. Exemplary devices enable sustained release of their contents over a predetermined period of time, for example, up to a month or more. Exemplary devices also enable release of the contents according to, for example, predetermined release rates and profiles customized for the use of the device. Each reservoir of the device may include one or more apertures through which the contents may be released outside the reservoir. Each aperture may be covered by one or more porous membranes to allow sustained release of the contents of the reservoir.


Patent
Fujitsu Limited and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-17

A transportation service reservation method executes, by a computer, a process including receiving a ride request specifying an origin and a destination, generating feasible products having service types, by referring to a storage unit that stores information indicating a schedule allocated to each vehicle and the service types of the schedule, for each vehicle capable of providing products having the service types, computing a choice probability of each product forming an assortment of the feasible products, for each of assortments satisfying a predetermined condition amongst the subsets of the feasible product set that are generated, computing an expected value of a number of future ride requests, and selecting an assortment to be presented with respect to the ride request, from the assortment satisfying the predetermined condition, based on the choice probability and the expected value.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-06-08

A method for operating a secure device having a plurality of mutually exclusive circuit zones, including a first circuit zone having a first level of security and a second circuit zone having a second level of security less than the first level of security, the method including unpacking a key exchange package including receiving a key exchange package in the second circuit zone, the key exchange package including encrypted key data and processing the encrypted key data using a content key in the first circuit zone to generate decrypted key data and storing the decrypted key data in the first circuit zone without disclosing the decrypted key data into the second circuit zone.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University | Date: 2013-07-29

The present invention is directed to engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages that are both capable of killing the bacteria by lysis and dispersing the bacterial biofilm because they have been also engineered to express biofilm-degrading enzymes, particularly dispersin B (DspB), an enzyme that hydrolyzes -1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a crucial adhesion molecule needed for biofilm formation and integrity in


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-25

Provided herein are lipidoids that may be prepared from the conjugate addition of alkylamines to acrylates. In some embodiments, provided lipidoids are biodegradable and may be used in a variety of drug delivery systems. Given the amino moiety of the lipidoids, they are well-suited for the delivery of polynucleotides, in addition to other agents. Nanoparticles containing the inventive lipidoids and polynucleotides have been prepared and have been shown to be effective in delivering siRNA.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-20

The present invention relates to an enlarged sample of interest for microscopy and methods for enlarging a sample of interest and the optical imaging of a sample of interest with resolution better than the classical microscopy diffraction limit, by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a sample, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-07-28

A two-phase microchannel heat sink can be a fluid channel including a bottom wall including a superhydrophilic surface with microstructures and a side wall including a surface that is hydrophobic relative to the superhydrophilic surface of the bottom wall. When heat flux is applied to the fluid channel, a liquid film on the bottom wall is maintained and nucleation of boiling occurs only on the side wall.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-12

In exemplary implementations, a target rod is actuated. The target rod is part of a set of threaded, elongated rods, the longitudinal axes of which are substantially parallel to each other. The set of rods has an interior region and a perimeter region. Actuators induce vibrations in a set of perimeter rods. These vibrations are substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axes. Furthermore, the vibrations are transmitted to interior rods, causing a target rod in the interior region to rotate about, and translate along, the longitudinal axis of the target rod. The target rod undergoes stick-slip motion relative to adjacent rods.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston College | Date: 2014-10-17

Thermoelectric materials with high figures of merit, ZT values, are disclosed. In many instances, such materials include nano-sized domains (e.g., nanocrystalline), which are hypothesized to help increase the ZT value of the material (e.g., by increasing phonon scattering due to interfaces at grain boundaries or grain/inclusion boundaries). The ZT value of such materials can be greater than about 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2 and even higher. Such materials can be manufactured from a thermoelectric starting material by generating nanoparticles therefrom, or mechanically alloyed nanoparticles from elements which can be subsequently consolidated (e.g., via direct current induced hot press) into a new bulk material. Non-limiting examples of starting materials include bismuth, lead, and/or silicon-based materials, which can be alloyed, elemental, and/or doped. Various compositions and methods relating to aspects of nanostructured theromoelectric materials (e.g., modulation doping) are further disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-18

An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-07

Cementitious compositions and methods of synthesis are disclosed. By decreasing the Ca-rich raw material in a cement composition, the content of Alite (Ca


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research and University of Massachusetts Amherst | Date: 2015-10-16

The present invention relates to a


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-10-25

A system and method for controlling the operation of a particulate filter is disclosed. The objective of this control system is to manipulate the properties and spatial distribution of contaminant material accumulated in filters to reduce filter pressure drop and associated deleterious impacts of the contaminant material on filter performance.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-01-15

An original wafer, typically silicon, has the form of a desired end PV wafer. The original may be made by rapid solidification or CVD. It has small grains. It is encapsulated in a clean thin film, which contains and protects the silicon when recrystallized to create a larger grain structure. The capsule can be made by heating a wafer in the presence of oxygen, or steam, resulting in silicon dioxide on the outer surface, typically 1-2 microns. At least one support element supports the wafer at the time the capsule is provided and blocks only minimal surface area from contact with the film forming atmosphere. There may be a plurality of support elements, or a surface may provide such support. The capsule contains the molten material during recrystallization, and protects against impurities. Recrystallization may be in air. After recrystallization, the capsule is removed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-21

Power production among photovoltaic elements can be equalized through charge redistribution, which can reduce or eliminate the effect of partial shading. Also described is a technique for differential power processing by individually setting currents through different strings of photovoltaic elements.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-02

Techniques for performing finite memory network coding in an arbitrary network limit an amount of memory that is provided within a node of the network for the performance of network coding operations during data relay operations. When a new data packet is received by a node, the data stored within the limited amount of memory may be updated by linearly combining the new packet with the stored data. In some implementations, different storage buffers may be provided within a node for the performance of network coding operations and decoding operations.


Patent
President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-19

A uniform external field can enhance condensation on a superhydrophobic surface. Jumping droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces accumulate a positive charge which promises the manipulation and control of jumping behavior using external electric fields.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-28

A platform for context-aware experimentation includes a housing for one or more sensors for obtaining data pertaining to an on-going experiment, a communications subsystem for transmitting data obtained by the sensors, and a microcontroller for receiving data from the sensors, providing it to the communications subsystem, and possibly controlling the sensors. The housing may be a tube, which may be configured to hold a sample and may have a cap, or a waterproof package, which may have an opening to admit at least part of a sample. The platform may include a power source. The platform may include a computer processor, located outside the housing, for analyzing the data obtained by the sensors, determining the experimental context in which the sensors are operating and/or which experimental step in a protocol is being performed, and/or reminding users of required parameters for the steps in the protocol.


Systems and methods for the formation of nanostructures, including carbon-based nanostructures, are generally described. In certain embodiments, substrate configurations and associated methods are described.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-14

A device is disclosed for reconstitution and delivery of an injectable pharmaceutical. A diluent is provided in a pressurized reservoir, while separately a syringe with a needle contains a pharmaceutical such as a lyophilized drug. When the pressurized reservoir is coupled to the interior of the syringe, such as by piercing the pressurized reservoir with the needle, the pressurized reservoir forces the diluent into the syringe where the diluent can mix with and reconstitute the pharmaceutical. A variety of techniques are disclosed for pressurizing the reservoir and fluidly coupling the reservoir with the syringe. The techniques disclosed herein may, for example, be adapted for use with a conventional syringe and needle.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-10-25

Devices and associated methods are provided herein for creating arrays of thin films on a substrate utilizing a capillary force layer-by-layer assembly. Such devices and methods can be configured for forming one or more channels when the device is in operable contact with the substrate, each channel having an inlet reservoir at one end by which the coating material is introduced into the channel, wherein each channel is a lengthwise enclosure defined by a surface of the substrate on one side and one or more adjacent structures of the assembly surrounding the channel along its length. Provided devices and methods facilitate automated, precise manufacture of arrays of customized thin films for lab-on-a-chip biological and/or chemical assay products, for example. Additionally, provided devices and methods significantly reduce material waste, improves quality control, and expands the potential applications of LBL into new research space.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Date: 2015-06-19

A multi-stage bubble-column vapor mixture condenser comprises at least a first stage and a second stage. Each stage includes a carrier-gas inlet and a carrier-gas outlet, as well as a condenser chamber containing a condensing bath in fluid communication with the carrier-gas inlet and the carrier-gas outlet. The carrier-gas inlet is positioned to bubble carrier gas from the carrier-gas inlet up through the condensing bath, overcoming a hydrostatic head of the condensing bath. The carrier-gas outlet is positioned with an opening for carrier-gas extraction above the condensing bath, wherein the first-stage carrier-gas outlet is in fluid communication with the carrier-gas inlet of the second stage to facilitate flow of the carrier gas through the condensing bath in the condenser chamber of the first stage and then through the condensing bath in the condenser chamber of the second stage.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Regents Of The University Of California | Date: 2013-03-15

The invention relates to anti-sigma factors (anti-sigmas) that bind to sigma factors and block activation of transcription. Anti-sigmas and their cognate sigma factors provide a highly effective mechanism for regulating gene expression in genetic circuits.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Date: 2014-10-31

Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.


Patent
Singapore University of Technology, Design and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-20

The present invention relates to a material. In particular, it relates to a membrane for filtering water. More particularly, it relates to a membrane comprising carbon nanotubes and mixed cellulose ester porous membranes for water desalination and purification. Still more particular, the membrane comprising a fibrous substrate and carbon nanotubes formed on a fibrous substrate, wherein the surface of the carbon nanotubes is functionally modified. A microfluidic device comprising such a membrane and a method for filtering water are also disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-23

In certain embodiments, the invention relates to an article having a liquid-impregnated surface. The surface includes a matrix of solid features (e.g., non-toxic and/or edible features) spaced sufficiently close to stably contain a liquid therebetween or therewithin, wherein the liquid is non-toxic and/or edible. The article may contain, for example, a food or other consumer product, such as ketchup, mustard, or mayonnaise.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-23

Sonic Hedgehog modulators and methods of use thereof are provided for.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-06

The invention provides methods, and compositions for performing the methods, that reduce the diffusion or overall mobility of a virus on a surface, such as a biological surface using a purified mucin. The methods can reduce the infectivity of a virus for a cell on the surface. In particular embodiments, the mucin can be a non-human mucin, such as a procine gastric mucin.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-15

Flow battery. The battery includes high energy density fluid electrodes having a selected non-Newtonian rheology and structure for providing intermittent flow pulses of controlled volume and duration of the fluid electrodes, the structure adapted to promote interfacial slip to improve flow uniformity. The battery disclosed herein provides a potential solution to large-scale electrical energy storage needs.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-19

Multi-actuator system. The system includes at least two nano positioners having different ranges and bandwidths located in cascaded serial form to contact and move an object. A control system employs data-based control design to combine the at least two nano positioners so as to apportion actuation responsibilities among the at least two nano positioners so as to compensate for their coupled dynamics while moving the object. It is preferred to provide a separate controller for controlling separately each of the at least two nano positioners. Parameters of the separate controllers may be determined by minimizing output error.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-21

A model-based neuromechanical controller for a robotic limb having at least one joint includes a finite state machine configured to receive feedback data relating to the state of the robotic limb and to determine the state of the robotic limb, a muscle model processor configured to receive state information from the finite state machine and, using muscle geometry and reflex architecture information and a neuromuscular model, to determine at least one desired joint torque or stiffness command to be sent to the robotic limb, and a joint command processor configured to command the biomimetic torques and stiffnesses determined by the muscle model processor at the robotic limb joint. The feedback data is preferably provided by at least one sensor mounted at each joint of the robotic limb. In a preferred embodiment, the robotic limb is a leg and the finite state machine is synchronized to the leg gait cycle.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-12

Described herein are embodiments of a source high-Q resonator, optionally coupled to an energy source, a second high-Q resonator, optionally coupled to an energy drain that may be located a distance from the source resonator. A third high-Q resonator, optionally coupled to an energy drain that may be located a distance from the source resonator. The source resonator and at least one of the second resonator and third resonator may be coupled to transfer electromagnetic energy from said source resonator to said at least one of the second resonator and third resonator.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Date: 2014-10-08

Methods of selection of nucleic acids using solution hybridization, methods of sequencing nucleic acids including such selection methods, and products for use in the methods are disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-10

A method and an array filling system for loading a plurality of disparate sample containers, the sample containers comprising an integral structure. Each receptacle is characterized by a hydrophilic surface, and the receptacles are separated by a hydrophobic surface. The system has a liquid transfer device capable of holding liquid and adapted for motion to cause sequential communication of liquid held in the liquid transfer device with successive receptacles of the array by dragging the liquid across the hydrophobic surface.


