Cambridge, MA, United States
Cambridge, MA, United States

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the northern bank of the Charles River basin.MIT, with five schools and one college which contain a total of 32 departments, is traditionally known for research and education in the physical science and engineering, and more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, and management as well. The "Engineers" sponsor 31 sports, most teams of which compete in the NCAA Division III's New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.MIT is often cited as among the world's top universities. As of 2014, 81 Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 38 MacArthur Fellows, and 2 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT. MIT has a strong entrepreneurial culture and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-30

System for visualization of conformal contact. The system visualizes conformal contact between a patterned stamp and a transparent impression surface. A patterned stamp is provided that includes a fluorescent structure for contact with the impression surface. A source of UV light is provided for transmission through the transparent impression surface to interact with the fluorescent structure to generate visible light re-emitted by the fluorescent structure. An imaging system captures the visible light to form a high-contrast image of an area of conformal contact between the patterned stamp and the impression surface. The high-contrast image comprises bright and dark regions representing contact and no contact respectively.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-23

The attenuation and other optical properties of a medium are exploited to measure a thickness of the medium between a sensor and a target surface. Disclosed herein are various mediums, arrangements of hardware, and processing techniques that can be used to capture these thickness measurements and obtain three-dimensional images of the target surface in a variety of imaging contexts. This includes general techniques for imaging interior/concave surfaces as well as exterior/convex surfaces, as well as specific adaptations of these techniques to imaging ear canals, human dentition, and so forth.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-03

A model-based neuromechanical controller for a robotic limb having at least one joint includes a finite state machine configured to receive feedback data relating to the state of the robotic limb and to determine the state of the robotic limb, a muscle model processor configured to receive state information from the finite state machine and, using muscle geometry and reflex architecture information and a neuromuscular model, to determine at least one desired joint torque or stiffness command to be sent to the robotic limb, and a joint command processor configured to command the biomimetic torques and stiffnesses determined by the muscle model processor at the robotic limb joint. The feedback data is preferably provided by at least one sensor mounted at each joint of the robotic limb. In a preferred embodiment, the robotic limb is a leg and the finite state machine is synchronized to the leg gait cycle.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-27

Systems, apparatus, and methods related to modeling, monitoring, and/or managing metabolism of a subject include measuring a respiratory quotient (RQ) level in a subject and/or optimizing and executing a nonlinear feedback model to model energy substrate utilization in the subject based on at least one of a macronutrient composition and caloric value of food consumed by the subject, an intensity and duration of activity by the subject, a rate and maximum capacity of glycogen storage in the subject, a rate and maximum capacity of de novo lipogenesis in the subject, a quality and duration of sleep by the subject, and/or an RQ level in the subject.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Connecticut Children’s Medical Center | Date: 2016-09-15

Systems and methods are presented for the diagnosis of middle ear pathological conditions based on spectral signatures. Preferred embodiments provide for detection of one or more analytes from the tympanic membrane. Devices use spectral measurements including spectral imaging to non-invasively identify middle ear pathological conditions including cholesteatoma and acute otitis media by providing real-time information of differentially expressed molecules. Devices and methods can also be used to non-invasively detect and quantify blood analytes from the tympanic membrane.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-27

Systems and methods for a short wave infrared (SWIR) otoscope device are provided. The SWIR otoscope device can capture images of a patients middle ear to aid in diagnosing one of a plurality of maladies. In one embodiment, the SWIR otoscope device can include a SWIR detector, a light source, and a plurality of optics that can enable the SWIR otoscope device to capture images of the middle ear of a patient.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-28

A method for monitoring periodic motions of one or more subjects uses signal reflections from the subjects. The method includes emitting a transmitted signal from a transmitting antenna and receiving a received signal at one or more receiving antennas. The received signal includes a combination of a number of reflections of the transmitted signal, at least some of which are associated with the subjects. The received signal, including the reflections, is processed to determine an estimate of a fundamental frequency of the periodic motions.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-28

Robotic endoscopes have the potential to help endoscopists position tools during procedures, to propel the endoscope to the desired position, to automate functions and to prevent perforations during procedures. Modular architecture for a continuum robotic endoscope with multiple bending segments along the length of the endoscope. Each of the segments is modular, containing a set of actuation motors that drive short cables in the continuum segments.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Childrens Medical Center Corporation and Rey Juan Carlos University | Date: 2016-04-25

A method is provided for generating images using a MRI system. The method includes one or more acts below. First, the MRI system applies a pulse sequence to obtain a first set of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI images of a pregnant subject during a first time period. The MRI system then applies the pulse sequence to obtain a second set of BOLD MRI images of the pregnant subject during a second time period. The MRI system automatically extracts one or more regions of interest that include a placenta of the pregnant subject in the first and second sets of BOLD MRI images. The MRI system obtains BOLD signal changes in the one or more regions of interest based on the first and second sets of BOLD MRI images. The MRI system generates, based on the BOLD signal changes, a map indicating placental oxygen transport.


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-13

Nanoparticles having a positive feedback delivery system include an agent specific for a target in combination with a target inducing agent. Upon administration to a subject, the targeting moiety on the nanoparticles binds to available targets in the subject. The nanoparticles release the target inducing agent and, optionally, a therapeutic agent, at the site where the nanoparticles bind the target. The inducing agent causes additional targets to be expressed. More nanoparticles bind to the additional, induced targets. By inducing additional targets to be expressed at specific regions in the subject that require treatment, more nanoparticles can bind to the targets in that specific region of interest, increasing the concentration of nanoparticles at a specific area of subject is increased.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Brigham and Women's Hospital | Date: 2015-09-03

Method and compositions for inducing the self-renewal of stem/progenitor supporting cells comprised by a cochlear cell population, including inducing the stem/progenitor cells to proliferate while maintaining, in the daughter cells, the capacity to differentiate into hair cells.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Date: 2016-09-23

Compositions and methods for modified dendrimer nanoparticle (MDNP) delivery of therapeutic, prophylactic and/or diagnostic agent such as large repRNA molecules to the cells of a subject have been developed. MDNPs efficiently drive proliferation of antigen-specific T cells against intracellular antigen, and potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. MDNPs can be multiplexed to deliver two or more different repRNAs to modify expression kinetics of encoded antigens and to simultaneous deliver repRNAs and mRNAs including the same UTR elements that promote expression of encoded antigens.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-17

The invention provides, inter alia, methods of treating a disorder characterized by excessive metakaryotic stem cell growth by a combination metakaryocidal therapy. Also encompassed by the present invention are preventative methods comprising the administration of a metakaryocidal or metakayrostatic therapeutic agent.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Dalhousie University | Date: 2016-08-09

Amblyopia is a prevalent form of visual impairment that generally arises during infancy and early childhood when inputs to the visual cortex form the two eyes are poorly balanced. Disclosed herein are methods involving retinal inactivation of at least one retina to treat visual impairment in the form of amblyopia or other conditions.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-24

Knee adduction moment of an untethered human during gait is modulated by determining at least one feature associated with instantaneous knee adduction moment of the untethered human during a gait cycle. Feedback to be transmitted to the human is, optionally, derived from the feature, such as by comparing the at least one feature to a value, such as a target value. The feature, or feedback derived from the feature, is transmitted to the human for response by the human, thereby modulating knee adduction moment of the untethered human during the gait.


