Massachusetts General Hospital is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the third oldest general hospital in the United States and the oldest and largest hospital in New England with 950 beds. Massachusetts General Hospital conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the world, with an annual research budget of more than $750 million. It is currently ranked as the #2 hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report. Wikipedia.
President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-02-22
The present invention generally relates to microfluidic devices, including methods and systems for tagging droplets within such devices. In some aspects, microfluidic droplets are manipulated by exposing the droplets (or other discrete entities) to a variety of different conditions. By incorporating into the droplets a plurality of nucleic acid tags, and optionally amplifying the nucleic acids, e.g., within the droplets, the conditions that a droplet was exposed to may be encoded by the nucleic acids. Thus, even if droplets exposed to different conditions are mixed together, the conditions that each droplet encountered may still be determined, for example, by sequencing the nucleic acids.
Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-08-02
The disclosure relates to methods for treating a subject suffering from a burn injury or associated complications by administering to the subject an effective amount of an aromatic-cationic peptide. For example, a burn injury may be associated with distant pathophysiological effects, such as hypermetabolism, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and organ damage. The disclosure also relates to methods for protecting a subject from a burn injury by administering an effective amount of an aromatic-cationic peptide to a subject at risk of a burn injury.
President And Fellows Of Harvard College and Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-02-03
Provided herein are methods and compositions for modulating the activity or level of a sirtuin, thereby treating or preventing obesity or an insulin resistance disorder, such as diabetes in a subject. Exemplary methods comprise contacting a cell with a sirtuin activating compound or an inhibitory compound to thereby increase or decrease fat accumulation, respectively.
Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-03-22
Embodiments of the invention provide knee prostheses (100) which more faithfully and closely replicate the function, anatomy and physiology of the normal human knee yielding a number of advantages. Among other things, such prostheses can provide an increased range of motion and function more normally particularly in extension, deep flexion and during normal gait. Knee prostheses according to various aspects of the invention recognize that during movement of the knee, particularly during flexion, the kinematics of the bones of the knee are a result of achieving equilibrium of the forces that cause motion of the knee. In addition, the shape of the articular surfaces acting in combination with forces imposed by various muscles, ligaments and tendons, determines the direction of the large contact forces.
Siemens AG and Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-01-18
A magnetic resonance (MR) method and system are provided for generating real-time prospective motion-corrected images using fast navigators. The real-time motion correction is achieved by using a 2D EPI navigator that is obtained using a simultaneous multi-slice blipped-CAIPI technique. The navigator parameters such as field of view, voxel size, and matrix size can be selected to facilitate fast acquisition while providing information sufficient to detect rotational motions on the order of several degrees or more and translational motions on the order of several millimeters or more. The total time interval for obtaining and reconstructing navigator data, registering the navigator image, and providing feedback to correct for detected motion, can be on the order of about 100 ms or less. This prospective motion correction can be used with a wide range of MR imaging techniques where the pulse sequences do not have significant intervals of dead time.
President And Fellows Of Harvard College, The Broad Institute Inc. and Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-02-22
The present invention generally relates to microfluidic devices, including systems and methods for tagging droplets within such devices. In some aspects, microfluidic droplets are manipulated by exposing the droplets (or other discrete entities) to a variety of different conditions. By incorporating into the droplets a plurality of nucleic acid tags, and optionally ligating then nucleic acids together, the conditions that a droplet was exposed to may be encoded by the nucleic acid tags. Thus, even if droplets exposed to different conditions are mixed together, the conditions that each droplet encountered may still be determined, for example, by sequencing the nucleic acids.
Rutgers University and Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-02-03
The present invention relates to diagnostic, prognostic and clinical methods of distinguishing high-risk IPMN from more benign IPMN as well as high-grade PanIN and PDAC from low-grade PanIN with moderate sensitivity and very high specificity using Das-1 and related antibodies.
Ethicon Endo Surgery Inc. and Massachusetts General Hospital | Date: 2017-02-21
Methods and devices are provided for activating brown adipose tissue with targeted substance delivery. Generally, the methods and devices can activate BAT to increase thermogenesis, e.g., increase heat production in the patient, which over time can lead to weight loss and/or improved metabolic function. In one embodiment, a chemical configured to stimulate nerves that activate the BAT and/or to stimulate brown adipocytes directly can be delivered to a patient, thereby increasing thermogenesis in the BAT and inducing weight loss and/or improved metabolic function through energy expenditure. The chemical can be delivered to the patient locally and/or systemically to stimulate the nerves and/or the brown adipocytes.
Perlis R.H.,Massachusetts General Hospital
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Background: Early identification of depressed individuals at high risk for treatment resistance could be helpful in selecting optimal setting and intensity of care. At present, validated tools to facilitate this risk stratification are rarely used in psychiatric practice. Methods: Data were drawn from the first two treatment levels of a multicenter antidepressant effectiveness study in major depressive disorder, the STARD (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression) cohort. This cohort was divided into training, testing, and validation subsets. Only clinical or sociodemographic variables available by or readily amenable to self-report were considered. Multivariate models were developed to discriminate individuals reaching remission with a first or second pharmacological treatment trial from those not reaching remission despite two trials. Results: A logistic regression model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve exceeding.71 in training, testing, and validation cohorts and maintained good calibration across cohorts. Performance of three alternative models with machine learning approaches - a naïve Bayes classifier and a support vector machine, and a random forest model - was less consistent. Similar performance was observed between more and less severe depression, men and women, and primary versus specialty care sites. A web-based calculator was developed that implements this tool and provides graphical estimates of risk. Conclusion: Risk for treatment resistance among outpatients with major depressive disorder can be estimated with a simple model incorporating baseline sociodemographic and clinical features. Future studies should examine the performance of this model in other clinical populations and its utility in treatment selection or clinical trial design. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
Smoller J.W.,Massachusetts General Hospital
The Lancet | Year: 2013
Background Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specifi c variants underlying genetic eff ects shared between the fi ve disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: autism spectrum disorder, attention defi cit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. Methods We analysed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for the fi ve disorders in 33 332 cases and 27 888 controls of European ancestory. To characterise allelic eff ects on each disorder, we applied a multinomial logistic regression procedure with model selection to identify the best-fi tting model of relations between genotype and phenotype. We examined cross-disorder eff ects of genome-wide signifi cant loci previously identifi ed for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and used polygenic risk-score analysis to examine such eff ects from a broader set of common variants. We undertook pathway analyses to establish the biological associations underlying genetic overlap for the fi ve disorders. We used enrichment analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data to assess whether SNPs with cross-disorder association were enriched for regulatory SNPs in post-mortem brain-tissue samples. Findings SNPs at four loci surpassed the cutoff for genome-wide signifi cance (p< 5×10-8) in the primary analysis: regions on chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24, and SNPs within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits, CACNA1C and CACNB2. Model selection analysis supported eff ects of these loci for several disorders. Loci previously associated with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia had variable diagnostic specifi city. Polygenic risk scores showed cross-disorder associations, notably between adult-onset disorders. Pathway analysis supported a role for calcium channel signalling genes for all fi ve disorders. Finally, SNPs with evidence of cross-disorder association were enriched for brain eQTL markers. Interpretation Our fi ndings show that specifi c SNPs are associated with a range of psychiatric disorders of childhood onset or adult onset. In particular, variation in calcium-channel activity genes seems to have pleiotropic eff ects on psychopathology. These results provide evidence relevant to the goal of moving beyond descriptive syndromes in psychiatry, and towards a nosology informed by disease cause.