A method and apparatus for predicting patient outcome from a physiological segmentable signal of a patient. In one embodiment, the method comprises the steps of obtaining the physiological segmentable signal of the patient; segmenting the physiological segmentable signal into a plurality of separate segmentable components; calculating a time series of the morphological distance between adjacent separate segmentable components of the plurality of separate segmentable components; and predicting patient outcome in response to the time series of the morphological distance. In another aspect, the invention relates to a method for extracting information from physiological signals for one or more subjects including the steps of partitioning the physiological signal into a plurality of components, grouping the components into a plurality of information classes, assigning a unique symbol to each information class, mapping each component to the assigned symbol, and examining one or more such sequences for clinical significance.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-10

The invention relates to methods for diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders, particularly for autism spectrum disorders characterized by increased head size (circumference) and deficits in social behavior.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-08-15

In a system for unsupervised spike sorting, features/dimensions suitable for clustering of the recorded spike signal data are identified, and the feature space is scaled according to the computed respective importances of the various features/dimensions. Clustering is performed on the scaled feature space.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-20

Herein is provided a growth structure for forming a free-standing layer of crystalline material having at least one crystallographic symmetry. The growth structure includes a host substrate and a separation layer disposed on the host substrate for growth of a layer of the crystalline material thereon. The separation layer has a separation layer thickness, and is mechanically weaker than the host substrate and the crystalline material. An array of apertures is in the separation layer, each aperture extending through the separation layer thickness.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-09-26

Disclosed are compounds and methods relating to a chemical transformation for the conjugation of unprotected peptide biomolecules via a S


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-28

Aromatic molecules are seeded on a surface of a growth substrate; and a layer (e.g., a monolayer) of a metal dichalcogenide is grown via chemical vapor deposition on the growth substrate surface seeded with aromatic molecules. The seeded aromatic molecules are contacted with a solvent that releases the metal dichalcogenide layer from the growth substrate. The metal dichalcogenide layer can be released with an adhered transfer medium and can be deposited on a target substrate.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-11

The present invention provides systems, devices, and related methods, involving electrochemical actuation. In some cases, application of a voltage or current to a system or device of the invention may generate a volumetric or dimensional change, which may produce mechanical work. For example, at least a portion of the system may be constructed and arranged to be displaced from a first orientation to a second orientation. Systems such as these may be useful in various applications, including pumps (e.g., infusion pumps) and drug delivery devices, for example.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Date: 2014-03-03

This disclosure describes techniques and systems for extracting energy from the endocochlear potential (EP) in animal subjects (e.g., human subjects) and using the extracted energy to operate circuits (e.g., electronic device, sensors, and transmitters). The subject matter of this disclosure is embodied, for example, in a system for extracting energy from an endocochlear potential of an animal, wherein the system includes a pair of electrodes, and a circuit coupled to the pair of electrodes. The circuit includes a boost converter, an energy buffer component configured to receive voltage from the boost converter, a start-up rectifier configured to provide voltage to the energy buffer component, and a control component configured to provide control signals to the boost converter. The power extracted from the endocochlear potential is equal or larger than the quiescent power of the circuit.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-19

A method for precise control of movement of a motive phase on a lubricant-impregnated surface includes providing a lubricant-impregnated surface, introducing the motive phase onto the lubricant-impregnated surface, and exposing the droplets to an electric and/or magnetic field to induce controlled movement of the droplets on the surface. The lubricant-impregnated surface includes a matrix of solid features spaced sufficiently close to stably contain the impregnating lubricant therebetween or therewithin. The motive phase is immiscible or scarcely miscible with the impregnating lubricant.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Rockefeller University | Date: 2014-09-26

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-08-08

The present invention provides materials, devices, and methods related to determination of an analyte. In some embodiments, an analyte may be determined by monitoring, for example, a change in an optical signal of a luminescent material (e.g., particle) upon exposure to an analyte. The present invention may be particularly advantageous in that some embodiments may comprise an emissive species useful as an internal reference standard. Methods of the invention may also be useful in the quantitative determination of an analyte. In some cases, the present invention may allow for selective determination of an analyte.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Broad Institute Inc. | Date: 2014-02-18

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research and University of Massachusetts Amherst | Date: 2014-09-03

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene silencing in many organisms by a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). Using a


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-30

A method and apparatus for detecting and removing air from a syringe containing a volume of liquid and a volume of gas is described. The method includes moving a piston in the syringe to expel gas through an orifice of the syringe, sensing a movement of the piston in the syringe, and determining when the volume of gas is expelled from the syringe based on a change in the sensed movement. Moving the piston may include applying oscillating force to the piston using an electromagnetic actuator, and displacement and speed of the piston during each oscillation may be sensed. Determining when the volume of gas is expelled may be based on a change in the sensed movement of the piston during one or more oscillations of the piston or based on a comparison to a given reference value.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-20

A sensor for detecting an analyte can include a photoluminescent nanostructure embedded in a sensor hydrogel. The sensor hydrogel can be supported by a substrate hydrogel.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-07

A method and system for acquiring a series of medical images includes receiving medical imaging data corresponding to photons emitted from a subject having received a dose of a radiotracer. Determining, from the medical imaging data, coincidence events including photon coincidence events involving two photons and photon coincidence events involving more than two photons. The photon coincidence events involving two photons and photon coincidence events involving more than two photons are processed and use to reconstruct a series of medical images of the subject.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-01

Apparatus, systems, and methods are provided for assessing clot activity in blood under various conditions in vitro. The apparatus includes a plurality of test receptacles that receive the blood, at least one flow generating mechanism in communication with the test receptacles, and a clot detector configured to analyze an amount of clot formation that occurs within the blood in each receptacle. Blood contacting surfaces of a first subset of the test receptacles are coated with a first surface substrate and blood contacting surfaces of a second subset of the test receptacles are coated with a different second surface substrate. The flow generating mechanism is configured to generate a first blood flow rate through a third subset of the test receptacles and to generate a different second blood flow rate through a fourth subset of the test receptacles.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-08

Autonomously operating analog to digital converters are formed into a two dimensional array. The array may incorporate digital signal processing functionality. Such an array is particularly well-suited for operation as a readout integrated circuit and in combination with a sensor array, forms a digital focal plane array


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-06-12

The invention provides for engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors with additional functional domains. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to ensure enhanced specificity for target recognition and avoidance of toxicity.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-01-23

The present invention generally relates to methods and compositions used for the spatial and temporal control of gene expression that may use inducible transcriptional effectors. The invention particularly relates to inducible methods of altering or perturbing expression of a genomic locus of interest in a cell wherein the genomic locus may be contacted with a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition comprising a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding polypeptide.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-06-24

Systems and methods axe disclosed herein that generally involve a double pinch criterion for optimization of regenerative Rankine cycles. In some embodiments, operating variables such as bleed extraction pressure and bleed flow rate are selected such that a double pinch is obtained in a feedwater heater, thereby improving the efficiency of the Rankine cycle. In particular, a first pinch point is obtained at the onset of condensation of the bleed and a second pinch point is obtained at the exit of the bleed from the feedwater heater. The minimal approach temperature at the first pinch point can be approximately equal to the minimal approach temperature at the second pinch point. Systems that employ regenerative Rankine cycles, methods of operating such systems, and methods of optimizing the operation of such systems are disclosed herein in connection with the double pinch criterion.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-20

Fuel management system for enhanced operation of a spark ignition gasoline engine. Injectors inject an anti-knock agent such as ethanol directly into a cylinder. It is preferred that the direct injection occur after the inlet valve is closed. It is also preferred that stoichiometric operation with a three way catalyst be used to minimize emissions. In addition, it is also preferred that the anti-knock agents have a heat of vaporization per unit of combustion energy that is at least three times that of gasoline.


Method for making a slurry of a pulverized solid in liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide. The method includes making a water-pulverized solid slurry at ambient pressure and pressurizing the water-pulverized solid slurry to a high pressure. The pressurized water-pulverized solid slurry is mixed in a pressurized chamber with liquid or supercritical CO


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-10

A system for localization of a radio frequency source in a region includes a first plurality of antennas disposed about the region, a second plurality of antennas disposed about the region, a first radio frequency positioning module in communication with the first plurality of antennas and configured to determine a plurality of spatially separated candidate locations in the region for the radio frequency source, a second radio frequency positioning module in communication with the second plurality of antennas and configured to determine a sub-region of the region, the sub-region including the radio frequency source, and a resolution module for identifying a subset of the candidate locations in the sub-region of the region.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-06-28

The invention relates to methods and compositions that enable the rapid generation of high-order combinations of genetic elements, and that provide a barcoded basis for rapid characterization of the specific combination of genetic elements encoded within a single cell or in a pooled population.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-15

Provided in one embodiment is a method comprising: disposing atoms of at least one non-metal element over a surface of a cladding material of a nuclear fuel element; and forming at least one product comprising the at least one non-metal element in, over, or both, a surface layer of the cladding material; wherein the at least one non-metal element has an electronegativity that is smaller than or equal to that of oxygen. Also provided is a nuclear fuel element comprising a modified surface layer adapted to mitigate formation of Chalk River Unidentified Deposits (CRUD) on the cladding material.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-15

Described herein are non-wetting surfaces comprising rare-earth containing ceramics. Furthermore, the surfaces include liquid impregnated within a matrix of micro- or nano-engineered features on the surface. The surfaces are non-wetting and can resist liquid impalement, ice formation, scale formation, hydrate formation, and/or have antifouling properties.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-12

The present invention provides devices and methods for detecting and tracking fast-moving-object. In one application, the present invention can be employed to detect and track fast eye movements (saccades). An example device of the present invention tracks a moving object by generating, within a single frame of a detector (e.g., a video camera) two or more images of the moving object. The images are generated by illuminating the moving objects with sequentially activated light sources (e.g. sequentially tally strobed light-emitting diodes). The rate at which the light sources are sequentially activated exceeds the frame rate of the detector, resulting in generating multiple images of the moving object within a single frame of the detector. The devices and methods described herein, including a saccadometry system, can utilize off-the-shelf components and does not require expensive high-frame-rate video equipment. These devices and methods can be used to track a moving object with a temporal resolution far greater than that normally achievable with standard 15 fps to 30 fps frame-rate imagers.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Date: 2014-07-07

Disclosed are methods of preparing antifouling coatings on reverse osmosis membranes with initiated chemical vapor deposition. The coatings enhance the stability and lifetime of membranes without sacrificing performance characteristics, such as permeability or salt retention.


Patent
Children's Medical Center Dallas and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-15

Devices and methods for the treatment of open and closed wound spinal cord injuries are disclosed. For example, described herein are devices and methods for mitigating secondary injury to, and promoting recovery of, spinal cord primary injuries. More particularly, certain embodiments of the present invention are directed to polymeric mini-tubes that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. In addition, other embodiments are directed to polymeric fill-in bandages that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. For example, an erodible, or biodegradable, form of biocompatible polymer of the present invention is fabricated for surgical implantation into the site of the spinal cord injury.


Patent
Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-17

The present invention provides novel compounds of Formula (I), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, polymorphs, co-crystals, tautomers, stereoisomers, isotopically labeled derivatives, prodrugs, and pharmaceutical compositions thereof. The present invention also provides methods and kits using the inventive compounds and pharmaceutical compositions for treating and/or preventing diseases associated with protein aggregation, such as amyloidoses (e.g., Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease), treating and/or preventing neurodegenerative diseases, treating and/or preventing diseases associated with Tar DNA binding protein 43 kDa, reducing or preventing protein aggregation, and/or modulating E3 ubiquitin ligase in a subject in need thereof.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-14

The present invention provides methods of inducing proliferation of and/or differentiating cells comprising contacting cells with compounds within the methods of the invention. The present invention further provides cells obtainable by the methods of the invention. Liver disease affects more than 500 million people worldwide. Organ transplantation is the gold standard for treatment of liver failure, but organ shortages are acute.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-28

This invention relates generally to articles, devices, and methods for inhibiting or preventing the formation of scale during various industrial processes. In certain embodiments, a vessel is provided for use in an industrial process, the vessel having a textured, liquid-impregnated surface in contact with a mineral solution, wherein the liquid-impregnated surface comprises a matrix of features spaced sufficiently close to stably contain an impregnating liquid lubricant therebetween or therewithin, wherein the impregnating lubricant has a low surface energy density, and wherein the spreading coefficient S


A device for measuring a mechanical property of a tissue includes a probe configured to perturb the tissue with movement relative to a surface of the tissue, an actuator coupled to the probe to move the probe, a detector configured to measure a response of the tissue to the perturbation, and a controller coupled to the actuator and the detector. The controller drives the actuator using a stochastic sequence and determines the mechanical property of the tissue using the measured response received from the detector. The probe can be coupled to the tissue surface. The device can include a reference surface configured to contact the tissue surface. The probe may include a set of interchangeable heads, the set including a head for lateral movement of the probe and a head for perpendicular movement of the probe. The perturbation can include extension of the tissue with the probe or sliding the probe across the tissue surface and may also include indentation of the tissue with the probe. In some embodiments, the actuator includes a Lorentz force linear actuator. The mechanical property may be determined using non-linear stochastic system identification. The mechanical property may be indicative of, for example, tissue compliance and tissue elasticity. The device can further include a handle for manual application of the probe to the surface of the tissue and may include an accelerometer detecting an orientation of the probe. The device can be used to test skin tissue of an animal, plant tissue, such as fruit and vegetables, or any other biological tissue.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-13

Compositions (e.g., lipoic acid ligase polypeptides and lipoic acid analogs) and uses thereof in the Probe Incorporation Mediated By Enzymes (PRIME) methods both in vitro and in vivo. Also described herein are kits for performing the PRIME method and vectors/kits for expressing the lipoic acid ligases.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-01-10

In general, the invention relates to electrode materials, e.g., novel cathode materials with high density, low cost, and high safety. A voltage design strategy based on the mixing of different transition metals in crystal structures known to be able to accommodate lithium in insertion and delithiation is presented herein. By mixing a metal active on the +2/+3 couple (e.g., Fe) with an element active on the +3/+5 or +3/+6 couples (e.g., V or Mo), high capacity multi-electron cathodes are designed in an adequate voltage window.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-12

A continuum style manipulator is actuated by jammable media within an envelope of a module, which is also actuated by a tensile element, such as a cable and spooler motor. Multiple modules may be reversibly added. Two or more tensile elements may also be used. Three or more actuated tensile elements can actuate three DOFs of each module, and the terminal module, as well as the entire manipulator. Jammable media may be granular, actuated by a pressure change. Coarsely ground coffee works well. Rather than a jammable media, tensile elements may alternatively be used with other phase change media, such as magnetorheological and electrorheological media. A high friction angle of the granular media is desirable, and has been achieved with a particle size dispersion including both small and relatively larger particles. Applications include endoscopes, proctoscopes, laparoscopic instruments, manufacturing and medical manipulators. Methods of actuating include unjamming all modules, positioning the manipulator with tensile elements or otherwise, jamming the base-most module, and then repositioning remaining, not-jammed modules, followed by jamming the base-most not-jammed module, and so on, until all modules are positioned and jammed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-11