Patent
The General Hospital Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-22

A system and method for diagnosing mental or emotional disorders is disclosed. An affective BCI component is incorporated into a closed loop, symptomresponsive psychiatric DBS system. A series of input data related to a brain of the patient is acquired while the patient performs a battery of behavioral tasks. From the patients performance on the task battery, the system identifies what is abnormal for that individual patient in terms of functional domains. Patient-specific behavioral measurements are then linked to patterns of activation and de-activation across different brain regions, identifying specific structures that are the source of the patients individual impairment.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Childrens Medical Center Corporation | Date: 2016-08-12

Systems and methods are disclosed herein for quantitatively identifying a patients sedation level and predicting adverse events, based on one or more capnograms or outputs from a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or ventilatory model. A sensor measures a carbon dioxide concentration of air exhaled by a patient into a breath receiver. A processor processes the sensor data to generate a capnogram including one or more respiratory cycles, computes the outputs of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or ventilatory models, and extracts one or more of the resulting features from the capnogram and pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or ventilatory model outputs. A multi-parameter metric is computed based on the one or more extracted features and estimates the current or predicted sedation level of the patient.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The General Hospital Corporation | Date: 2016-08-12

A method to quantitatively predict a patients serum lactate level, comprising measuring arterial blood pressure and heart rate from the patient, computing estimates of one or more cardiovascular parameters from the measured arterial blood pressure and heart rate, providing one or more classifiers that have been trained on a training data set including a reference set of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and serum lactate levels and using the one or more classifiers to estimate the serum lactate level of the patient.


Patent
President And Fellows Of Harvard College, Brigham, Women's Hospital, Childrens Medical Center Corporation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-13

An insertable light-dispensing catheter device, comprising a shaft including a proximal and distal end, a light guide extending through the shaft, and a mirror displaceably extendable from the catheter into a position where the mirror receives and reflects light emitted from the light guide. The mirror can be in the form of a coating on an inflatable balloon; and the balloon, when inflated, can press a patch against a defect (e.g., a ventricular septical defect), while the light cures an adhesive that binds the patch to the structure with the defect, thereby remedying the defect.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-18

A tissue collection needle with a hollow interior provides two opposing tips with beveled edges on facets that drive tissue toward the hollow interior where the tissue can be gathered and severed from surrounding tissue as the needle advances through a biological specimen. The points and bevels are advantageously formed from a minimal number of cuts amenable to rapid fabrication from readily available hollow needle stock.


Patent
The General Hospital Corporation, University of Washington and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-01

The present invention is directed toward a method of treating a subject for a condition mediated by aberrant Wnt/-catenin signaling by selecting a subject with a condition mediated by aberrant Wnt/-catenin signaling and administering to the selected subject a compound selected from the group consisting of those set forth in Table 1, Table 2, and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. A method of similarly modulating the Wnt/-catenin pathway in a subject is also discussed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-28

A method for injecting a substance through a biological body surface includes providing a needle-free transdermal transport device configured to inject the substance through the surface. The substance is injected into the biological body with the transport device while a parameter of the injection is sensed and a servo-controller is used to dynamically adjust at least one injection characteristic based on the sensed parameter. The substance is injected for (i) a first time period during which a first portion of a volume of the substance is injected at a first injection pressure, and (ii) a second time period during which a remainder of the volume of the substance is injected at a second injection pressure. A viscosity of the substance may be determined, and a pressure calculated for injecting the substance based on the viscosity. The substance may be injected with the transport device by using the calculated pressure.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-12

The present disclosure is directed, in some embodiments, to methods and compositions of comprising a cell having a non-internalizing receptor, and a nanoparticle surface-modified with a ligand that binds to the non-internalizing receptor.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-23

A method and an array filling system for loading a plurality of disparate sample containers, the sample containers comprising an integral structure. Each receptacle is characterized by a hydrophilic surface,, and the receptacles are separated by a hydrophobic surface. The system has a liquid transfer device capable of holding liquid and adapted for motion to cause sequential communication of liquid held in the liquid transfer device with successive receptacles of the array by dragging the liquid across the hydrophobic surface.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-17

Between two juxtaposed similar ion exchange membranes (AEMs or CEMs), an ion depletion zone and ion enrichment zone are generated under an electric field. As cations are selectively transferred through the CEMs, for example, anions are relocated in order to achieve electro-neutrality, resulting in the concentration drop (increase) in ion depletion (enrichment) zone. The use of a sacrificial metal anode allows electrocoagulation (EC) concurrently with ICP thereby permitting concentration of both ionic and non-ionic impurities to occur at the same time within the same cell or device.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-30

In illustrative implementations of this invention, a crucible kiln heats glass such that the glass becomes or remains molten. A nozzle extrudes the molten glass while one or more actuators actuate movements of the nozzle, a build platform or both. A computer controls these movements such that the extruded molten glass is selectively deposited to form a 3D glass object. The selective deposition of molten glass occurs inside an annealing kiln. The annealing kiln anneals the glass after it is extruded. In some cases, the actuators actuate the crucible kiln and nozzle to move in horizontal x, y directions and actuate the build platform to move in a z-direction. In some cases, fluid flows through a cavity or tubes adjacent to the nozzle tip, in order to cool the nozzle tip and thereby reduce the amount of glass that sticks to the nozzle tip.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Date: 2015-04-23

A method reuses produced water resulting from a fossil fuel extraction operation. The method includes providing the produced water as an input to an electrodialysis system. The method also includes running the electrodialysis system to produce a diluate and a concentrate. The diluate is contaminated so as to have a conductivity of no less than 0.1 Siemens/meter. The method also includes reformulating the diluate to produce fossil fuel extraction fluid. The method also includes using the produced fossil fuel extraction fluid in the fossil fuel extraction operation. An electrodialysis system includes first and second stacks. The electrodialysis system also includes first and second voltage sources, coupled to the first and second stacks, so as to apply a first voltage to the first stack lower by at least about 10% than a second voltage to the second stack.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-30

Compositions and methods for altering cell activity and function by expressing a light-activated ion pump polypeptide in a cell and contacting the cell with light that activates the expressed light-activated ion pump polypeptide. In some aspects of the invention, a light-activated ion pump polypeptide is a modified haloarcula halorhodopsin polypeptide, for example, a modified Halo 57 polypeptide.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-16

Methods and systems for control of solid phase peptide synthesis are generally described. Control of solid phase peptide synthesis involves the use of feedback from one or more reactions and/or processes (e.g., reagent removal) taking place in the solid phase peptide synthesis system. In some embodiments, a detector may detect one or more fluids flowing across a detection zone of a solid phase peptide synthesis system and one or more signals may be generated corresponding to the fluid(s). For instance, an electromagnetic radiation detector positioned downstream of a reactor may detect a fluid exiting the reactor after a deprotection reactor and produce a signal(s). In some embodiments, based at least in part on information derived from the signal(s), a parameter of the system may be modulated prior to and/or during one or more subsequent reactions and/or processes taking place in the solid phase peptide synthesis system. In some embodiments, the methods and systems, described herein, can be used to conduct quality control to determine and correct problems (e.g., aggregation, truncation, deletion) in reactions (e.g., coupling reactions) taking place in the solid phase peptide synthesis system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-16

