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Reed G.W.,Ohio | Cannon C.P.,Massachusetts | Waalen J.,Scripps Research Institute | Teirstein P.S.,Ohio | And 3 more authors.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2016

Objective: To examine the influence of smoking on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background: Certain studies suggest smokers may have enhanced clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition compared to non-smokers after PCI. Whether this is affected by clopidogrel dose is unknown. Methods: In this study, we conducted an analysis of 5,429 patients in the Gauging Responsiveness With A VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay: Impact on Thrombosis and Safety (GRAVITAS) trial. Platelet reactivity was assessed 12-24 hr after PCI (baseline). Patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (OTR) (P2Y12 reaction units [PRU]≥230) were randomized to clopidogrel 75 mg or 150 mg daily. Reactivity was subsequently assessed at 30-days, and 6-months. Patients were stratified by smoking status. Results: Smoking was independently associated with lower PRU (P=0.001), and smokers were less likely to have high OTR (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.94; P=0.006) at baseline. Among patients assigned to clopidogrel 75 mg, smokers had lower PRU and were less likely to still have high OTR at 30-days (P<0.001) and 6-months (P<0.001). However, in patients assigned clopidogrel 150 mg, PRU and high OTR did not differ by smoking status at any time. Tests demonstrated an interaction between smoking and dose at 30 days (P=0.007), and a trend at 6-months (P=0.098). Conclusions: Smokers treated with clopidogrel exhibit reduced platelet reactivity and are less likely to have persistent high OTR than non-smokers. This difference is mitigated by clopidogrel 150 mg, indicating non-smokers may require double-dose therapy to achieve a similar antiplatelet effect after PCI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Taylor P.A.,University of Cape Town | Alhamud A.,University of Cape Town | van der Kouwe A.,Massachusetts | Saleh M.G.,University of Cape Town | And 2 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2016

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is susceptible to several artifacts due to eddy currents, echo planar imaging (EPI) distortion and subject motion. While several techniques correct for individual distortion effects, no optimal combination of DTI acquisition and processing has been determined. Here, the effects of several motion correction techniques are investigated while also correcting for EPI distortion: prospective correction, using navigation; retrospective correction, using two different popular packages (FSL and TORTOISE); and the combination of both methods. Data from a pediatric group that exhibited incidental motion in varying degrees are analyzed. Comparisons are carried while implementing eddy current and EPI distortion correction. DTI parameter distributions, white matter (WM) maps and probabilistic tractography are examined. The importance of prospective correction during data acquisition is demonstrated. In contrast to some previous studies, results also show that the inclusion of retrospective processing also improved ellipsoid fits and both the sensitivity and specificity of group tractographic results, even for navigated data. Matches with anatomical WM maps are highest throughout the brain for data that have been both navigated and processed using TORTOISE. The inclusion of both prospective and retrospective motion correction with EPI distortion correction is important for DTI analysis, particularly when studying subject populations that are prone to motion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

This qualitative study aims to understand how personnel in state and federal agencies view surveillance systems and the extent to which systematically collected data inform nutrition and physical activity policies and interventions addressing obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 respondents purposively sampled from state health departments, federal public health agencies, and prevention research centers. All informants acknowledged the importance of surveillance systems and influence of the data-action cycle for monitoring trends and increasing obesity awareness. However, state-level respondents believed surveillance systems should be designed for programmatic purposes, whereas federal participants thought they should be designed for monitoring. Respondents held differing opinions about the flexibility, timeliness, accessibility, and usefulness of existing national surveillance systems, highlighting significant differences in state and federal agencies' perceptions and utilization of surveillance systems. Such discrepancies call for increased communication surrounding purposes and uses of surveillance data, enabling stronger partnerships between state and federal agencies.

Jacobs J.,Tufts University | Schwartz A.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Mcdougle C.J.,Massachusetts | Skotko B.G.,Massachusetts General Hospital
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2016

A small percentage of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome experience a rapid and unexplained deterioration in cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning. Currently, there is no standardized work-up available to evaluate these patients or treat them. Their decline typically involves intellectual deterioration, a loss of skills of daily living, and prominent behavioral changes. Certain cases follow significant life events such as completion of secondary school with friends who proceed on to college or employment beyond the individual with DS. Others develop this condition seemingly unprovoked. Increased attention in the medical community to clinical deterioration in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome could provide a framework for improved diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. This report presents a young adult male with Down syndrome who experienced severe and unexplained clinical deterioration, highlighting specific challenges in the systematic evaluation and treatment of these patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hill K.P.,Harvard Medical SchoolBoston | Toto L.H.,Massachusetts | Lukas S.E.,Harvard Medical SchoolBoston | Weiss R.D.,Harvard Medical SchoolBoston | And 3 more authors.
American Journal on Addictions | Year: 2013

Background and Objectives: We assessed the feasibility of a new cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) manual, plus transdermal patch nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to treat co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. Method: Seven of 12 (58.3%) adults with DSM-IV diagnoses of both nicotine and cannabis dependence completed 10 weeks of individual CBT and NRT. Results: Participants smoked 12.6±4.9 tobacco cigarettes per day at baseline, which was reduced to 2.1±4.2 at the end of treatment (F[5]=23.5, p<.0001). The reduction in cannabis use from 10.0±5.3 inhalations per day at baseline to 8.0±5.3 inhalations per day at 10 weeks was not significant (F[5]=1.12, p=.37). There was a significant decrease from the mean baseline Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scores at weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 of treatment (F[4]=19.8, p<.001) and mean Client Satisfaction Questionnaire scores were uniformly high (30.6±1.9). Conclusions and Scientific Significance: A CBT plus NRT treatment program significantly reduced tobacco smoking but did not significantly reduce cannabis use in individuals with co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. There was no compensatory increase in cannabis use following the reduction in tobacco smoking, suggesting that clinicians can safely pursue simultaneous treatment of co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. The intervention was well-liked by the 7 of the 12 enrollees who completed the study. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

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