A chip-scale, air-clad semiconductor pedestal waveguide can be used as a mid-infrared (mid-IR) sensor capable of in situ monitoring of organic solvents and other analytes. The sensor uses evanescent coupling from a silicon or germanium waveguide, which is highly transparent in the mid-IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., between =1.3 m and =6.5 m for silicon and =1.3 m and =12.0 m for germanium), to probe the absorption spectrum of the fluid surrounding the waveguide. Launching a mid-IR beam into the waveguide exposed to a particular analyte causes attenuation of the evanescent waves spectral components due to absorption by carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and/or nitrogen bonds in the surrounding fluid. Detecting these changes at the waveguides output provides an indication of the type and concentration of one or more compounds in the surrounding fluid. If desired, the sensor may be integrated onto a silicon substrate with a mid-IR light source and a mid-IR detector to form a chip-based spectrometer.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-10-31

A power converter for converting DC power to DC power includes an inverter stage having two or more switched inverters configured to receive DC power from a source and produce a switched AC output power signal. A transformation stage is coupled to receive the switched output power signal from the inverter stage, shape the output power signal, and produce a shaped power signal. A rectifier stage having two or more switched inverters coupled to receive the shaped power signal and convert the shaped power signal to a DC output power signal is included. A controller circuit is coupled to operate the power converter in a variable frequency multiplier mode where at least one of the switched inverters is switched at a frequency or duty cycle that results in an output signal having a frequency that is a harmonic of the fundamental frequency being generated by the power converter.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-08-05

Cations that can precipitate from an aqueous composition to produce scaling are sequestered by adding a multi-dentate ligand to the aqueous composition. The multi-dentate ligand bonds with the cation to form a non-scaling ionic complex; and the aqueous solution with the ionic complex is used in a process that produces substantially pure water from the aqueous composition, where the cation, absent formation of the ionic complex, is subject to scaling. The pH of the aqueous composition (or a brine including components of the aqueous composition) is then reduced to release the cation from the multi-dentate ligand; and the multi-dentate ligand, after the cation is released, is then reused in a predominantly closed loop.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-13

Portions of a feed liquid are passed through respective condensers and liquid-liquid heat exchangers. The feed liquid is then heated and injected into a first feed-liquid containment chamber, where vapor from the feed is passed through a first gas-permeable membrane and directed into a first condenser, where the vapor is cooled by the feed liquid passing through the first condenser and condenses as it cools to produce a first liquid permeate. The first liquid permeate is passed through the first liquid-liquid heat exchanger where the first liquid permeate is cooled by the feed liquid passing therethrough. After the vapor is removed from the feed liquid in the first feed-liquid containment chamber, the remaining feed liquid from the first feed-liquid containment chamber is injected into a second feed-liquid containment chamber, where the process is repeated. The first liquid permeate from the first liquid liquid-liquid heat exchanger is combined with the second liquid permeate from the second condenser to form a combined liquid permeate; and the combined liquid permeate is passed through the second liquid-liquid heat exchanger where the combined liquid permeate is cooled by the feed liquid passing therethrough.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-05

Embodiments described herein provide functionalized carbon nanostructures for use in various devices, including photovoltaic devices (e.g., solar cells). In some embodiments, carbon nanostructures substituted with at least one cyclobutyl and/or cyclobutenyl group are provided. Devices including such materials may exhibit increased efficiency, increased open circuit potential, high electron/hole mobility, and/or low electrical resistance.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-27

Encoding data includes: encoding a first portion of an array of data to generate a first set of coefficients, using a first transform; decoding the first set of coefficients to generate a decoded approximation of the first portion, using the first transform; selecting a second transform from multiple candidate transforms based at least in part on a measure of encoding performance for each candidate transform used to encode the decoded approximation of the first portion; and encoding a second portion of the array of data in proximity to the first portion of the array of data to generate a second set of coefficients using the selected second transform.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Rockefeller University | Date: 2016-01-07

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Rockefeller University | Date: 2016-01-08

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-10-30

A modular robotic system that includes a plurality of self-configuring robots. Each self-configuring robot includes a frame structure having a plurality of cylindrical bonding magnets positioned along the edges of the frame structure. The frame structure includes magnetic, non-gendered, hinges on any of the edges of the frame. The hinges provide enough force to maintain a pivot axis through various motions. The cylindrical bonding magnets are free to rotate allowing for multiple self-configurations with other like self-configuring robots. A movement generator is positioned within the frame structure that pivots to generate multi-axis movement allowing both robust self-reconfiguration with the other self-configuring robots and independent locomotion.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-09

A nanocrystal capable of light emission includes a nanoparticle having photoluminescence having quantum yields of greater than 30%.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-22

A method of determining a multi-agent schedule includes defining a well-formed, non-preemptive task set that includes a plurality of tasks, with each task having at least one subtask. Each subtask is associated with at least one resource required for performing that subtask. In accordance with the method, an allocation, which assigns each task in the task set to an agent, is received and a determination is made, based on the task set and the allocation, as to whether a subtask in the task set is schedulable at a specific time. A system for implementing the method is also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-06

The invention in some aspects relates to devices and methods for nucleating crystals under controlled conditions. In some aspects of the invention, devices and methods are provided for continuous crystallization.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-28

Hierarchical porous membranes suitable for use in oil/water separation processes are provided. The membranes described herein are particularly well suited for separating trace amounts of water (e.g., no greater than 3 wt % water content, no greater than 1 wt % water content, or 50-1000 ppm water) from oil. The membranes have a wide range of applications, including deep seep oil exploration, oil purification, and oil spill cleanup.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-04

A method includes attaching a partially processed CMOS wafer to a second wafer to produce a combined wafer. The second wafer comprises a first region including a material different from silicon. The method also includes forming devices in the first region or in a second region of the combined wafer having a material different from silicon.


Techniques for controlling nucleic acid structures include determining, for each junction type, values for parameters indicating ground-state geometry and both translational and rotational stiffness coefficients. Topological design data indicates a number of bases in each helix connected to corresponding junctions. Initial positions of each base are determined by connecting helices to junctions using the ground-state geometry and arbitrary coordinates not confined to lattice coordinates. Misalignment vectors each indicate a difference in coordinates and orientations between initial positions of a pair of bases that are not adjacent in the initial positions but are adjacent or coincident in the design data. Forces and moments at the junctions to reduce misalignment magnitudes are determined based on the translational and rotational stiffness coefficients at each junction. Position and orientation in 3D coordinates of each base are determined by reducing or eliminating the misalignment magnitudes and balancing forces and moments across the nanostructure.


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-20

An apparatus provides feedback regarding the material in which tip of the apparatus is located as the tip is advanced into matter of varying resistances. The apparatus responds to a change in pressure, force, or other parameter such that when the tip reaches matter of a certain resistance, a change in the parameter is sensed. The apparatus provides a driving force to a penetrating medical device, such as a needle, when the apparatus tip encounters material of high resistance. When the apparatus tip encounters a low resistance material, no further driving force is applied to the apparatus. An inner core may be advanced into the low resistance material for deployment of a gas or a liquid as desired.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-27

Rapid reconstitution package. The package includes a substantially cylindrical structure including a diluent chamber and a drug chamber communicating through a valve. The cylindrical structure is configured to retract under an axial force causing the valve to open to allow the diluent to flow through the valve into the drug chamber for mixing and reconstitution of the drug. The drug chamber shape is tuned to enhance mixing. In another aspect, the invention is a method for designing a rapid reconstitution package using computational fluid dynamics techniques.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-24

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-02

Gravity induced flow cell. The flow cell includes first and second reservoirs having a selected volume containing a flowable redox electrode. A membrane separates charged and discharged material. An energy-extraction region includes electronically conductive porous current collectors through or adjacent to which the flowable redox electrodes flow and to which charge transfer occurs. Structure is provided for altering orientation of the flow cell whereby gravity induces flow of the flowable redox electrode between the first and second reservoirs to deliver power. By varying the angle of the cell, flow rate and power delivered on discharge or the charge rate on charge may be varied.


Patent
University of Houston and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-20

Disclosed are methods for the manufacture of n-type and p-type filled skutterudite thermoelectric legs of an electrical contact. A first material of CoSi


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-07

A tangible social network system comprises at least two interactive physical objects adapted for communicatively linking with each other, a visualization application for providing a visual representation of a users tangible social network, and an object communication frame. An interactive physical object comprises a controller for forming a communicatively linked relationship with another interactive physical object and for receiving and responding to commands and data received from a linked object, and an audio or visual response subsystem. An object communication frame comprises a housing adapted to receive interactive physical objects, a communications subsystem for managing communications with installed objects and with interactive physical objects communicatively linked with installed objects, a controller, and a power subsystem for powering installed objects. The frame or objects may interact with a visualization application, comprising subsystems for receiving information about the users tangible social network and deriving a representation of it, and a graphical user interface for providing the visual representation to the user.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and U.S. Navy | Date: 2014-10-09

A feed aerosol comprising detectable particles is injected into a mix-enhancing swirler. Diluting gas is also injected into the mix-enhancing swirler and mixed with the feed aerosol in a swirling motion to form an aerosol with a particle concentration no greater than 1,000 particles per liter. The aerosol is then injected into a mixing chamber, where the aerosol is mixed and dried; the inner diameter of the mixing chamber is at least twice as great as that of the swirl chamber. The aerosol is then emitted through a flow straightener that removes swirl from the flow of the aerosol and passed through a delivery conduit, where the particles are detected and counted; and the particle count is compared with a target count. The respective flows of feed aerosol and diluting gas can then be increased or decreased based on a comparison of the particle count with the target count.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-25

Data blocks to be stored on a disk-based data storage device (e.g., a hard disk drive, etc.) are coded together to form a plurality of linearly independent network coded blocks. The network coded blocks are then stored on the data storage device. Coded seeking may then be used to retrieve the original data blocks from the data storage device in a time-efficient manner. A read request may be sent to the data storage device requesting an innovative coded packet associated with the original data blocks. In response to the read request, the data storage device may read an innovative coded packet from the disk that is closest to current position of a read element of the device.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-30

Techniques, devices, systems, and protocols are disclosed herein that relate to data transfer between communication nodes via multiple heterogeneous paths. In various embodiments, network coding may he used to improve data flow and reliability in a multiple path scenario. Transmission control protocol (TCP) may also be used within different paths to further enhance data transfer reliability. In some embodiments, multiple levels of network coding may be provided within a transmitter in a multiple path scenario, with one level being applied across ail paths and another being applied within individual paths.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-06

The present invention provides stimulus responsive nanocomplexes comprising a masking moiety, e.g., a peptide, and a therapeutic moiety, e.g., an anti-coagulant. The invention also provides methods for treating or preventing a condition, such as a hypercoagulable state, e.g., blood clotting disorders or a cardiovascular disease, in a subject.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-09

The invention provides a bio-sensing nanodevice comprising: a stabilized G-protein coupled receptor on a support, a real time receptor-ligand binding detection method, a test composition delivery system and a test composition recognition program. The G-protein coupled receptor can be stabilized using surfactant peptide. The nanodevice provides a greater surface area for better precision and sensitivity to odorant detection. The invention further provides a microfluidic chip containing a stabilized G-protein coupled receptor immobilized on a support, and arranged in at least two dimensional microarray system. The invention also provides a method of delivering odorant comprising the step of manipulating the bubbles in complex microfluidic networks wherein the bubbles travel in a microfluidic channel carrying a variety of gas samples to a precise location on a chip. The invention further provides method of fabricating hOR17-4 olfactory receptor.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-12-20

A method and apparatus for two-dimensional wavelength beam combining of laser sources. In one example, an external cavity multi-wavelength laser includes an array of laser emitters each producing an optical beam having a specified wavelength, a grating stack comprising a plurality of first-order diffraction gratings arranged linearly in a first dimension, and a dispersive element. The laser further includes a cylindrical telescope that images the optical beams from the array of laser emitters onto the grating stack. A first cylindrical transform lens spatially overlaps the optical beams in a second dimension forming a first region of overlap at the grating stack. A second cylindrical transform lens spatially overlaps the optical beams from the grating stack in the first dimension forming a second region of overlap at the dispersive element. The dispersive element transmits a multi-wavelength output beam comprising the spatially overlapped optical beams from the array of laser emitters.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-01-10

A structure for collecting liquid droplets from an aerosol can have a structure and properties that are selected for efficient liquid collection. In particular, the strand radius and spacing of a mesh, and a material for coating the mesh, can be selected to provide efficient collection of water droplets from fog.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-29

The embodiments disclosed herein are directed to optoelectronic devices based, on ultra-thin, lightweight and in-situ deposited parylene substrates, as well as methods of manufacture. Using a bottom-up approach, a readily releasable parylene thin film can be used for fabricating thin film electronic and optoelectronic systems on the thin and light substrates having thicknesses in the nanometer to low micron range. The disclosed method enables the integration of forming a parylene substrate with, the fabrication of a complete photovoltaic device under a fully contained, controlled environment.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-08-25

Nanocells allow the sequential delivery of two different therapeutic agents with different modes of action or different pharmacokinetics. A nanocell is formed by encapsulating a nanocore with a first agent inside a lipid vesicle containing a second agent. The agent in the outer lipid compartment is released first and may exert its effect before the agent in the nanocore is released. The nanocell delivery system may be formulated in pharmaceutical composition for delivery to patients suffering from diseases such as cancer, inflammatory diseases such as asthma, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, infectious diseases, and neurological diseases such as epilepsy. In treating cancer, a traditional antineoplastic agent is contained in the outer lipid vesicle of the nanocell, and an antiangiogenic agent is loaded into the nanocore. This arrangement allows the antineoplastic agent to be released first and delivered to the tumor before the tumors blood supply is cut off by the antianiogenic agent.