Methods and system for solid phase peptide synthesis are provided. Solid phase peptide synthesis is a known process in which amino acid residues are added to peptides that have been immobilized on a solid support. New amino acid residues are added via a coupling reaction between an activated amino acid and an amino acid residue of the immobilized peptide. Amino acids may be activated using, e.g., a base and an activating agent. Certain inventive concepts, described herein, relate to methods and systems for the activation of amino acids. These systems and methods may allow for fewer side reactions and a higher yield compared to conventional activation techniques as well as the customization of the coupling reaction on a residue-by-residue basis without the need for costly and/or complex processes.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-09

The present invention enables three-dimensional nanofabrication by isotropic shrinking of patterned hydrogels. A hydrogel is first expanded, the rate of expansion being controlled by the concentration of the crosslinker. The hydrogel is then infused with a reactive group and patterned in three dimensions using a photon beam through a limited-diffraction microscope. Functional particles or materials are then deposited on the pattern. The hydrogel is then shrunk and cleaved from the pattern.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-06-14

The present invention provides methods for uniform growth of nanostructures such as nanotubes (e.g., carbon nanotubes) on the surface of a substrate, wherein the long axes of the nanostructures may be substantially aligned. The nanostructures may be further processed for use in various applications, such as composite materials. For example, a set of aligned nanostructures may be formed and transferred, either in bulk or to another surface, to another material to enhance the properties of the material. In some cases, the nanostructures may enhance the mechanical properties of a material, for example, providing mechanical reinforcement at an interface between two materials or plies. In some cases, the nanostructures may enhance thermal and/or electronic properties of a material. The present invention also provides systems and methods for growth of nanostructures, including batch processes and continuous processes.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-12

According to some aspects, described herein is an automated droplet-based reactor that utilizes oscillatory motion of a droplet in a tubular reactor under inert atmosphere. In some cases, such a reactor may address current shortcomings of continuous multi-phase flow platforms.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-07-28

Presented herein are articles and methods featuring substrates with thin, uniform polymeric films grafted (e.g., covalently bonded) thereupon. The resulting coating provides significant reductions in thermal resistance, drop shedding size, and degradation rate during dropwise condensation of steam compared to existing coatings. Surfaces that promote dropwise shedding of low-surface tension condensates, such as liquid hydrocarbons, are also demonstrated herein.


Patent
The General Hospital Corporation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Washington | Date: 2015-04-22

A closed-loop brain computer interface (BCI) system for treating mental or emotional disorders with responsive brain stimulation is disclosed. The system includes an implanted module including a processor configured to process neural data acquired from one or more electrodes in communication with one or more brain regions of a patient. The implanted module is configured to deliver stimulation to electrodes in contact with the brain regions. An interface is in wireless communication with the implanted module and configured to receive the neural data from the implanted module. A controller processes the patients brain and body signals to provide patient intentional control over the stimulation applied to the one or more electrodes and to control the stimulation.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-16

Disclosed are complex coacervate core micelles comprising an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing organophosphorus compounds, such as nerve agents, and, for example, their use in remediation or decontamination of stockpiles of chemical weapons.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-12-02

Disclosed are elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) that form hydrogels upon heating. Hydrogels comprising the polypeptides have mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and fracture toughness, required for load-bearing applications.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Date: 2015-04-23

A liquid purification system includes a filter system having a set of filters with a feed stream, a concentrate stream, and a permeate stream. The feed stream constitutes an input to the liquid purification system. The liquid purification system also includes an electrodialysis system having at least one stack of at least one pair of electrodes, between which is disposed at least one cell pair having an anion exchange membrane and a cation exchange membrane. The electrodialysis system includes a diluate inlet, a diluate outlet and a concentrate outlet. The diluate inlet is fluidly coupled to the concentrate stream and at least a portion of the diluate outlet is fluidly coupled to at least a portion of the permeate stream to produce a purified output stream. A ratio of electrical conductivity of the purified output stream to the feed stream is no less than about 0.55.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-09

Endothelial cells can become susceptible to disease when subjected to disturbed (atheroprone) blood flow patterns, which naturally occur in known locations in human arteries. Atheroprone flow is non-laminar, with low fluid shear stress magnitude and an oscillatory pattern representative in the temporal signature. At a macro-scale, atheroprone flow is multidirectional and chaotic. On the other hand, atheroprotective flow is laminar with high fluid shear stresses that have a specific temporal signature. Therefore, understanding the interplay between the atheroprotective and atheroprone hemodynamics and endothelial function is important. The invention relates, in some embodiments, to microfluidic devices and methods that dynamically apply controlled and physiologically relevant spatio-temporal atheroprone and atheroprotective flow signatures. Further, some embodiments according to the invention recreate these flow profiles upon different regions of the same cell culture, more closely resembling the in-vivo phenomenon.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-05-16

Disclosed are protein brushes that mimic mucin in physical and functional characteristics. The protein brushes have a variable number of tandem repeats similar to natural mucin and are modified at a number of their tyrosine residues to introduce brush substituents that mimic the hydrogel nature of mucin.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-17

Methods of evaluating agents for metakaryocidal and metakaryostatic activity in cell culture, explants and subjects are disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-05

The invention enables in situ genomic and transcriptomic assessment of nucleic acids to be conducted in biological specimens that have been physically expanded. The invention leverages the techniques for expansion microscopy (ExM) to provide new methods for in situ genomic and transcriptomic assessment of nucleic in a new process referred to herein as expansion fluorescent in situ hybridization (ExFISH).


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-31

A machine that is capable of assembling a copy of itself from a feedstock of parts is described. The machine operates on a lattice or grid on which it is able to move and from which it receives power and control signals. The machine (assembler) is composed of modules that each perform some functionality. In the simplest case, only three module types are needed: a linear step module, a gripper, and an anchor. The linear step module is capable of moving from one lattice location to the next, the gripper module is capable of gripping other modules, and the anchor module is capable of attaching the machine to the grid. With these three primitives it is possible for this simple machine to move on the grid using inchworm-like motions, pick up other modules, and assemble a copy of itself.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-20

Methods and apparatuses for bonding polymeric parts are disclosed. Specifically, in one embodiment, the polymeric parts are bonded by plastically deforming them against each other while they are below the glass transition temperatures. A method includes: placing a first polymeric part in contact with a second polymeric part; and plastically deforming the first polymeric part and the second polymeric part against each other to bond the first polymeric part to the second polymeric part. Additionally, during the plastic deformation, a temperature of the first polymeric part is less than a glass transition temperature of the first polymeric part and a temperature of the second polymeric part is less than a glass transition temperature of the second polymeric part.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-01

Two-phase gripper. The gripper reorients and grasps an object while being picked up, The gripper Includes a parallel jaw gripper including a pair of opposed, two-phase fingers, each finger including a cavity covered by an elastic strip wherein the elastic strip includes a point contact. Closure of the jaws of the gripper on as object at a first relatively lower force results in contact with lower friction between the point contact on the elastic strip on the fingers and the object allowing the object to rotate under gravity as the gripper is raised. Thereafter, closure of the jaws of the gripper on the object at a second relatively higher force causes the elastic strip to receded into the cavity resulting in multi-point contact with higher friction between the fingers and the object to securely grasp the object. In a preferred embodiment, the cavity is a Y-shaped groove and the object is cylindrical or prismatic.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-01