The invention relates to recombinant cells and their use in the production of 3,4-dihydroxybutyrate, 2,3-dihydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-16

The present disclosure provides technologies for achieving cell patterning, as well as patterned cell arrays achieved with such technologies. Provided apparatus and methods are useful in a variety of contexts and provide particular advantages with respect to assessing living cell arrays and/or their responsiveness to stimuli, including identifying and/or characterizing complex cellular responses.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-20

The present application provides, among other things, compounds and methods for metathesis reactions. In some embodiments, a provided compound has the structure of formula I, II or III. In some embodiments, R


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-23

Some aspects of this invention relate to methods useful for the conversion of a carbon source to a biofuel or biofuel precursor using engineered microbes. Some aspects of this invention relate to the discovery of a key regulator of lipid metabolism in microbes. Some aspects of this invention relate to engineered microbes for biofuel or biofuel precursor production.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-14

The invention provides methods and devices that use membranes to separate oil/water mixtures. The methods and devices have a wide range of applications, including deep seep oil exploration, oil purification, and oil spill cleanup. In some embodiments, at least one first membrane is provided, the first membrane being hydrophilic and oleophobic. The first membrane allows passage of water therethrough In some embodiments, a second membrane that is hydrophobic and oleophilic is provided in addition to the first membrane. The second membrane allows passage of oil therethrough.


Patent
Childrens Medical Center Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-23

Devices and methods for the treatment of open and closed wound spinal cord injuries are disclosed. For example, described herein are devices and methods for mitigating secondary injury to, and promoting recovery of, spinal cord primary injuries. More particularly, certain embodiments of the present invention are directed to polymeric mini-tubes that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. In addition, other embodiments are directed to polymeric fill-in bandages that may be used for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. For example, an erodible, or biodegradable, form of biocompatible polymer of the present invention is fabricated for surgical implantation into the site of the spinal cord injury.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-13

The present invention relates to systems and methods for photometric endoscope imaging. The methods can further include chromoendoscopy and computer aided detection procedures for the imaging of body lumens and cavities.


Patent
Massachusetts General Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-08

The invention provides compositions and methods for delivering an agent to virally infected tissues and/or cells of a subject by conjugating agent-loaded nanoparticles to virus-specific T cells, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The agent may be a latency-reversing drug (LRD), an antiviral agent and/or an agent that enhances cytotoxic efficacy of T lymphocytes.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-15

One aspect of the invention relates to a linker-free, one-step method of grafting polymer films onto organic substrates, and the films obtained by such a method. In certain embodiments, the grafted polymer films are conductive. In certain embodiments, said grafting method utilizes the ability for Friedel-Crafts catalyst to form radical cations from organic substrates. In one embodiment, the method provides poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin films grafted to organic substrates. In other embodiments, the method is applicable to the polymerization of other monomers to yield conducting polymers, such as polyanilines, polypyrroles, polyfurans, polythiophenes and their derivatives. Remarkably, the polymer films grafted by the inventive methods show enormous increases in adhesion strength. Further, in certain embodiments, polymer patterns were easily obtained using the inventive methods and soft lithography techniques. In certain embodiments, well-defined high-density line-and-space patterns were successfully obtained. In certain embodiments, e.g., when the polymer film is conducting, the obtained conducting polymer pattern grafted on common organic substrates can be used for integrated circuitry in flexible electronics.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-21

Compositions and methods comprising rhenium are provided. In some embodiments, the rhenium compounds comprise a bidentate ligand. In some embodiments, the rhenium compounds are used in method for treating cancer.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-11

Described herein are systems and methods for attitude determination using infrared Earth horizon sensors (EHSs) with Gaussian response characteristics. Attitude information is acquired by detecting Earths infrared electromagnetic radiation and, subsequently, determining the region obscured by Earth in the sensors fields of view to compute a nadir vector estimation in the spacecrafts body frame. The method can be applied when two sensors, each with known and distinct pointing directions, detect the horizon, which is defined as having their fields of view partially obscured by Earth. The method can be implemented compactly to provide high-accuracy attitude within small spacecraft, such as CubeSat-based satellites.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-29

A needle-free adaptor for removing liquid from a vial comprises a cannula adapted to piece a septum of a vial, a plurality of legs surrounding the cannula to secure the adaptor to the vial when the cannula has pieced the septum, an elastomeric membrane having a normally closed pinhole orifice, and a conforming surface having an orifice connected to the cannula. The elastomeric membrane has a stable convex shape and is adapted to receive a nozzle of a needle-free device. Pressed against the elastomeric membrane, the nozzle deflects the elastomeric membrane from the convex shape to an unstable or pseudo-stable inverted position against the conforming surface. Buckling of the elastomeric membrane opens the pinhole orifice and enables fluid communication between the vial and the nozzle by interfacing the pinhole orifice with the orifice on the conforming surface.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-23

In exemplary implementations of this invention, a foldable vehicle has a foldable chassis. The wheelbase (and thus the overall footprint) of the vehicle can be reduced when parking, and can be extended when driving on the open road. In exemplary implementations the ability to shorten and lengthen the wheelbase is achieved by using two 4-bar linkages, activated by one or more linear actuators positioned in parallel. The dual 4-bar linkage and linear actuator(s) can provide: (i) the ability to maintain full maneuverability in the vehicles folded and unfolded state; (ii) a fail-safe static system, and (iii) a rigid but transformable chassis.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-07

Bipolar wave current, is used to electrodeposit a nanocrystalline grain size. Polarity Ratio is the ratio of absolute value of time integrated amplitude of negative and positive polarity current. Grain size can be controlled in alloys of two or more components, at least one of which is a metal, and at least one of which is most electro-active, such as nickel and tungsten and molybdenum. Typically, the more electro-active material is preferentially lessened during negative current. Coatings can be layered, each having an average grain size, which can vary layer to layer and also graded through a region. Deposits can be substantially free of either cracks or voids.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-07

An elastic skin suit simulates gravitational loading. By selecting material(s) of appropriate dimensions and appropriate moduli of elasticity, and optionally integrating inelastic portions to maintain a desired surface distribution, the suit can be adapted to impose a loading regime that simulates the loading of terrestrial gravity in a more continuous, shoulder-to-ankle manner than current loading suits.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-19

The disclosed embodiments provide sensitive pixel arrays formed using solvent-assisted or unassisted release processes. Exemplary devices include detectors arrays, tunable optical instruments, deflectable minors, digital micro-mirrors, digital light processing chips, tunable optical micro-cavity resonators, acoustic sensors, acoustic actuators, acoustic transducer devices and capacitive zipper actuators to name a few.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-06-10

Methods for identifying stem cells and other cells specific to embryogenesis and carcinogenesis, classifying tissue samples, diagnosing precancerous and cancerous or atherosclerotic lesions, testing the value of anticancer agents, discovering macromolecules specifically expressed in particular cell types, using stem cells in restorative tissue therapy as well as methods for preparing tissue samples so heteromorphic nuclear morphotypes remain intact are disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-06

Compositions and methods comprising metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and related uses are generally provided. In some embodiments, an MOF comprises a plurality of metal ions, each coordinated with at least one ligand comprising at least two unsaturated N-heterocyclic aromatic groups arranged about an organic core. In some embodiments, an MOF may be used in applications related to water adsorption.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-07-31

In exemplary implementations of this invention, an electronic olfactor determines whether a scent being tested matches the scent of a positive control. The electronic olfactor can perform this scent matching even in a changing olfactory environment, and even if the positive control scent is a combination of hundreds or thousands of different odorants. No prior training is needed, and no attempt is made to identify a single odorant that is unambiguously responsible for a scent. Instead, a computer compares the total scent pattern of a positive control sample with the total scent pattern of a test sample, across a sweep of many permutations of electrical inputs to scent sensors, to try to find any condition under which the total scent patterns do not match. If such a condition cannot be found, then the computer declares a match between the test and target scents.


Patent
Cornell University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-19

Techniques and devices are disclosed to provide controlled inter-mode cross-talk in multimode optical waveguides. The structure of a bent multimode optical waveguide can be designed or configured in a way that either substantially minimizes inter-mode cross talk or achieves a desired inter-mode cross-talk. Specific examples based on the disclosed waveguide designs are provided for semiconductor integrated waveguide devices.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-08-26

In exemplary implementations of this invention, two LCD screens display a multi-view 3D image that has both horizontal and vertical parallax, and that does not require a viewer to wear any special glasses. Each pixel in the LCDs can take on any value: the pixel can be opaque, transparent, or any shade between. For regions of the image that are adjacent to a step function (e.g., a depth discontinuity) and not adjacent to a sharp corner, the screens display local parallax barriers comprising many small slits. The barriers and the slits tend to be oriented perpendicular to the local angular gradient of the target light field. In some implementations, the display is optimized to seek to minimize the Euclidian distance between the desired light field and the actual light field that is produced. Weighted, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is used for this optimization.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-08-05

The invention relates to the production of glucuronic and glucaric acid in cells through recombinant expression of myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase, myo-inositol oxygenase and uronate dehydrogenase. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding uronate dehydrogenase is also disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-15

The invention provides, inter alia, conjugates of a hydratable polymer (such as PEG, polyethylene glycol) and a lectin (such as wheat germ agglutinin, WGA), compositions comprising these conjugates, as well as methods and targeted uses of these conjugates and compositions for, e.g., lubricating, maintaining hydration of rehydrating, and/or inhibiting microorganism colonization of a biological surface in need thereof.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-06

A humidification-dehumidification apparatus featuring enhanced heat recovery includes a shared interior wall extending along a vertical axis and defining and separating humidifying and dehumidifying chambers. Heat-transfer members extend through the shared interior wall and across a majority of each chamber, while a spray device is configured to direct a spray of liquid feed composition onto the heat-transfer members inside the humidifying chamber. The liquid feed collects on the heat-transfer members in the humidifying chamber, and water evaporates from the liquid feed on the heat-transfer members, leaving a concentrated remainder of the liquid feed in liquid form. Carrier gas passes through the humidifying chamber where evaporated water is entrained in the carrier gas to form a moist carrier gas that passes from the humidifying chamber to the dehumidifying chamber, where the water vapor condenses from the moist carrier gas on the heat-transfer members.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-01

An ionic liquid ion source can include a microfabricated body including a base and a tip. The body can be formed of a porous material compatible with at least one of an ionic liquid or room-temperature molten salt. The body can have a pore size gradient that decreases from the base of the body to the tip of the body, such that the at least one of an ionic liquid or room-temperature molten salt is capable of being transported through capillarity from the base to the tip.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-27

In illustrative implementations of this invention, a crucible kiln heats glass such that the glass becomes or remains molten. A nozzle extrudes the molten glass while one or more actuators actuate movements of the nozzle, a build platform or both. A computer controls these movements such that the extruded molten glass is selectively deposited to form a 3D glass object. The selective deposition of molten glass occurs inside an annealing kiln. The annealing kiln anneals the glass after it is extruded. In some cases, the actuators actuate the crucible kiln and nozzle to move in horizontal x, y directions and actuate the build platform to move in a z-direction. In some cases, fluid flows through a cavity or tubes adjacent to the nozzle tip, in order to cool the nozzle tip and thereby reduce the amount of glass that sticks to the nozzle tip.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-23

A method of protecting a semiconductor structure from water and a semiconductor structure formed by the method. The semiconductor structure includes a wide-bandgap semiconductor material in which at least one semiconductor device is formed. The method includes heating the semiconductor structure in a vacuum to a temperature of at least 200 C. to remove water from the semiconductor structure. The method also includes, after the heating of the semiconductor structure, forming a layer comprising a hydrophobic material over the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure is kept in the vacuum between the heating of the semiconductor structure and the forming of the layer comprising the hydrophobic material.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-18

Tetrahedral [MoO


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-19

In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to apparatus comprising a liquid-impregnated surface, said surface comprising an impregnating liquid and a matrix of solid features spaced sufficiently close to stably contain the impregnating liquid therebetween or therewithin, and methods thereof. In some embodiments, one or both of the following holds: (i) 0<0.25, where is a representative fraction of the projected surface area of the liquid-impregnated surface corresponding to non-submerged solid at equilibrium; and (ii) S


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-17

A self-reconfiguring genome uses a cassette having operons or DNA sequences that code for guide RNA, reverse transcriptase, donor RNA, and a CRISPR cleavage enzyme. A self-reconfiguring genome may be based on lambda recombineering of in situ generated oligonucleotides. A method for programmable self-modification of a cellular genome includes transcribing guide RNA from a self-reconfiguring cassette, associating the transcribed guideRNA with the CRISPR enzyme, intercalcating a region of complimentary sequence within an integration site of the genome, cutting upstream of a PAM site within the integration site; transcribing the donorRNA, translating donorRNA to double-stranded DNA, and recombining the double-stranded DNA via homologous recombination at the cut site of the integration site. A set of cascadable and multiplexable genetic logic gates with a universal RNA input/output based on single-strand annealing or non-homologous end joining, comprises transcription promoters or terminators, homologous regions, DNA sequences, RNA, and enzymes from the CRISPR system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-13

Circuit topologies and control methods for a dc-to-rf converter circuit are described.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-09-13

The present invention relates to composition comprising at least one non-pathogenic bacterial cell, wherein the non-pathogenic bacterial cell comprises at least a first and a second nucleic acid sequence, the first nucleic acid sequence comprising at least one non-constitutive promoter operably linked to the second nucleic acid sequence that encodes therapeutic agent, wherein the non-constitutive promoter is an inducible promoter responsive to at least one stimuli and the at least one stimuli comprises the presence of a certain density or a certain number of bacterial cells comprising the first and second nucleic acid sequences.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-24