A set of machines and related systems build structures by the additive assembly of discrete parts. These digital material assemblies constrain the constituent parts to a discrete set of possible positions and orientations. In doing so, the structures exhibit many of the properties inherent in digital communication such as error correction, fault tolerance and allow the assembly of precise structures with comparatively imprecise tools. Assembly of discrete cellular lattices by a Modular Isotropic Lattice Extruder System (MILES) is implemented by pulling strings of lattice elements through a forming die that enforces geometry constraints that lock the elements into a rigid structure that can then be pushed against and extruded out of the die as an assembled, loadbearing structure.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-20

The disclosure provides nanostructures (e.g., nanospheres and nano-paddlewheels) formed through transition metal-ligand (e.g., Pd(II)-, Ni(II)-, or Fe(II)-ligand of Formula (A)) coordination and junction self-assembly. The disclosure also provides supramolecular complexes that include the nanostructures connected by divalent linkers Y. The provided supramolecular complexes are able to form gels (e.g., hydrogels). The gels are suprametallogels and exhibited excellent mechanical properties without sacrificing self-healing and showed high robustness and storage modulus. The present disclosure further provides compositions (e.g., gels) that include the nanostructures or supramolecular complexes and optionally an agent (e.g., small molecule), where the nanostructures and the nanostructure moieties of the supramolecular complexes may encapsulate and slowly release the agent. The nanostructures, supramolecular complex, and compositions may be useful in delivering an agent to a subject, tissue, or cell, as super-absorbent materials, and in treating a disease (e.g., a genetic diseases, proliferative disease (e.g., cancer or benign neoplasm), hematological disease, neurological disease, gastrointestinal disease (e.g., liver disease), spleen disease, respiratory disease (e.g., lung disease), painful condition, genitourinary disease, musculoskeletal condition, infectious disease, inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, psychiatric disorder, or metabolic disorder).


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-06

Compositions and methods comprising metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and related uses are generally provided. In some embodiments, a MOF comprises a plurality of metal ions, each coordinated with at least one ligand comprising at least two sets of ortho-diimine groups arranged about an organic core.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The General Hospital Corporation d b a Massachusettes General Hospital and The Broad Institute Inc. | Date: 2016-09-22

Proteomic methods for identifying cancer related proteins and related products and kits are provided. The cancer specific proteins are extracellular matrix proteins that are associated with various aspects of cancer. Panels or signature sets of proteins useful in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancers as well as monitoring therapeutic progress in a cancer patient are provided herein along with methods for their detection and for their use in targeting imaging and/or therapeutic agents to the tumors via binding to the specified proteins. The proteins were identified using proteomics analyses of tissue samples taken from cancer patients. In certain aspects the proteins are particularly useful in colon cancer patients.


Patent
Brigham, Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-29

A composition comprising a biodegradable polymeric material and therapeutic agent associated with the polymeric material that advantageously can provide controlled release of the therapeutic agent, while comprising little to no auxiliary materials. In some embodiments, the composition is formed by the reaction of one or more monomers in the presence of a food grade catalyst. In another embodiment, the composition comprises a polymeric material capable of undergoing thermal reconfiguration (i.e. a dynamic network). Advantageously, the compositions and materials described herein may comprise a reconfigurable polymeric material (e.g., a thermoset polymeric material) having the strength and integrity of epoxy resins, the biomedical applicability of hydrogels, and/or the moldability of vitrimers.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Alberta | Date: 2016-11-23

The invention, in some aspects relates to compositions and methods for altering cell activity and function and the introduction and use of light-activated ion channels.


Patent
President And Fellows Of Harvard College, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Childrens Medical Center Corporation | Date: 2016-07-21

The present invention generally relates to nanoscale wires and tissue engineering. In various embodiments, cell scaffolds for growing cells or tissues can be formed that include nanoscale wires that can be connected to electronic circuits extending externally of the cell scaffold. The nanoscale wires may form an integral part of cells or tissues grown from the cell scaffold, and can even be determined or controlled, e.g., using various electronic circuits. This approach allows for the creation of fundamentally new types of functionalized cells and tissues, due to the high degree of electronic control offered by the nanoscale wires and electronic circuits. Accordingly, such cell scaffolds can be used to grow cells or tissues which can be determined and/or controlled at very high resolutions, due to the presence of the nanoscale wires, and such cell scaffolds will find use in a wide variety of novel applications, including applications in tissue engineering, prosthetics, pacemakers, implants, or the like.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-08

The invention provides delivery systems comprised of stabilized multilamellar vesicles, as well as compositions, methods of synthesis, and methods of use thereof. The stabilized multilamellar vesicles comprise terminal-cysteine-bearing antigens or cysteine-modified antigens, at their surface and/or internally.


Patent
President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-01

Disclosed is a new approach for delivering compounds and drugs to the cytosol of living cells through the use of engineered protein transporters. The engineered protein transporters include a pore and a pore specific delivery protein, wherein a reagent such as a drug is attached to one or more of the engineered protein transporters.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-29

Cold box. The cold box includes an enclosure comprising insulating walls having a first selected R value per surface area defining an interior space. A cold pack is located in a central region of the interior space and insulating material having a second R value per surface area is adjacent the cold pack forming a cold chamber within the interior space for receiving a substance between the insulating material and the insulating walls. The ratio of the first selected R value per surface area to the second selected R value per surface area is chosen to maintain temperature in the cold chamber within a selected range.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-18

A re-dispersible, dry graphene powder can be formed by producing a solution of graphene sheets in solvent, adding surfactant to the solution, and then drying the solution to produce dry graphene sheets coated with surfactant.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-06-20

Described embodiments detect changes in a scene over time using first and second images of the scene. A non-coherent intensity change detector detects large-scale changes between the first image and the second image and generates a large-scale change value for pairs of corresponding pixel locations in the first and second images. If the large-scale change value for a given pair of pixel locations reaches a threshold, a coherent change detector is used to detect small-scale changes between the first and second images. A small-scale change value is generated for the given pairs of pixel locations in the images. A composite change value is generated by combining the large-scale change value and the small-scale change value for each pixel pair. The change thresholds are used to determine whether a change in the scene has occurred over the time period.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-14

There is provided a photodiode array. The photodiode array includes a substrate that has an optical interface surface arranged for accepting external input radiation into the substrate. A plurality of photodiodes are disposed at a substrate surface opposite the optical interface surface of the substrate. Each photodiode in the plurality of photodiodes includes a photodiode material that generates light into the substrate as a result of external input radiation absorption by the photodiode. There is aperiodic photodiode placement along at least one direction of the array.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-14

An equalizer provided in a digital transmitter compensates for attenuation in a signal channel to a digital receiver. The equalizer generates signal levels as a logical function of bit history to emphasize transition signal levels relative to repeated signal levels. The preferred equalizer includes an FIR transition filter using a look-up table. Parallel circuits including FIR filters and digital-to-analog converters provide a high speed equalizer with lower speed circuitry. The equalizer is particularly suited to in-cabinet and local area network transmissions where feedback circuitry facilitates adaptive training of the equalizer.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-11-05