The present invention provides methods for the production of N-deacetylate N-sulfate derivatives of non-sulfated N-acetyl heparosan (HS) polysaccharides, compounds thus obtained and compositions comprising same. This invention also provides applications of N-deacetylate N-sulfate derivatives of non-sulfated N-acetyl heparosan (HS) polysaccharides, and compositions comprising same, for use in controlling coagulation and treating thrombosis.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Institute Polytechnique Of Grenoble | Date: 2014-08-11

A method for processing cardiac signals includes accepting, from a sensor system, a set of one or more signals, the signals including components of a desired cardiac signal and components of a substantially periodic interfering signal. The method is applicable for extraction of desired fetal cardiac signals from signals with interference from the maternal cardiac signal. A periodicity of the interfering signal is determined, and one or more iterations of mitigating an effect of a component of the signals that exhibit periodicity at the determined periodicity of the interfering signal are performed. In some examples, the method further includes determining a periodicity of the desired cardiac signal, and performing one or more iterations of enhancing an effect of a component of the signals that exhibit periodicity at the determined periodicity of the desired cardiac signal.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-01-22

The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a dihydro base described herein (e.g., compound DHdC). The dihydro base may show multiple tautomerism and may increase mutation of an RNA and/or DNA of a virus or cancer cell. The dihydro base may be used to reduce DNA methylation (e.g., in a cancer cell). The present invention also provides kits including the inventive pharmaceutical compositions and methods of treating a viral infection (e.g., influenza, HIV infection, or hepatitis C) or cancer using the pharmaceutical compositions or kits.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-04

Automultiscopic displays enable glasses-free 3D viewing by providing both binocular and motion parallax. Within the display field of view, different images are observed depending on the viewing direction. When moving outside the field of view, the observed images may repeat. Light fields produced by lenticular and parallax-barrier automultiscopic displays may have repetitive structure with significant discontinuities between the fields of view. This repetitive structure induces visual artifacts in the form of view discontinuities, depth reversals, and extensive disparities. To overcome this problem, a method modifies the presented light field image content and makes it more repetitive. In the method, a light field is refined using global and local shearing and then the repeating fragments are stitched. The method reduces the discontinuities in the displayed light field and leads to visual quality improvements. Benefits of the method are shown using an automultiscopic display with a parallax barrier and lenticular prints.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-03

Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-08-14

A system for providing product data collection, monitoring, and tracking contains a memory and a processor configured by the memory to perform the steps of: receiving product information and a scannable code; creating and assigning a unique product identifier to the received product information and associated scannable code; receiving customer registration information; creating and assigning a unique customer identifier to the received customer information; associating the unique product identifier with the unique customer identifier; and after receiving the scannable code from a remote device, providing the remote device with access to the received product information. The collected structured and/or unstructured data is secured during transit.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-11

A control system for improving and stabilizing Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) operation. The control system may also provide regulation of FDML operational parameters such as filter tuning, laser gain, polarization, polarization chromaticity, elliptical polarization retardance, and/or dispersion. The control system may be located internal to or external from the FDML laser cavity.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-30

A method of determining schedulability of tasks for uniprocessor execution includes defining a well-formed, non-preemptive task set having a plurality of tasks, each task having at least one subtask. A determination of whether the task set is schedulable is made, such that a near-optimal amount of temporal resources required to execute the task set is estimated. Further, a method of determining schedulability of a subtask for uniprocessor execution includes defining a well-formed, non-preemptive task set having a plurality of tasks, each task having at least one subtask. A determination of whether a subtask in the task set is schedulable at a specific time is made in polynomial time. Systems for implementing such methods are also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-13

Described are palladium precatalysts, and methods of making and using them. The palladium precatalysts show improved stability and improved reactivity in comparison to previously-described palladium precatalysts.


Patent
Okayama University, Menicon Co. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-07-14

Provide are a peptide gel with practically sufficient mechanical strength and a self-assembling peptide capable of forming the peptide gel. The self-assembling peptide is formed of the following amino acid sequence: a


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-23

A method and an array filling system for loading a plurality of disparate sample containers, the sample containers comprising an integral structure. Each receptacle is characterized by a hydrophilic surface,, and the receptacles are separated by a hydrophobic surface. The system has a liquid transfer device capable of holding liquid and adapted for motion to cause sequential communication of liquid held in the liquid transfer device with successive receptacles of the array by dragging the liquid across the hydrophobic surface.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-01-27

The invention encompasses methods and products related to genotyping. The method of genotyping of the invention is based on the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to perform high throughput genome scans. The high throughput method can be performed by hybridizing SNP allele-specific oligonucleotides and a reduced complexity genome (RCG). The invention also relates to methods of preparing the SNP specific oligonucleotides and RCGs, methods of fingerprinting, determining allele frequency for a SNP, characterizing tumors, generating a genomic classification code for a genome, identifying previously unknown SNPs, and related compositions and kits.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Broad Institute Inc. | Date: 2014-02-18

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for altering expression of target gene sequences and related gene products. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-01

In a method for synthesizing polymeric microstructures, a monomer stream is flowed, at a selected flow rate, through a fluidic channel. At least one shaped pulse of illumination is projected to the monomer stream, defining in the monomer stream a shape of at least one microstructure corresponding to the illumination pulse shape while polymerizing that microstructure shape in the monomer stream by the illumination pulse. An article of manufacture includes a non-spheroidal polymeric microstructure that has a plurality of distinct material regions.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-29

Described are a method and a system for generating a weather radar display. The method includes determining proxy meteorological radar data for a first area of a geographical region for which meteorological radar data are unavailable. The proxy data are determined from a plurality of alternative meteorological data streams each having data representative of a value of a different meteorological parameter that is not observable by radar. The method further includes determining graphical meteorological radar data for the geographical region based on the proxy meteorological radar data for the first area in the geographical region and meteorological radar data for a second area in the geographical region. Examples of graphical meteorological radar data that are generated include vertically integrated liquid, composite reflectivity and echo tops data.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-09

The disclosure provides nanostructures (e.g., nanospheres and nano-paddlewheels) formed through transition metal-ligand (e.g., Pd(II)-, Ni(II)-, or Fe(II)-ligand of Formula (A)) coordination and junction self-assembly. The disclosure also provides supramolecular complexes that include the nanostructures connected by divalent linkers Y. The provided supramolecular complexes are able to form gels (e.g., hydrogels). The gels are suprametallogels and exhibited excellent mechanical properties without sacrificing self-healing and showed high robustness and storage modulus. The present disclosure further provides compositions (e.g., gels) that include the nanostructures or supramolecular complexes and optionally an agent (e.g., small molecule), where the nanostructures and the nanostructure moieties of the supramolecular complexes may encapsulate and slowly release the agent. The nanostructures, supramolecular complex, and compositions may be useful in delivering an agent to a subject, tissue, or cell, as super-absorbent materials, and in treating a disease (e.g., a genetic diseases, proliferative disease (e.g., cancer or benign neoplasm), hematological disease, neurological disease, gastrointestinal disease (e.g., liver disease), spleen disease, respiratory disease (e.g., lung disease), painful condition, genitourinary disease, musculoskeletal condition, infectious disease, inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, psychiatric disorder, or metabolic disorder).


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-08

Nanocells allow the sequential delivery of two different therapeutic agents with different modes of action or different pharmacokinetics. A nanocell is formed by encapsulating a nanocore with a first agent inside a lipid vesicle containing a second agent. The agent in the outer lipid compartment is released first and may exert its effect before the agent in the nanocore is released. The nanocell delivery system may be formulated in pharmaceutical composition for delivery to patients suffering from diseases such as cancer, inflammatory diseases such as asthma, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, infectious diseases, and neurological diseases such as epilepsy. In treating cancer, a traditional antineoplastic agent is contained in the outer lipid vesicle of the nanocell, and an antiangiogenic agent is loaded into the nanocore. This arrangement allows the antineoplastic agent to be released first and delivered to the tumor before the tumors blood supply is cut off by the antianiogenic agent.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-02

The invention discloses general apparatus and methods for electrochemical energy conversion and storage via a membraneless laminar flow battery. In a preferred embodiment, the battery includes a flow-through porous anode for receiving a fuel and a porous electrolyte channel for transporting an electrolyte adjacent to the porous anode; a flow-through porous cathode is provided for transporting an oxidant; and a porous dispersion blocker is disposed between the electrolyte channel and the porous cathode, which inhibits convective mixing while allowing molecular diffusion and mean flow. Pore structure properties are selected for tuning convective dispersion, conductivity or other macroscopic properties. Specific materials, reactants, fabrication methods, and operation methods are disclosed to achieve stable charge/discharge cycles and to optimize power density and energy density.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Novartis | Date: 2014-04-29

The present disclosure relates to immunoglobulins with reduced aggregation and compositions, methods of generating such immunoglobulins with computational tools and methods of using such immunoglobulins particularly in the treatment and prevention of disease.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University | Date: 2014-06-18

Electrochemical systems for harvesting heat energy, and associated electrochemical cells and methods, are generally described.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-03-06

Discrete motion systems move relative to a lattice, using bistable mechanisms to snap between lattice locations. A discrete motion system includes a lattice having a regular configuration of attachment points, one or more motion modules that move across the lattice in discrete increments, and controllers that direct the modules. A module includes a body, actuators, and feet having mechanisms for attaching and detaching the module from the lattice. The module may include actuated joints that cause movement of arm structures to engage and disengage the feet from the lattice. The module may be a digital inchworm, and may be a relative assembler having at least one assembler arm. A method for discrete extensible construction includes creating a lattice having a regular configuration of attachment points, causing a discrete motion relative assembler to systematically move across the lattice in discrete increments, and causing placement of materials by the assembler arm.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Carbitex LLC | Date: 2015-10-08

A self-transforming structure is formed from a flexible, fibrous composite having a weave pattern of fibers woven at intersecting angles, the weave pattern having a boundary and one or more axes for the fibers, and an added material coupled to the flexible, fibrous composite to form a structure, wherein the flexible, fibrous composite and the added material have different expansion or contraction rates in response to an external stimulus to cause the structure to self-transform, and wherein the added material has a grain pattern oriented relative the weave pattern of the flexible, fibrous composite. Applications of the self-transforming structures include aviation, automotive, apparel/footwear, furniture, and building materials. One particular example is for providing adaptive control of fluid flow, such as in a jet engine air inlet.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-13

A sacrificial-post templating method is presented for directing block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly to form nanostructures of monolayers and bilayers of microdomains. The topographical post template can be removed after directing self-assembly and, therefore, is not incorporated into the final microdomain pattern. The sacrificial posts can be a material removable using a selective etchant that will not remove the material of the final pattern block(s). The sacrificial posts may be removable, at least in part, using a same etchant as for removing one of the blocks of the BCP, for example, a negative tone polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) when a non-final pattern block of polystyrene is removed and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) remains on the substrate.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-16

A method for injecting a substance through a biological body surface includes providing a needle-free transdermal transport device configured to inject the substance through the surface. The substance is injected into the biological body with the transport device while a parameter of the injection is sensed and a servo-controller is used to dynamically adjust at least one injection characteristic based on the sensed parameter. The substance is injected for (i) a first time period during which a first portion of a volume of the substance is injected at a first injection pressure, and (ii) a second time period during which a remainder of the volume of the substance is injected at a second injection pressure. A viscosity of the substance may be determined, and a pressure calculated for injecting the substance based on the viscosity. The substance may be injected with the transport device by using the calculated pressure.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-14

Systems and processes for performing solid phase peptide synthesis are generally described. Solid phase peptide synthesis is a known process in which amino acid residues are added to peptides that have been immobilized on a solid support. In certain embodiments, the inventive systems and methods can be used to perform solid phase peptide synthesis quickly while maintaining high yields. Certain embodiments relate to processes and systems that may be used to heat, transport, and/or mix reagents in ways that reduce the amount of time required to perform solid phase peptide synthesis.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-05

An organically cooled nuclear reactor comprises fissionable fuel pellets and a neutron-moderator matrix in which the fissionable fuel pellets are distributed. The neutron-moderator matrix also defines coolant channels for flow of an organic coolant.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-31

The disclosure is directed to enabling reversible, on-demand remote control of blood clotting and clot dissolution. In one embodiment, a laser at one wavelength triggers release of a DNA thrombin inhibitor from one nanorod, which acts as an anticoagulant to stop blood clotting. Another wavelength triggers release of a specific antidote, which reverses the effect of the thrombin inhibitor, restoring blood clotting.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-19

In exemplary implementations of this invention, one or more computer processors receive electronic data indicative of, or compute (i) at least three different topologies of a network and (ii) a level of network performance of a task for each of the different topologies, respectively. The processors also calculate (i) a cascade probability for each of the different topologies, respectively, (ii) a curve indicative of correlation between the cascade probabilities and levels of network performance, and (iii) an optimal cascade probability which optimizes the level of network performance. A topological change in the network is produced (or its likelihood is increased). The topological change makes or would make the cascade probability closer to the optimal cascade probability. The processors output control signals (i) to make the topological change or (ii) to communicate an incentive for the topological change to an electronic node device in the network.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Broad Institute Inc. | Date: 2014-02-18

The invention provides for delivery, engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are delivery systems and tissues or organ which are targeted as sites for delivery. Also provided are vectors and vector systems some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells to ensure enhanced specificity for target recognition and avoidance of toxicity and to edit or modify a target site in a genomic locus of interest to alter or improve the status of a disease or a condition.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Broad Institute Inc. | Date: 2014-03-24

The invention provides for engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are compositions and methods related to components of a CRISPR complex particularly comprising a Cas ortholog enzyme.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-24

A method of preparing monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals can include contacting an M-containing precursor with an X donor to form a mixture, where the molar ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor is large. Alternatively, if additional X donor is added during the reaction, a smaller ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor can be used to prepare monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-06

Disclosed are methods that utilize the differences in physical properties between two coating fluids to form core-shell particles or core-shell fibers by coaxial free-surface electrospinning. The methods are able to achieve higher productivity than known methods, and are tunable. Nonwoven fiber mats of electrospun fibers have garnered much scientific and commercial interest in recent years due to their unique properties, such as their high porosity, high surface area and small diameter fibers.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-05-04

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President And Fellows Of Harvard College, Brigham and Women's Hospital | Date: 2015-08-27

This invention relates generally to compositions and methods for identifying the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences T cell balance, for example, Th17 cell differentiation, maintenance and/or function, as well compositions and methods for exploiting the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences T cell balance in a variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic indications. This invention also relates generally to identifying and exploiting target genes and/or target gene products that modulate, control or otherwise influence T cell balance in a variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic indications.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-23

Nonlinear spring. In one embodiment, the spring includes two opposed curved surfaces curving away from one another. A flexible cantilever member is disposed between the two opposed curved surfaces and a mass is attached to a free end of the cantilever member wherein the flexible cantilever member wraps around one of the curved surfaces as the cantilever member deflects to form a nonlinear spring. Energy harvesting devices and a load cell are also disclosed.