A multi-layer semiconductor device includes a first semiconductor structure having first and second opposing surfaces, the second surface of the first semiconductor structure having at least a first semiconductor package pitch. The multi-layer semiconductor device also includes a second semiconductor structure having first and second opposing surfaces, the first surface of the second semiconductor structure having a second semiconductor package pitch. The multi-layer semiconductor device additionally includes a third semiconductor structure having first and second opposing surfaces, the first surface of the third semiconductor structure having a third semiconductor package pitch which is different from at least the second semiconductor package pitch. The second and third semiconductor structures are provided on a same package level of the multi-layer semiconductor device. A corresponding method for fabricating a multi-layer semiconductor device is also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-08-07

A system and techniques for decoding a message received over a communication channel comprises a receiver for receiving an encoded message. A sorting module is configured to organize candidate messages into a number of bins, sort the candidate messages within each bin, and output a group of candidate messages, the group comprising a number of most likely candidate messages from each message bin. A traceback module is configured to receive the most likely candidate message, and to walk through the tree of candidate messages to generate a decoded message.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-05-16

An apparatus includes at least one supernumerary artificial limb and a base structure configured to couple with a human body. The base structure includes a sensor that obtains a measurement regarding load of the human body. The proximal end of the supernumerary artificial limb is coupled to the base structure. The apparatus further includes a processor operatively coupled with the sensor and configured to receive the measurement from the sensor. The processor is also configured to generate a control signal to change at least one of a position of the supernumerary artificial limb and a torque exerted by the supernumerary artificial limb based on the measurement regarding the load.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-09

A motion tracking system makes use of a number antennas to transmit and receive radio frequency signals that are reflected from objects (e.g., people) in the environment of the system, which may include one or more rooms of a building, the interior of a vehicle, etc., and may be partitioned, for example, walls or cloth sheets. In general, the objects in the environment include both fixed objects, such as chairs, walls, etc., as well as moving objects, such as but not limited to people. The system can track people, who may be moving around a room, or may be relatively stationary, for instance, sitting in a chair of lying in bed, but may nevertheless exhibit breathing motion that may be detected. The system may detect body or limb gestures made by the people in the environment, and detect physical activity including detection of falls.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-03

A localized heating structure includes a spectrally-selective solar absorber, that absorbs incident solar radiation and reflects at wavelengths longer than 2 m, with an underlying heat-spreading layer having a thermal conductivity equal to or greater than 50 W/(mK), a thermally insulating layer, adjacent to the spectrally-selective solar absorber, having a thermal conductivity of less than 0.1 W/(mK), one or more evaporation openings through the spectrally-selective solar absorber and the thermally insulating layer, and an evaporation wick, disposed in one or more of the evaporation openings in the thermally insulating layer, that contacts liquid and allows the liquid to be transported from a location beneath the thermally insulating layer through to the spectrally-selective solar absorber in order to generate vapor from the liquid. The thermally insulating layer is configured to have a density less than the liquid so that the localized heating structure is able to float on the liquid.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-05

The invention provides a method termed protein retention ExM (proExM), in which proteins, rather than labels, are anchored to the swellable gel, using a cross-linking molecule. This proExM strategy can be used to perform nanoscale imaging of immunostained cells and tissues as well as samples expressing various FPs as fluorescent signals from genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and/or conventional fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies and streptavidin that are directly anchored to the gel are preserved even when subjected to the nonspecific proteolytic digestion.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-12

The present invention provides, among other things, antibody agents (e.g., antibodies, and/or antigen-binding fragments thereof) that bind to DV epitopes, as well as compositions containing them and methods of designing, providing, formulating, using, identifying and/or characterizing them. In some embodiments, provided antibody agents show significant binding to a plurality of DV serotypes. In some embodiments, provided antibody agents show significant binding to all four DV serotypes. Such antibody agents are useful, for example, in the prophylaxis, treatment, diagnosis, and/or study of DV.


This present invention provides high affinity variants of human methyl binding domain 2 (hMBD2), and nucleic acids encoding the variants, capable of recognizing and/or binding to methylated DNA. In particular, the hMBD2 variants of the invention recognize and/or bind a DNA sequence with single methylated CpG site with high affinity. The invention provides materials and methods for using the nucleic acid and/or amino acid sequence variants hMBD2 of the invention to detect methylated DNA. The hMBD2 variants of the invention are particularly useful for recognizing and/or binding a DNA sequence with single methylated CpG site with high affinity.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-08

Provided herein are microorganisms engineered with heme-responsive transcription factors and genetic circuits. Also provided are methods for using engineered microorganisms to sense bleeding events and treat bleeding in vivo.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-24

In one aspect, a reference transmit signal is distributed to each of one or more transmit antennas, and delayed by multiple different times before transmission from the transmit antennas. The reference transmit signal (or a delayed version of the reference signal) is also used at each of the receive antennas to determine propagation (time of flight) times reflecting from bodies from each of the transmit antennas to the receive antenna. In another aspect, locations of multiple objects are determined by iteratively (a) determining a location of a body based on determined propagation times between multiple transmitter-receiver pairs, and (b) having determined a location, effectively removing the effect of reflections from that location from the remaining signals.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-13

Reflectors for solar concentration and methods for formation thereof. A reflective assembly (1340) may include a plurality of elongate panels (370) forming a continuous trough (1330), and a frame (1230) configured to support the panels, with the frame with attached panels defining a parabolic contour on the top side of the trough.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-15

Disclosed are surface immobilized (electro)catalysts that may be prepared by a condensation reaction that generates an aromatic unit that is robust to acid and base and elevated temperatures. Among their many desirable characteristics, the catalysts are far less prone to the bimolecular deactivation pathways commonly observed for homogeneous catalysts, and may be used in solvents with a range of polarities and dielectric strengths. The catalysts are suitable for a wide array of thermal catalytic reactions (polymerization, oxidation, hydrogenation, cross-coupling etc.) and as anodes and/or cathodes in fuel cells, electrolyzers, and in batteries and supercapacitors.


Patent
Samsung and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-04-29

Provided is a lithium-conductive solid-state electrolyte material that comprises a sulfide compound of a composition that does not deviate substantially from a formula of Li_(9)S_(3)N. The compounds conductivity is greater than about 110^(7 )S/cm at about 25 C. and is in contact with a negative electroactive material. Also provided is an electrochemical cell that includes an anode layer, a cathode layer, and the electrolyte layer between the anode and cathode layers. In an example, the materials activation energy can be no greater than about 0.52 eV at about 25 C.


A multi-layer semiconductor device includes two or more semiconductor sections, each of the semiconductor sections including at least at least one device layer having first and second opposing surfaces and a plurality of electrical connections extending between the first and second surfaces. The electrical connections correspond to first conductive structures. The multi-layer semiconductor device also includes one or more second conductive structures which are provided as through oxide via (TOV) or through insulator via (TIV) structures. The multi-layer semiconductor device additionally includes one or more silicon layers. At least a first one of the silicon layers includes at least one third conductive structure which is provided as a through silicon via (TSV) structure. The multi-layer semiconductor device further includes one or more via joining layers including at least one fourth conductive structure. A corresponding method for fabricating a multi-layer semiconductor device is also provided.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-16

Systems, methods, and apparatus are provided for tuning a functional property of a device. The device (210) includes a layer of a dielectric material (214) disposed over and forming an interface (216) with a layer of an electrically conductive target material (222). The dielectric material layer includes at least one ionic species having a high ion mobility. The target material is configured such that a potential difference applied to the device can cause the at least one ionic species to migrate reversibly across the interface into or out of the target material layer. The mobility of the at least one ionic species can be tuned by exposing the device to electromagnetic radiation and/or a temperature change.