Semiconductor bodies, such as for solid state electronics and photovoltaic cells, have surfaces that are textured for processing, charge carrying and photovoltaic reasons. Absorbing regions may have grooves that reduce loss of solar energy by reflection. Semiconductor bodies also include metallizations for conducting electrical carriers, which may be channels. Production processes take advantage of the topography to govern which locations will receive a specific processing, and which locations will not. Liquids are treated directly into zones. They migrate throughout a zone and act upon the locations contacted. They do not migrate to other zones, due to impediments to flow, such as edges, walls and ridges. Liquid may also be deposited and migrate within a zone, to block or mask a subsequent activity, such as etching.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-07

Disclosed are methods of preparing antifouling and chlorine-resistant coatings on reverse osmosis membranes with initiated chemical vapor deposition. The coatings enhance the stability and lifetime of membranes without sacrificing performance characteristics, such as permeability or salt retention.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-09

In exemplary implementations of this invention, light from a light field projector is transmitted through an angle-expanding screen to create a glasses-free, 3D display. The display can be horizontal-only parallax or full parallax. In the former case, a vertical diffuser may positioned in the optical stack. The angle-expanding screen may comprise two planar arrays of optical elements (e.g., lenslets or lenticules) separated from each other by the sum of their focal distances. Alternatively, a light field projector may project light rays through a focusing lens onto a diffuse, transmissive screen. In this alternative approach, the light field projector may comprise two spatial light modulators (SLMs). A focused image of the first SLM, and a slightly blurred image of the second SLM, are optically combined on the diffuser, creating a combined image that has a higher spatial resolution and a higher dynamic range than either of two SLMs.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-30

This invention relates generally to an article that includes a base substrate, an intermediate layer including at least one element or compound selected from titanium, chromium, indium, zirconium, tungsten, and titanium nitride on the base substrate, and a hydrophobic coating on the base substrate, wherein the hydrophobic coating includes a rare earth element material (e.g., a rare earth oxide, a rare earth carbide, a rare earth nitride, a rare earth fluoride, and/or a rare earth boride). An exposed surface of the hydrophobic coating has a dynamic contact angle with water of at least about 90 degrees. A method of manufacturing the article includes providing the base substrate and forming an intermediate layer coating on the base substrate (e.g., through sintering or sputtering) and then forming a hydrophobic coating on the intermediate layer (e.g., through sintering or sputtering).


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-03

The present invention generally relates to methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction. In some embodiments, the pH-influenced reaction involves the conversion of CO


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-19

Sorbent for reversible warm CO


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-26

The present disclosure provides compositions and methods for efficient and effective protein delivery in vitro and in vivo. In some aspects, proteins are reversibly crosslinked to each other and/or modified with functional groups and protected from protease degradation by a polymer-based or silica-based nanoshell.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-19

A node processor and method for performing matrix operations includes storing, in memory, non-zero matrix elements of a first sparse matrix, non-zero matrix elements of a second sparse matrix, and matrix elements of a sparse results matrix mapped to the node processor. A matrix communications module exchanges with other node processors, non-zero matrix elements of one or more of the first sparse matrix, second sparse matrix, and sparse results matrix. An arithmetic logic unit generates partial results based on the non-zero matrix elements of the first sparse matrix and on the non-zero matrix elements of the second sparse matrix stored in memory. The arithmetic logic unit further generates a final value for each matrix element of the sparse results matrix mapped to the node processor based on the partial results generated by the arithmetic logic unit and on partial results received from the other node processors.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-14

Buffered body return receiver configurations are described. An amplifier for a receiver can be connected to two electrodes such that one of the two electrodes is connected to a non-inverting input of the amplifier and a second of the two electrodes is a driven node by being connected to both the inverting input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier. The amplifier may be connected as a fully differential amplifier, a single-ended differential amplifier, a buffer, or an amplifier with a gain greater than 1, while still enabling improved channel gains with reduced power consumption at the transmitter from the signal source. The buffered body return receiver is suitable for scenarios in which a signal source is electrically independent of the power supply of the receivers amplifier.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-01

Condensation can he an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures can promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the characteristic size of departing droplets via a surface-tension-driven mechanism. A superhydrophobic surface can include nanostructures of a metal oxide having further surface modification.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-14

Method for tailoring permeability of materials. The method establishes a pattern of vertically aligned nanowires on a substrate and a physical shadow mask is provided to protect selected features of the pattern. A polymer is selectively infiltrated, using chemical vapor disposition, into interstices in the vertically aligned carbon nanotubes to establish a selected permeability. A cover over the infiltrated vertically aligned nanowires is provided.


Receiver design techniques are provided that are capable of producing relatively efficient, linear radio frequency (RF) receivers. During a design process, components of an analog receiver chain and digital nonlinearity compensation techniques are considered together to achieve reduced power consumption in the receiver.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-20

Ion Concentration Polarization (ICP) purification devices and methods for building massively-parallel implementations of the same, said devices being suitable for separation of salts, heavy metals and biological contaminants from source water.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-12

Hierarchical porous membranes suitable for use in oil/water separation processes are provided. The membranes described herein are particularly well suited for separating trace amounts of water (e.g., no greater than 3 wt % water content, no greater than 1 wt % water content, or 50-1000 ppm water) from oil in droplets less than 1 um in size. The membranes have a wide range of applications, including deep seep oil exploration, oil purification, and oil spill cleanup.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-08

A nanocrystal capable of light emission includes a nanoparticle having photoluminescence having quantum yields of greater than 30%.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University | Date: 2013-12-19

We have created novel engineered genetic counter designs and methods of use thereof that utilize DNA recombinases to provide modular systems, termed single invertase memory modules (SIMMs), for encoding memory in cells and cellular systems. Our designs are easily extended to compute to high numbers, by utilizing the >100 known recombinases to create subsequent modules. Flexibility in our engineered genetic counter designs is provided by daisy-chaining individual modular components, i.e., SIMMs together. These modular components of the engineered genetic counters can be combined in other network topologies to create circuits that perform, amongst other things, logic and memory. Our novel engineered genetic counter designs allow for the maintenance of memory and provide the ability to count between discrete states by expressing the recombinases between their cognate recognition sites.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-08-23

A handheld inkjet printer includes an inkjet print head and a tip. One or more sensors measure the position of points on a curved surface that are physically touched by the tip while the tip is moved relative to the surface. Based on these measurements, a computer generates or modifies a computer model that specifies at least (i) position of the curved surface, and (ii) a target region of the curved surface on which a pattern is to be printed. In addition, the one or more sensors measure position and orientation of nozzles in the print head, while the handset is moved relative to the surface. The computers also calculate, based on the computer model and these additional measurements, which of the nozzles to fire at a different times, such that the pattern is printed on the target region as the handset is moved relative to the surface.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-30

A method of detecting a stimulus can include detecting an output from a radio frequency identification tag including a sensor. A smartphone-based sensing strategy can use chemiresponsive nanomaterials integrated into the circuitry of commercial Near Field Communication tags to achieve non-line-of-sight, portable, and inexpensive detection and discrimination of gas phase chemicals (e.g., ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, cyclohexanone, and water) at part-per-thousand and part-per-million concentrations.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-19

In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to apparatus comprising a liquid-impregnated surface, said surface comprising an impregnating liquid and a matrix of solid features spaced sufficiently close to stably contain the impregnating liquid therebetween or therewithin, and methods thereof. In some embodiments, one or both of the following holds: (i) 0<0.25, where is a representative fraction of the projected surface area of the liquid-impregnated surface corresponding to non-submerged solid at equilibrium; and (ii) S


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-08-13

Disclosed is a method for transferring energy wirelessly including transferring energy wirelessly from a first resonator structure to an intermediate resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the first resonator structure and the intermediate resonator structure is


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-06

Systems and methods to systematize the development of machines using inexpensive, fast, and convenient fabrication processes are disclosed. In an embodiment, a robot compiler generates a fabrication system, including mechanical, electrical, and software assemblies, that can be used for assembling a robot according to a user design.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-07-15

The invention provides compositions and methods for repeatable directed endonucleases (RDEs) and methods for repeatedly, and specifically cleaving DNA offset from the RDEs DNA recognition sequence on the target nucleic acid rather than within the DNA recognition sequence. Conservation of the recognition sequence of the target nucleic acid enables for re-localization of an RDE back to the DNA recognition sequence for further cleavage. The RDEs and methods of the invention are useful in applications including, but not limited to, recording data into a genome, timing the order of biochemical pathway events, efficient genome engineering and encoding lagged cellular death.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-07-29

One aspect of the invention relates to materials and devices with interface layers with geometries which transform upon the direct or indirect application of load or displacement. The interface layers may transform from straight or flat shapes to wavy or hierarchically wavy morphologies or the waviness can be altered by load or displacement to tailor wavelength and amplitude of the interface geometry. Methods of predictably altering the interfacial morphology are also described. The ability to control material interface transformation can be used to regulate and to tune mechanical, chemical, thermal, swelling, photonic, phononic, electrical and optical functions, including color and reflectivity of the material.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston College | Date: 2015-07-13

The current application describes tungsten oxo alkylidene complexes for olefin metathesis.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-08

Combustion system. The system includes a combustor generating a combustion gas and a splitter for receiving the combustion gas and dividing the combustion gas into first and second gas streams. A temperature controller receives the first gas stream, mixes it with recycled gas and introduces it into a heat recovery steam generator at a desired temperature. A mixer receives the second gas stream, mixes it with recycled gas and introduces it into the heat recovery steam generator. The cool gas that exits the heat recovery steam generator forms the recycled gas. A suitable combustor is an oxy-coal combustor.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-13

In exemplary implementations of this invention, an implant device is wholly or partially implanted in a mammal. The implant device includes an antenna, circuitry, a supercapacitor, one or more light sources, and an array of optical fibers or light guides. The antenna and circuitry receive energy by wireless transmission from an external transmit coil. The supercapacitor stores at least a portion of the energy and provides power to one or more light sources. The array of optical fibers or light guides deliver light from the light sources to living tissue of a mammal. The tissue includes light-sensitive, heterologously expressed proteins. The light affects the light-sensitive proteins, triggering a change in all or part of the tissue, such as a change in voltage, pH or a change in function.


A programmable pipeline for synthesis of multi-material 3D printed objects supports procedural evaluation of geometric detail and material composition, using program modules allowing models to be specified easily and efficiently. A streaming architecture enables only a small fraction of the final volume to be stored in memory. Output is fed to the printer with little startup delay. A variety of multi-material objects are described. Procedural control over surface and volume stages as well as dithering is provided, together or independent of each other.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-07-31

In one embodiment, a method comprises projecting, from a projector, a diffused on an object. The method further includes capturing, with a first camera in a particular location, a reference image of the object while the diffused is projected on the object. The method further includes capturing, with a second camera positioned in the particular location, a test image of the object while the diffused is projected on the object. The method further includes comparing speckles in the reference image to the test image. The projector, first camera and second camera are removably provided to and positioned in a site of the object.


Various types and levels of operator assistance are performed within a unified, configurable framework. A model of the device with a model of the environment and the current state of the device and the environment are used to iteratively generate a sequence of optimal device control inputs that, when applied to a model of the device, generate an optimal device trajectory through a constraint-bounded corridor or region within the state space. This optimal trajectory and the sequence of device control inputs that generates it is used to generate a threat assessment metric. An appropriate type and level of operator assistance is generated based on this threat assessment. Operator assistance modes include warnings, decision support, operator feedback, vehicle stability control, and autonomous or semi-autonomous hazard avoidance. The responses generated by each assistance mode are mutually consistent because they are generated using the same optimal trajectory.


Patent
Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-09-26

This invention is directed to -1-6-glucans, compositions and devices comprising the same, and methods of use thereof in modulating immune responses. The -1-6-glucans of certain embodiments of the invention are enriched for O-acetylated groups and/or conjugated to a solid support or linked to a targeting moiety.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-06-10

A method of a general biological approach to synthesizing compact nanotubes using a biological template is described.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-07

The present invention provides, among other things, technologies and methodologies for detection, treatment, and/or prevention of influenza transmission and/or infection. The present invention also provides technologies for monitoring influenza HA variants with particular degrees of susceptibility to mutation for human adaptation.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-09-17

Poly(-amino esters) prepared from the conjugate addition of bis(secondary amines) or primary amines to a bis(acrylate ester) are described. Methods of preparing these polymers from commercially available starting materials are also provided. These tertiary amine-containing polymers are preferably biodegradable and biocompatible and may be used in a variety of drug delivery systems. Given the poly(amine) nature of these polymers, they are particularly suited for the delivery of polynucleotides. Nanoparticles containing polymer/polynucleotide complexes have been prepared. The inventive polymers may also be used to encapsulate other agents to be delivered. They are particularly useful in delivering labile agents given their ability to buffer the pH of their surroundings.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-10

Nitrogen-containing lipids prepared from the conjugate addition of amines to acrylates, acrylamides, or other carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated to electron-withdrawing groups are described. Methods of preparing these lipids from commercially available starting materials are also provided. These amine-containing lipids or salts forms of these lipids are preferably biodegradable and biocompatible and may be used in a variety of drug delivery systems. Given the amino moiety of these lipids, they are particularly suited for the delivery of polynucleotides. Complexes or nanoparticles containing the inventive lipid and polynucleotide have been prepared. The inventive lipids may also be used to in preparing microparticle for drug delivery. They are particularly useful in delivering labile agents given their ability to buffer the pH of their surroundings.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-04-23

Systems and methods for coating a particle core with a layer-by-layer film are disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-28

The invention relates to a novel class of self-assembling peptides, compositions thereof, methods for the preparation thereof and methods of use thereof. The invention also encompasses methods for tissue regeneration, increasing the production of extracellular matrix proteins, and methods of treatment comprising administering self-assembling peptides.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston College | Date: 2015-07-13

The present invention relates generally to catalysts and processes for the Z-selective formation of internal olefin(s) from terminal olefin(s) via homo-metathesis reactions.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-17

Localized thermal management system. The system includes an array of emitters of beams of infrared radiation mourned for rotation within a volumetric space. A motion tracking system determines location coordinates of at least one individual moving within the space and a servomotor controls the rotation of the emitters to direct at least one beam toward the at least one individual to provide local warming.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-17

The present invention provides, among other things, novel compounds and methods for metathesis reactions. In some embodiments, a provided compound has the structure of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides compounds and methods for Z-selective olefin metathesis.


Patent
The General Hospital Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-08-08

A microfluidic device for manipulating particles can include a substrate and one or more obstacles, each obstacle comprising a plurality of aligned nanostructures including a plurality of nanoparticles or a plurality of polymer layers, or a combination thereof. The obstacle on a substrate can be forests with intra-carbon nanotube spacing ranging between 5-100 nm for isolation of particles such as very small viruses and proteins.


Systems and methods in which the flow of fluid is electrically driven, including electrospinning and electrospraying systems and methods, are generally described.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-26

The attenuation and other optical properties of a medium are exploited to measure a thickness of the medium between a sensor and a target surface. Disclosed herein are various mediums, arrangements of hardware, and processing techniques that can be used to capture these thickness measurements and obtain three-dimensional images of the target surface in a variety of imaging contexts. This includes general techniques for imaging interior/concave surfaces as well as exterior/convex surfaces, as well as specific adaptations of these techniques to imaging ear canals, human dentition, and so forth.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-06-30

A technique for forming nanostructures including introducing a plurality of molecular-size scale and/or nanoscale building blocks to a region near a substrate and simultaneously scanning a pattern on the substrate with an energy beam, wherein the energy beam causes a change in at least one physical property of at least a portion of the building blocks, such that a probability of the portion of the building blocks adhering to the pattern scanned by the energy beam is increased, and wherein the building blocks adhere to the pattern to form the structure. The energy beam and at least a portion of the building blocks may interact by electrostatic interaction to form the structure.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-14

The present invention generally provides devices, systems, and methods for determination of one or more analytes. The analyte may be determined by monitoring, for example, a change in an electrical, optical, or other signal of a material (e.g., sensor material) present within the device, upon exposure to the analyte. The signal may be an electrical and/or optical property of the device. In some cases, devices described herein may be useful as sensors for the determination of analytes such as explosives, chemical warfare agents, and/or toxins.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-20

Methods are disclosed for the characterization of the stage of development or pathology of a tissue sample, and for identifying pluripotent metakaryotic stem cells, comprising detecting fluorescence of cells and syncytia in fixed samples treated with a non-fluorescent Schiffs base reagent in the absence of extraneous or exogenously added fluorescent dyes.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-22

An optical structure can include a nanocrystal on a surface of an optical waveguide in a manner to couple the nanocrystal to the optical field of light propagating through the optical waveguide to generate an emission from the nanocrystal. The structure can be configured to restrict propagation of the emission from the nanocrystal along the waveguide.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Tsinghua University | Date: 2015-09-17

An electroactive material including an aluminum nanoparticle core and a nanoshell surrounding the aluminum nanoparticle core as well as its methods of use and manufacture are described.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-20

Heat exchanger. Metallic foam is disposed on at least one fin made of high thermal conductivity material. The metallic foam exchanges heat with a gas stream flowing therethrough.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-23

Reliability is improved for the mechanical electrical connection formed between a grid array device, such as a pin grid array device (PGA) or a column grid array device (CGA), and a substrate such as a printed circuit board (PCB). Between adjacent PCB pads, a spacing pattern increases toward the periphery of the CGA, creating a misalignment between pads and columns. As part of the assembly method, columns align with the pads, resulting in column tilt that increases from the center to the periphery of the CGA. An advantage of this tilt is that it reduces the amount of contractions and expansions of columns during thermal cycling, thereby increasing the projected life of CGA. Another advantage of the method is that it reduces shear stress, further increasing the projected life of the CGA.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-21

The present invention relates to methods of treating cancer with a combination of extended-PK IL-2 and one or more therapeutic agents, such as a therapeutic antibody. The methods of the invention are applicable across any type of cancer.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-13

In exemplary implementations of this invention, a camera can capture multiple millions of frames per second, such that each frame is 2D image, rather than a streak. A light source in the camera emits ultrashort pulses of light to illuminate a scene. Scattered light from the scene returns to the camera. This incoming light strikes a photocathode, which emits electrons, which are detected by a set of phosphor blocks, which emit light, which is detected by a light sensor. Voltage is applied to plates to create an electric field that deflects the electrons. The voltage varies in a temporal stepladder pattern, deflecting the electrons by different amounts, such that the electrons hit different phosphor blocks at different times during the sequence. Each phosphor block (together with the light sensor) captures a separate frame in the sequence. A mask may be used to increase resolution.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-13

A method of forming a composite material for use in multi-modal transport includes providing three-dimensional graphene having hollow channels, enabling a polymer to wick into the hollow channels of the three-dimensional graphene, curing the polymer to form a cured three-dimensional graphene, adding an active material to the cured three-dimensional graphene to form a composite material, and removing the polymer from within the hollow channels. A composite material formed according to the method is also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-07

The present invention relates to a cell based genomic Recorded Accumulative Memory (geRAM) system (also referred to herein as Genomically Encoded Memory (GEM)) for recoding data (i.e., changes in nucleic acid sequences in cellular DNA in response to physical and/or chemical signal(s)) from the cellular environment.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-20

The present invention, among other things, provides highly syndiotactic poly(dicyclopentadiene) and/or hydrogenated poly(dicyclopentadiene), compositions thereof, and compounds and methods for preparing the same. In some embodiments, a provided compound is a compound of formula I, II or III. In some embodiments, a provided method comprises providing a compound of formula I, II or III.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-22

The invention relates to recombinant cells and their use in the production of ethylene glycol.


Patent
Stratasys and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-02-25

The combination of 3D printing technology plus the additional dimension of transformation over time of the printed object is referred to herein as 4D printing technology. Particular arrangements of the additive manufacturing material(s) used in the 3D printing process can create a printed 3D object that transforms over time from a first, printed shape to a second, predetermined shape.


A method for the machine generation of a model for predicting patient outcome following the occurrence of an event. In one embodiment the method includes the steps of obtaining a physiological signal of interest, the physiological signal having a characteristic; obtaining a time series of a signal characteristic; dividing the time series into a plurality of window segments; converting the time series from time-space to beat-space; computing the power in various frequency bands of each window segment; computing the 90th percentile of the spectral energies across all window segments for each frequency band; and inputting the data into a machine learning program to generate a weighted risk vector.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-20

A technique for forming nanostructures including introducing a plurality of molecular-size scale and/or nanoscale building blocks to a region near a substrate and simultaneously scanning a pattern on the substrate with an energy beam, wherein the energy beam causes a change in at least one physical property of at least a portion of the building blocks, such that a probability of the portion of the building blocks adhering to the pattern scanned by the energy beam is increased, and wherein the building blocks adhere to the pattern to form the structure. The energy beam and at least a portion of the building blocks may interact by electrostatic interaction to form the structure.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-06

Devices, systems, and methods for continuous cell culture and other reactions are generally described. In some embodiments, chambers (e.g., cell growth chambers) including at least a portion of a wall formed of a flexible member are provided. A retaining structure can be incorporated outside and proximate to the chamber such that when liquid is added to the chamber, the flexible member is consistently and predictably deformed, and a consistent volume of liquid is added. The flexible member can be formed of, in some embodiments, a gas-permeable medium. In some embodiments, reaction chambers can be arranged in a fluidic loop, and a bypass channel can be used to introduce and/or extract fluid from the loop without affecting loop operation.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-04

A method, apparatus and computer program product for -based, delay-efficient data transmission for broadcasting a single file is presented. A file () comprised of K packets to be broadcast to a plurality of receivers is determined. A plurality of packets (P


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-27

Adhesive articles containing microtopography, such as microprotrusions, and a coating of adhesive glue, such an adhesive having known toxicity and/or tissue reactive functional groups are described herein. The articles described herein contain a substrate, a plurality of microfeatures, and an adhesive, such as an adhesive glue. The articles described herein exhibit a 90 pull off adhesion of at least about 1.5 N/cm


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-25

In accordance with one aspect of this disclosure, there is provided a device for performing magnetic resonance relaxometry. The device comprises a radio-frequency spectrometer comprising at least one field-programmable gate array chip; a power amplifier electrically connected with the radio-frequency spectrometer and amplifying an electrical output of the radio-frequency spectrometer, thereby producing an amplified electrical signal comprising between about 0.1 Watts and about 10 Watts power; a duplexer configured to isolate the radio-frequency spectrometer from the amplified electrical signal during a receiving mode of the device; a radio-frequency detection probe configured to transmit radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation to excite nuclei under resonance during a transmission mode of the device, the radio-frequency detection probe comprising a detection coil comprising an inner diameter of less than about 1 millimeter; and at least one magnet supplying an external magnetic field to a detection region of the radio-frequency detection probe, the external magnetic field being less than about 3 Tesla.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-13

The present invention provides a method of enhancing adoptive cell therapy (ACT) by administering an extended-pharmacokinetic (PK) interleukin (IL)-2 to a cancer subject receiving ACT, optionally in combination with a therapeutic antibody. Methods of treating cancer and promoting tumor regression are also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-14

Described herein are inventive methods for synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-15

Techniques are described for determining rates and other parameters for users associated with a multiple access channel (MAC). In at least one embodiment, a rate determination tool having a GUI interface is provided.


An SUOC radio employs: (1) Spectrum sensing and parameter estimation methods to characterize potential FUOCs; (2) A rate pair prediction tool to guide its choice of FUOC to target along with the appropriate rate pair (SUOC and FUOC achievable rates); (3) Machine learning methods to automatically and on the fly advantage experience/history; (4) A decision maker with multiple possible procedures that govern steps of interaction; (5) Multiuser detection receiver to deal with the interference once information-bearing transmission has commenced by the SUOC radios. (6) a radio capable of full transmit-processing chain to accomplish modulation and full receive-processing chain to accomplish demodulation, as well as other radio functions necessary for successful wireless communications such as medium access control, networking and other functions.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-24

A method of tracking cell identity across analytical platforms uses stochastic barcoding (SB). SB uses a randomly generated code based on one or more of the number, color and position of beads encapsulated together with a set of cells of interest. SB use is demonstrated in an application where cells are transferred from a microwell array into a microtitre plate while keeping their identity, and obtained an average identification accuracy of 96% for transfer of 100 blocks. Model scaling of the method up to 1000 blocks demonstrated that SB is able to achieve approximately 90% accuracy.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-09

The invention provides for delivery, engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are delivery systems and tissues or organ which are targeted as sites for delivery. Also provided are vectors and vector systems some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells to ensure enhanced specificity for target recognition and avoidance of toxicity and to edit or modify a target site in a genomic locus of interest to alter or improve the status of a disease or a condition.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-22

The attenuation and other optical properties of a medium are exploited to measure a thickness of the medium between a sensor and a target surface. Disclosed herein are various mediums, arrangements of hardware, and processing techniques that can be used to capture these thickness measurements and obtain dynamic three-dimensional images of the target surface in a variety of imaging contexts. This includes general techniques for imaging interior/concave surfaces as well as exterior/convex surfaces, as well as specific adaptations of these techniques to imaging ear canals, human dentition, and so forth.


Patent
King Fahd University of Petroleum, Minerals and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-08-31

A feed liquid flows into a second-stage humidifier chamber to form a second-stage humidifier bath. A first remnant of the feed liquid from the second-stage humidifier chamber then flows into a first-stage humidifier chamber to form a first-stage humidifier bath having a temperature lower than that of the second-stage bath. A second remnant of the feed liquid is then removed from the first-stage humidifier. Meanwhile, a carrier gas is injected into and bubbled through the first-stage humidifier bath, collecting a vaporizable component in vapor form from the first remnant of the feed liquid to partially humidify the carrier gas. The partially humidified carrier gas is then bubbled through the second-stage humidifier bath, where the carrier gas collects more of the vaporizable component in vapor form from the feed liquid to further humidify the carrier gas before the humidified carrier gas is removed from the second-stage humidifier chamber.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-12-18

An ionic liquid ion source can include a microfabricated body including a base and a tip. The body can be formed of a porous material compatible with at least one of an ionic liquid or room-temperature molten salt. The body can have a pore size gradient that decreases from the base of the body to the tip of the body, such that the at least one of an ionic liquid or room-temperature molten salt is capable of being transported through capillarity from the base to the tip.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-31

In exemplary implementations, transplantation of nucleic acids into cells occurs in microfluidic chambers. The nucleic acids may be large nucleic acid molecules with more than 100 kbp. In some cases, the microfluidic chambers have only one orifice that opens to a flow channel. In some cases, flow through a microfluidic chamber temporarily ceases due to closing one or more valves. Transplantation occurs during a period in which the contents of the chambers are shielded from shear forces. Diffusion, centrifugation, suction from a vacuum channel, or dead-end loading may be used to move cells or buffers into the chambers.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-07-15

According to some aspects, the invention relates to methods and compositions for evaluation of hemodynamic responses (e.g., using molecular imaging) with high sensitivity.