Patent
National University of Ireland, Maynooth and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-11

Provided is a method for correcting errors in a data transmission network, comprising: transmitting a plurality of uncoded information packets across a network path; transmitting a plurality of coded packets for recovering information packets lost in transmission across said network path, the coded packets being temporally interspersed among said uncoded information packets, wherein the coded packets are encoded based on information packets transmitted prior to a previously transmitted coded packet; and determining the interspersion of the coded packets according to a packet loss rate.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-06

In a system and method for assessing the condition of a subject, control parameters are derived from a neurophysiological computational model that operates on features extracted from a speech signal. The control parameters are used as biomarkers (indicators) of the subjects condition. Speech related features are compared with model predicted speech features, and the error signal is used to update control parameters within the neurophysiological computational model. The updated control parameters are processed in a comparison with parameters associated with the disorder in a library.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-18

A planar mixed-metal perovskite solar cell can exhibit many favorable properties including high efficiencies and tunable electronic properties. The incorporation of different metal species (i.e. Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Sr, and Zn) into the film is made possible by the solubility of either each metals divalent acetate or halide compound in a solvent.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-03

A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-27

There is provided a photodiode array including a semiconducting substrate and a plurality of photodiodes that are disposed at a surface of the substrate. Each photodiode is laterally spaced apart from neighboring photodiodes by a lateral substrate surface region. An optical interface surface of the substrate is arranged for accepting external input radiation. A plurality of electrically conducting fuses are disposed on the substrate surface. Each fuse is connected to a photodiode in the plurality of photodiodes. Each fuse is disposed at a lateral substrate surface region that is spaced apart from neighboring photodiodes in the plurality of photodiodes.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-09

An assembly that includes a printed circuit board and a foam dielectric material, and a method of fabricating the assembly is disclosed. The assembly includes at least one layer of a foam dielectric material, which has properties similar to those of air. This layer of foam dielectric material is disposed between a top sublaminate and a bottom sublaminate. The bottom sublaminate may be a traditional printed circuit board, comprising an arbitrary number of layers. The top sublaminate may be a single layer, or may be multiple layers and may include an antenna. The foam dielectric material serves to provide mechanical support for the top sublaminate and the central conductor. The foam dielectric material also provides physical separation between the bottom sublaminate and the antenna.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-31

Automated tissue stiffness measurement devices and methods can identify cancerous lesions with high sensitivity and specificity. Systems and methods are presented to measure tissue stiffness using applied force, illumination and imaging techniques. The systems and methods can use structured illumination to characterize a tissue surface.


Patent
Samsung and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-02

A solid electrolyte material represented by Formula 1: L_(1+2x)(M1)_(1-x)(M2)(M3)_(4)Formula 1


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-16

A distributed beamforming communication system including independent aerial nodes forming an antenna array is described. Described herein is a distributed beamforming array which utilizes independent aerial relay nodes or platforms (i.e. no strict control of relay node position, no communication between the relay nodes, and no coordinated transmission among the relay nodes) to form a distributed beamforming antenna.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-29

Described is a receiver for improving end-to-end efficiency in a device-to-device wireless charging system using resonant energy transfer through an inductive link. The receiver includes an efficiency controller which dynamically tracks a maximum efficiency point and controls an impedance between an inductive coupling of the receiver and a receiver rectifier circuit such that an impedance seen by the inductive coupling is an impedance which maximizes (or nearly maximizes) efficiency of the inductively coupled wireless power transfer operation.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-03

Described is a bearingless motor based upon a homopolar flux-biased magnetic bearing for force generation and a hysteresis motor for torque generation. The bearingless slice motor levitates and rotates a ring-shaped rotor made of a semi-hard magnetic material. The rotor is biased with a homopolar permanent-magnetic flux, on which 2-pole flux can be superimposed to generate suspension forces. Torque is generated by a hysteretic coupling between the rotor and a rotating multi-pole stator field.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-09

An assembly that includes a printed circuit board having an air gap, and a method of fabricating the assembly is disclosed. The assembly includes at least one air gap. This air gap is created by using a soluble material during the PCB assembly process. The soluble material can preferably be processed in accordance with traditional PCB fabrication processes. For example, other materials can be bonded to the soluble material. Additionally, the soluble material is capable of withstanding a drilling process. After the PCB assembly is complete, the soluble material is then dissolved, leaving an air gap where the soluble material once existed. This assembly may be useful in configurations where an antenna, EBG material or other electronic structure is to be disposed above the top surface of the printed circuit board.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Pendar Technologies LLC | Date: 2016-07-27

Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are based on quantum cascade (QC) structures. In embodiment methods and corresponding devices, a QC layer in a wave confinement region of an integrated multi-layer semiconductor structure capable of producing optical gain is depleted of free charge carriers to create a low-loss optical wave confinement region in a portion of the structure. Ion implantation may be used to create energetically deep trap levels to trap free charge carriers. Other embodiments include modifying a region of a passive, depleted QC structure to produce an active region capable of optical gain. Gain or loss may also be modified by partially depleting or enhancing free charge carrier density. QC lasers and amplifiers may be integrated monolithically with each other or with passive waveguides and other passive devices in a self-aligned manner. Embodiments overcome challenges of high cost, complex fabrication, and coupling loss involved with material re-growth methods.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University | Date: 2015-01-14

A method (100) of forming an integrated circuit is disclosed. The method comprises: (i) forming at least a pair of optoelectronic devices from at least a first wafer material arranged on a semiconductor substrate, the first wafer material different to silicon; (ii) etching the first wafer material to form a first recess to be filled with a second material; (iii) processing (104) the second material to form a waveguide for coupling the pair of optoelectronic devices to define an optical interconnect; and (iv) bonding (106) at least one partially processed CMOS device layer having at least one transistor to the second semiconductor substrate to form the integrated circuit, the partially processed CMOS device layer arranged adjacent to the optical interconnect. An integrated circuit is also disclosed.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and National University of Singapore | Date: 2016-05-12

The invention relates to recombinant expression of a taxadiene synthase enzyme and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) enzyme in cells and the production of terpenoids.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and National University of Singapore | Date: 2016-07-12

The invention relates to the production of one or more terpenoids through microbial engineering, and relates to the manufacture of products comprising terpenoids.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and National University of Singapore | Date: 2015-02-18

The invention provides, inter alia, populations of large mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)(as well as conditioned medium from these cells) with enhanced regenerative potential, as well as methods of culturing and using these populations, such as therapeutic methods of mediating tissue repair or enhancing homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells. These large MSC populations can, in certain embodiments, be produced by biophysically sorting an MSC-containing population.


Patent
Children's Medical Center Dallas and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-18

An instrument port for introducing instruments into a surgical site, including a port body having a channel running therethrough from a proximal end to a distal end, an instrument sleeve in slidable contact with the channel, creating a gap therebetween, and fluid flow for removing emboli efficiently from the instrument port, wherein the fluid flow includes the gap is provided. A fluid flow system for use in an instrument port is provided. A method of removably securing an instrument sleeve to a port body by anchoring the instrument port to heart tissue, making at least one flood line in a channel, flushing out emboli, and performing surgery with the instrument port.