Patent
Childrens Medical Center Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-03-22

Systems and methods are disclosed herein for quantitatively identifying a patients physiological state based on one or more capnograms. One or more capnograms are acquired, each capnogram being associated with a patient and including one or more respiratory cycles, and one or more features from the one or more respiratory cycles are extracted. One or more classifiers are provided based on the one or more extracted features, and each classifier is used to select a physiological state from one or more candidate physiological states for each of the one or more respiratory cycles. For each of the selected physiological states, a likelihood value is determined, and a physiological state of the patient is determined based on the likelihood values.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-18

Methods for identifying stem cells and other cells specific to embryogenesis and carcinogenesis, classifying tissue samples, diagnosing precancerous and cancerous or atherosclerotic lesions, testing the value of anticancer agents, discovering macromolecules specifically expressed in particular cell types, using stem cells in restorative tissue therapy as well as methods for preparing tissue samples so heteromorphic nuclear morphotypes remain intact are disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-08

Some embodiments are directed to a method, corresponding system, and corresponding apparatus for rendering a video and/or image display to amplify small motions through video magnification. Some embodiments include a new compact image pyramid representation, the Riesz pyramid, that may be used for real-time, high-quality phase-based video magnification. Some embodiments are less overcomplete than even the smallest two orientation, octave-bandwidth complex steerable pyramid. Some embodiments are implemented using compact, efficient linear filters in the spatial domain. Some embodiments produce motion magnified videos that are of comparable quality to those using the complex steerable pyramid. In some embodiments, the Riesz pyramid is used with phase-based video magnification. The Riesz pyramid may phase-shift image features along their dominant orientation, rather than along every orientation like the complex steerable pyramid.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-06-17

Between two juxtaposed similar ion exchange membranes (AEMs or CEMs), an ion depletion zone (d


The invention provides inter alia methods for differentiating embryonic stem cells into insulin producing cells, as well as compositions comprising such cells, and therapeutic uses of such compositions.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-26

Provided herein are methods and compositions for identifying subjects as having an elevated risk of developing or having a neuropsychiatric disorder. These subjects are identified based on the presence of one or more mutations.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-10-29

A composite film includes a substrate that is not responsive to relative humidity, and also one or more layers of hygromorphic material. The hygromorphic material expands in response to an increase in relative humidity and contracts in response to a decrease in relative humidity. In some cases, the composite film is bi-layer or tri-layer. The composite films are fabricated such that they undergo a desired bending pattern in response to changes in relative humidity. In some cases, these bending patterns are combinations of two bending primitives: a smooth curve and a sharply angled curve. These two primitives are combined to create a variety of shape transformations including 1D linear transformation, 2D surface expansion and contraction, 2.5D texture change and 3D folding. Any type of hygromorphic material may be employed, including living gram positive and gram negative bacterial cells, yeast cells, plant cells, mammalian cells, cell debris, or hydrogel.


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-08-07

An apparatus provides targeted placement of openings for infusing fluids into a body. The apparatus provides a driving force to a penetrating medical device, such as a needle, when the apparatus tip encounters material of high resistance. When the apparatus tip encounters a low resistance material, no further driving force is applied to the apparatus due to contraction of an element made of interlaced flexible elements. A multi-opening needle is provided in some embodiments wherein placement of one of the openings in a target region with a relatively lower external pressure allows pressurized fluid to exit the needle while openings remaining in higher pressure, non-target regions do not release substantial amounts of the fluid.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Michigan | Date: 2014-07-28

The present invention generally relates to articles comprising microstructures and methods for forming microstructures. The microstructures may be mechanically coupled to impart complex three dimensional shapes. For example, one or more microstructures may be grown on a substrate at different average growth rates, resulting in curved microstructures.


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-08

The present invention provides compositions, preparations, formulations, kits, and methods useful for treating subjects having cancer or at risk of developing cancer. Some embodiments of the invention may comprise a composition comprising a plurality of particles comprising a platinum(IV) therapeutically active precursor.


Patent
Georgia Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-11-13

In an automated method for in vivo multiple cell patch clamping, cell patch clamping devices are automatically moved into position and targeted to multiple corresponding cells. Cell contact is determined by analyzing the temporal series of measured resistance levels at the clamping devices as they are moved. The difference between successive resistance levels is computed and compared to a threshold, which must be exceeded for a minimum number of computations before neuron contact is assumed. Pneumatic control methods are used to achieve cell-attached or gigaseal formation and subsequent cell break-in, leading to whole-cell patch clamp formation. An automated robotic system automatically performs patch clamping in vivo, automatically detecting cells according to the methodology by analyzing the temporal sequence of electrode impedance changes. By continuously monitoring the patching process and rapidly executing actions triggered by specific measurements, the robot can rapidly find neurons in the living brain and establish recordings.


The invention features methods for detecting the hydration state or vascular volume of a subject using a device capable of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement. The methods involve exposing a portion of a tissue of the subject in vivo to a magnetic field and RF pulse from the device to excite hydrogen nuclei of water within the tissue portion, and measuring a relaxation parameter of the hydrogen nuclei in the tissue portion, the relaxation parameter being a quantitative measure of the hydration state or vascular volume of the subject as a whole. The invention also features devices and computer-readable storage media for per forming the methods of the invention.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2014-03-14

A method for parallel sequencing target RNA from samples from multiple sources while maintaining source identification is provided. The method includes providing samples of RNA comprising target RNA from two or more sources; labeling, at the 3 end, the RNA from the two or more sources with a first nucleic acid adaptor that comprises a nucleic acid sequence that differentiates between the RNA from the two or more sources; reverse transcribing the two or more sources to create a single stranded DNA comprising the nucleic acid sequence that differentiates between the RNA from the two or more sources; amplifying the single stranded DNA to create DNA amplification products that comprise the nucleic acid sequence that differentiates between the RNA from the two or more sources; sequencing the DNA amplification products thereby parallel sequencing target RNA from samples from multiple sources while maintaining source identification.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-12

The present application relates generally to systems and methods for using machine vision to provide information on one or more aspects of an additive fabrication device, such as calibration parameters and/or an object formed by the device or in the process of being formed by the device. According to some aspects, a method is provided for calibrating an additive fabrication device. According to some aspects, a method is provided for assessing at least a portion of an object formed using an additive fabrication device. According to some aspects, a method is provided for fabricating a second object in contact with a first object using an additive fabrication device. According to some aspects, an additive fabrication device configured to perform one or more of the above methods may be provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-24

Disclosed is an apparatus for use in wireless energy transfer, which includes a first resonator structure configured to transfer energy non-radiatively with a second resonator structure over a distance greater than a characteristic size of the second resonator structure. The non-radiative energy transfer is mediated by a coupling of a resonant field evanescent tail of the first resonator structure and a resonant field evanescent tail of the second resonator structure.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-18

Compositions, methods, and systems for controlling crystallization of an agent are generally described. In some embodiments, an agent is crystallized in the presence of polymer matrices, such as polymer particles. The polymer matrix may influence at least a portion of the crystallization process and/or the resulting composition. In some such embodiments, the polymer matrix allows one or more aspect of the process and/or composition to be controlled and/or altered. For instance, the polymer matrix may act as a crystallization promoter and/or acceptable carriers of the crystallized agent. In certain embodiments, the polymer matrix described herein, can be used with any agent regardless of its chemical and/or physical properties.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-20

Embodiments of hybrid sensor-enabled and autonomous electric wheels can include a plurality of systems and devices integrated into a single compact hub unit that can be retrofitted into numerous types of two-wheeled bicycles. In one embodiment, an electrically motorized bicycle wheel can include a wheel rim, a wheel hub having an electric motor, a battery pack and a control unit configured to control a drive torque of the electric motor, and a plurality of wheel spokes connecting the wheel rim to the wheel hub. The electric motor, the battery pack and the control unit can be positioned within the wheel hub of the electrically motorized bicycle wheel.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-08-13

In a method for generating a long nucleic acid molecule, nucleic acids immobilized on a surface and having overlapping complementary sequences is released into solution. The overlapping complementary sequences are hybridized to form hybridized nucleic acids, followed by extension or ligation of the hybridized nucleic acids to synthesize the long nucleic acid molecule. The nucleic acids may comprise first and second series of nucleic acids having redundant overlapping sequences, wherein nucleic acids from the first and second series are complementary to each other. The complementary nucleic acids are hybridized to form the hybridized nucleic acids. The generated long nucleic acid molecule may have a predetermined sequence element, and it may be introduced into a system wherein the predetermined sequence element is required for replication, such that replication of the synthesized long nucleic acid molecule is indicative of the presence of the predetermined sequence element in the long nucleic acid molecule.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-05-06

A daylighting system for use in a building including a louver array having a first longitudinal element, and a second longitudinal element spaced therefrom. At least one of the first and second elements has an asymmetrical profile, each of the first and second longitudinal elements has a bottom profile including a parabolic surface, portions of opposing surfaces of the first and second longitudinal elements define a compound parabolic concentrator profile having a non-horizontal centerline that is tilted upwards, and the array prevents line of sight therethrough. A louver for a daylighting system includes (i) a leading edge defined by a leading connecting surface disposal between a parabolic concentrator surface and a flat surface; and (ii) a trailing edge defined by a trailing connecting surface disposed between a lower compound parabolic concentrator profile, and an upper compound parabolic concentrator profile. A method for designing a louver profile is provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-28

Pharmaceutical compositions including an effective amount of an antiandrogen or androgen antagonist in combination with a Plk inhibitor and methods of use thereof for treating cancer are disclosed. Administration of the combination of the active agents can be effective to reduce cancer cell proliferation or viability in a subject with cancer to the same degree, or a greater degree than administering to the subject the same amount of either active agent alone. The active agents can be administered together or separately. Methods of selecting and treating subjects with cancers, particular prostate cancers including castration resistant prostate cancer, breast cancers, particularly androgen receptor positive breast cancers, and pancreatic cancers are also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-10-07

There is provided a substrate with a lower growth confinement layer disposed thereon. An upper growth confinement layer is disposed above and vertically separated from the lower growth confinement layer. A planar lateral growth channel is provided between the upper and lower growth confinement layers with a vertical separation between the layers along the lateral growth channel. A germanium material growth seed of amorphous silicon is disposed at a site adjacent to the lateral growth channel. The upper growth confinement layer and the lower growth confinement layer each prohibits crystalline germanium material nucleation on the upper and lower growth confinement layers during exposure to GeH


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-16

A link extends between a distal member and a proximal member of a wearable device, such as an exoskeleton, orthosis or prosthesis for a human lower limb. One or other of the distal member and the proximal member includes a crossing member. The link extends from the crossing member of the distal member or the proximal member, to the other of the distal member or the proximal member. Actuation of the link translates to a force at the distal or proximal member that is normal to a major longitudinal axis extending through the distal and proximal members. In one embodiment, a sliding link of a device configured for use with a human joint tracks two degrees of freedom of the joint.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Brown University | Date: 2013-08-13

The invention features methods for regulating vascular properties by controlling the membrane properties of endothelial cells using optogenetics and light. The invention features methods to transport therapeutics across the vascular barrier into tissues such as the brain and the lung, with high spatial and temporal precision, and for controlling vascular properties such as vascular tone, arterial diameter, and vascular growth.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-08

The invention relates to composition and a method of using the composition for modulting proliferation, invasiveness, the expression of a biomarker of an abnormal cell, of reducing the risk of patient cell becoming abnormal, or of modulating proliferation of a carcinoma-associated fibroblast or of a tumor-associated macrophage. The invention also relates to a method of culturing the composition to produce molecules that modulate abnormal cell proliferation, invasiveness, or metastasis. The composition comprises a biocompatible matrix and cells engrafted thereon.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-22

The present invention provides, among other things, multilayer film coating compositions, coated substrates and methods thereof. In some embodiments, a structure includes a first and second layer-by-layer film disposes on a substrate, the structure being characterized in that layer-by-layer removal of at least the second film releases at least one polypeptide, and also may permit release of ions from the ceramic material so that a synergetic effect of the osteoinduction and osteoconduction of the structure is achieved.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Nanyang Technological University | Date: 2013-01-10

A distributed traffic signal control method is provided for a directed network comprising a plurality of junctions, each junction having a plurality of links connected thereto, the links comprising one or more upstream links and one or more downstream links, the method comprising: activating one of a plurality of phases of the junction for a predetermined time period which maximizes the directed network throughput based on current differential traffic backlogs between said one or more upstream links and said one or more downstream links, each phase providing a unique combination of traffic signals at the junction for guiding traffic from the upstream link(s) to the downstream link(s). There is also provided a corresponding traffic signal controller, a traffic control system comprising the traffic signal controller, and a computer readable medium having stored therein computer executable codes for instructing a computer processor to execute the distributed traffic signal control method.


An integrated circuit chip and method for EEG monitoring. In one embodiment, the integrated circuit chip includes an Analog Front End cell in communication with an electrode and a Classification Processor wherein a signal received from the electrode is processed by the Classification Engine cell and designated as seizure or non-seizure. In another embodiment, the Analog Front End cell includes an amplifier cell in communication with an electrode; and an ASPU cell in communication with the amplifier cell. In yet another embodiment, the Classification Processor includes a DBE Channel Controller cell; a Feature Extraction Engine Processor cell, and a Classification Engine cell in communication with the Feature Extraction Engine Processor cells and the DBE Channel Controller cell.