Whitfield-Gabrieli S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Ford J.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2012

Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal function of the default mode network (DMN), a distributed network of brain regions more active during rest than during performance of many attention-demanding tasks and characterized by a high degree of functional connectivity (i.e., temporal correlations between brain regions). Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the DMN in the healthy brain is associated with stimulus-independent thought and self-reflection and that greater suppression of the DMN is associated with better performance on attention-demanding tasks. In schizophrenia and depression, the DMN is often found to be hyperactivated and hyperconnected. In schizophrenia this may relate to overly intensive self-reference and impairments in attention and working memory. In depression, DMN hyperactivity may be related to negative rumination. These findings are considered in terms of what is known about psychological functions supported by the DMN, and alteration of the DMN in other neuropsychiatric disorders. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President And Fellows Of Harvard College and University of Alberta | Date: 2015-02-06

The invention, in some aspects relates to light-activated ion channel polypeptides and encoding nucleic acids and also relates in part to compositions comprising light-activated ion channel polypeptides and methods using light-activated ion channel polypeptides to alter cell activity and function.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-05-05

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-07-20

The invention provides for engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors with additional functional domains. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to ensure enhanced specificity for target recognition and avoidance of toxicity.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-04-02

The invention provides, inter alia, methods of inhibiting virulence of one or more microorganisms, and/or inhibiting one or more microorganisms from attaching to a surface, forming suspended aggregates or a combination thereof, by contacting the one or more microorganisms, the surface, or a combination thereof with a mucin, such as e.g., a purified, native, non-human mucin.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-09-23

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Date: 2016-04-25

The disclosed Hi-C protocol can identify genomic loci that are spatially co-located in vivo. These spatial co-locations may include, but are not limited to, intrachromosomal interactions and/or interchromosomal interactions. Hi-C techniques may be applied to many different scales of interest. For example, on a large scale, Hi-C techniques can be used to identify long-range interactions between distant genomic loci.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-08-06

A self-folding machine comprises a laminate including a flexible layer with a first side and a second side; a first rigid layer including at least one gap laminated to the first side of the flexible layer; a second rigid layer including at least one gap laminated to the second side of the flexible layer, wherein the rigid layers are more rigid than the flexible layer; a first contractible layer laminated to the first rigid layer and extending across at least one gap in the first rigid layer; and a second contractible layer laminated to the second rigid layer and extending across at least one gap in the second rigid layer, wherein the first and second contractible layers retract to respectively create folds in the machine across gaps in the first and second rigid layers when activated.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-09-07

The invention provides for engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are compositions and methods related to components of a CRISPR complex particularly comprising a Cas ortholog enzyme.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-05-04

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-26

Provided herein are methods and compositions for identifying subjects as having an elevated risk of developing or having a neuropsychiatric disorder. These subjects are identified based on the presence of one or more mutations.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-09-04

This invention relates generally to compositions and methods for identifying the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences dendritic cell (DC) response(s), for example, dendritic cell maturation, dendritic cell antiviral response(s) and/or dendritic cell inflammatory response(s), as well compositions and methods for exploiting the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences dendritic cell response(s) in a variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic indications.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Rockefeller University | Date: 2015-03-18

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-07-22

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Date: 2016-05-10

The present application provides, among other things, compounds, compositions and methods for treating various diseases including cancer.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-06-03

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for altering expression of target gene sequences and related gene products. Provided are structural information on the Cas protein of the CRISPR-Cas system, use of this information in generating modified components of the CRISPR complex, vectors and vector systems which encode one or more components or modified components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors and components. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system. In particular the present invention comprehends optimized functional CRISPR-Cas enzyme systems. In particular the present invention comprehends engineered new guide architectures to be used in optimized CRISPR-Cas enzyme systems.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Tokyo and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-06-10

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for altering expression of target gene sequences and related gene products. Provided are structural information on the Cas protein of the CRISPR-Cas system, use of this information in generating modified components of the CRISPR complex, vectors and vector systems which encode one or more components or modified components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors and components. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system. In particular the present invention comprehends optimized functional CRISPR-Cas enzyme systems.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-01-07

The invention relates to methods of altering expression of a genomic locus of interest or specifically targeting a genomic locus of interest in an animal cell, which may involve contacting the genomic locus with a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition that includes a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding polypeptide having a N-terminal capping region, a DNA binding domain comprising at least five or more Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) monomers and at least one or more half-monomers specifically ordered to target the genomic locus of interest, and a C-terminal capping region, wherein the polypeptide includes at least one or more effector domains, and wherein the polypeptide is encoded by and translated from a codon optimized nucleic acid molecule so that the polypeptide preferentially binds to the DNA of the genomic locus.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Brigham, Women's Hospital, President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-24

This invention relates generally to compositions and methods for identifying the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences T cell balance, for example, Th17 cell differentiation, maintenance and/or function, as well compositions and methods for exploiting the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences T cell balance in a variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic indications. This invention also relates generally to identifying and exploiting target genes and/or target gene products that modulate, control or otherwise influence T cell balance in a variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic indications.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-06-12

Disclosed are thermodynamic and multiplication methods concerning CRISPR-Cas systems, and apparatus therefor.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-16-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2016

Global demand for minerals is growing rapidly, driven by rapid population growth, urbanisation and an increasingly diverse range of technical applications. Global material supply chains linking the extraction, transport and processing stages of raw materials have become increasingly complex and today involve multiple players and product components. An interactive platform that provides transparency about existing approaches and information gaps concerning global material flows is needed to understand these global supply chains; developing this capability is critical for maintaining competitiveness in the European economy. Against this backdrop, the proposed MinFuture project aims to identify, integrate, and develop expertise for global material flow analysis and scenario modelling. Specific activities include: the analysis of barriers and gateways for delivering more transparent and interoperable materials information; the assessment of existing model approaches for global material flow analysis, including the demand- supply forecasting methods; the delivery of a common methodology which integrates mineral data, information and knowledge across national boundaries and between governmental and non-governmental organisations; the development of recommendations for a roadmap to implement the common methodology at international level; the creation of a web-portal to provide a central access point for material flow information, including links to existing data sources, models, tools and analysis. MinFuture brings together 16 international partners from across universities, public organisations and companies, to deliver new insight, strategic intelligence and a clear roadmap for enabling effective access to global material information.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-06-15

The invention provides for delivery, engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are delivery systems and tissues or organ which are targeted as sites for delivery. Also provided are vectors and vector systems some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells to ensure enhanced specificity for target recognition and avoidance of toxicity and to edit or modify a target site in a genomic locus of interest to alter or improve the status of a disease or a condition.


Patent
Fujitsu Limited and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-09-17

A transportation service reservation method executes, by a computer, a process including receiving a ride request specifying an origin and a destination, generating feasible products having service types, by referring to a storage unit that stores information indicating a schedule allocated to each vehicle and the service types of the schedule, for each vehicle capable of providing products having the service types, computing a choice probability of each product forming an assortment of the feasible products, for each of assortments satisfying a predetermined condition amongst the subsets of the feasible product set that are generated, computing an expected value of a number of future ride requests, and selecting an assortment to be presented with respect to the ride request, from the assortment satisfying the predetermined condition, based on the choice probability and the expected value.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-09-15

The present invention generally relates to methods and compositions used delivery of gene editing compositions including transcriptional effectors with parvovirus and preferred methods for making same.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President And Fellows Of Harvard College, Brigham and Women's Hospital | Date: 2015-08-27

This invention relates generally to compositions and methods for identifying the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences T cell balance, for example, Th17 cell differentiation, maintenance and/or function, as well compositions and methods for exploiting the regulatory network that modulates, controls or otherwise influences T cell balance in a variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic indications. This invention also relates generally to identifying and exploiting target genes and/or target gene products that modulate, control or otherwise influence T cell balance in a variety of therapeutic and/or diagnostic indications.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-04-14

The invention provides in situ nucleic acid sequencing to be conducted in biological specimens that have been physically expanded. The invention leverages the techniques for expansion microscopy (ExM) to provide new methods for in situ sequencing of nucleic acids as well as new methods for fluorescent in situ sequencing (FISSEQ) in a new process referred to herein as expansion sequencing (ExSEQ).


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-04-20

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for targeting nucleic acids. In particular, the invention provides non-naturally occurring or engineered DNA or RNA-targeting systems comprising a novel DNA or RNA-targeting CRISPR effector protein and at least one targeting nucleic acid component like a guide RNA.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-12-16

The invention provides for delivery, engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are delivery systems and tissues or organ which are targeted as sites for delivery. Also provided are vectors and vector systems some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells to ensure enhanced specificity for target recognition and avoidance of toxicity and to edit or modify a target site in a genomic locus of interest to alter or improve the status of a disease or a condition.


Patent
President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-24

Disclosed herein are paper-based immunoassays useful for the detection of analytes, kits for the same and methods of using the same.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-06-12

The invention provides for engineering and optimization of systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors with additional functional domains. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to ensure enhanced specificity for target recognition and avoidance of toxicity.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-01-23

The present invention generally relates to methods and compositions used for the spatial and temporal control of gene expression that may use inducible transcriptional effectors. The invention particularly relates to inducible methods of altering or perturbing expression of a genomic locus of interest in a cell wherein the genomic locus may be contacted with a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition comprising a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding polypeptide.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-12-18

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for targeting nucleic acids. In particular, the invention provides non-naturally occurring or engineered DNA or RNA-targeting systems comprising a novel DNA or RNA-targeting CRISPR effector protein and at least one targeting nucleic acid component like a guide RNA.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-11-04

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Rockefeller University | Date: 2015-02-25

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR/Cas system.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2015-01-07

The invention relates to methods of altering expression of a genomic locus of interest or specifically targeting a genomic locus of interest in an animal cell, which may involve contacting the genomic locus with a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition that includes a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding polypeptide having a N-terminal capping region, a DNA binding domain comprising at least five or more Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) monomers and at least one or more half-monomers specifically ordered to target the genomic locus of interest, and a C-terminal capping region, wherein the polypeptide includes at least one or more effector domains, and wherein the polypeptide is encoded by and translated from a codon optimized nucleic acid molecule so that the polypeptide preferentially binds to the DNA of the genomic locus.


Patent
The Broad Institute Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-08-05

The invention provides for systems, methods, and compositions for manipulation of sequences and/or activities of target sequences. Provided are vectors and vector systems, some of which encode one or more components of a CRISPR complex, as well as methods for the design and use of such vectors. Also provided are methods of directing CRISPR complex formation in eukaryotic cells and methods for selecting specific cells by introducing precise mutations utilizing the CRISPR-Cas system.


Chow B.Y.,University of Pennsylvania | Boyden E.S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Optogenetic tools enable light-mediated control of cellular excitability and signaling in vivo. By manipulating biological processes, scientists can determine the roles played by these processes in intact biological systems, such as the brain. Such cellular-level control has greatly af ected basic science. Here, we discuss how optogenetic tools might be translated into clinical impact through identif cation of new molecular and circuit-level targets and provide temporally precise interventions for def ned biochemical or cellular events.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 596.37K | Year: 2015

Vision is arguably the most important of our senses and our most direct channel of interaction with the surrounding world. It is no surprise therefore that so much of the technology that affects our everyday lives relies on light in one form or the other. The continuous strive to improve our light sources, ranging from lasers for research purposed to ambient lighting technologies is paralleled by a continuous increase in efforts to improve our imaging capabilities, ranging from artificial vision implants to hyperspectral imaging. An exciting and emerging imaging technology relies on the ability to detect remarkably low light signals, i.e. even single photons. This same technology, based for example of Single-Photon-Avalanche-Detectors (SPADs) comes hand in hand with another rather unexpected and also remarkable feature: incredibly high temporal resolution and the ability to distinguish events that are separated in time by picoseconds or less. This temporal resolution is obtained by operating the SPAD in so-called Time-Correlated-Single-Photon-Counting (TCSPC) mode, where the single photons are detected in coincidence with an external trigger and then electronically stored with a precise time-tag that, after accumulating over many events, allows to precisely identify the photon arrival time. These technologies are now relatively well established and are routinely employed in research activities, mainly associated to quantum optics measurements and time of flight measurements. However, these detectors are all single pixel detectors and thus do not allow to directly reconstruct an image in much the same way that a digital camera with a single pixel will not create an image. Workaround solutions have been adopted; for example a laser may be scanned across an object and the single pixel records intensity levels for each position of the laser beam. However, our obsession with the pixel-count in our latest digital camera clearly explains the paradigm shift in going from a single pixel detector to a multi-pixel detector and eventually to high resolution imaging. ULTRA-IMAGE aims at demonstrating a series of applications of very novel SPAD technology: for the first time these detectors are available in imaging arrays. This is an emerging technology that will represent the next revolution in imaging and we will have first hand access to each technological breakthrough in SPAD array design, as they occur over the next few years. We are currently employing 32x32 SPAD arrays and will be using the first ever (at the time of writing) 320x240 pixel array, which is able to deliver the first high quality spatially resolved images. The remarkable aspect of these detectors is that they still retain their picosecond temporal resolution therefore enabling a series of game-changing and remarkable technological applications that are not even conceivable with traditional cameras. As examples of the potential of this new imaging technology, we will utilise our SPAD cameras to visualise the propagation of light and perform time-of-flight detection of remote objects in harsh environments (the FEMTO-camera), to enable of the real-time tracking of objects hidden from view (the CORNER-camera), and to perform the first quantum measurements using low-rep rate, high-power lasers (the QUANTUM-camera). The solutions we will develop are enabled by four key features: first, the single-photon sensitivity of silicon detectors; second, the spatial resolution provided by the arrayed nature of the detectors; third, the precise picosecond and femtosecond timing resolution; and fourth, the ultra low-noise performance of gated detection.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Pennsylvania | Date: 2015-07-27

Orthopedic and dental implants coated with an antibacterial coating and methods of making and using, are described herein. The implant can be coated with a hydrophobic, polycationic antibacterial polymer. The polymer can be covalently or non-covalently associated with the surface; however, in particular embodiments, the polymer is non-covalently associated with the surface. As shown in the examples below, clinical observations, digital radiography, and a battery of well-accepted ex vivo analytical methods show that the presence of a hydrophobic polycationic polymer coating, such as N,N-dodecyl,methyl-PEI coating on the surface of a metal implant, was effective in eliminating the clinical signs of infection in vivo in a large animal infection model. Moreover, the coated plates supported bone healing, and in fact decreased healing times, even in the presence of significant bacterial contamination compared to a control.

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