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O'Shea T.M.,North Carolina A&T State University | Allred E.N.,Harvard University | Hirtz D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Leviton A.,Harvard University | Kuban K.C.K.,Massachusetts
Autism Research | Year: 2016

We sought to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children born extremely preterm relative to the U.S. population risk of 1.5% [CDC, 2014] using the best-available diagnostic procedures and minimizing confounding with other neurodevelopmental impairments. Eight hundred and eighty nine of 966 (92%) 10-year-old children from the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn birth cohort, delivered at 23-27 weeks gestation in 2002-2004, participated. Children meeting ASD screening criteria on the Social Communication Questionnaire were evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Those meeting ADI-R criteria were assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2). A positive ADOS-2 score was the criterion for ASD. Twenty-six participants were not assessed for ASD because of severe sensory or motor impairment. In the remaining sample, 61 children met criteria for ASD, resulting in a prevalence of 7.1% (95% CI=5.5-9.0). ASD risk decreased with increasing gestational age, from 15.0% (95% CI=10.0-21.2) for 23-24 weeks, 6.5% (95% CI=4.2-9.4) for 25-26 weeks, to 3.4% (95% CI=1.6-6.1) for 27 weeks gestational age, and this association was independent of IQ. Among children with ASD, 40% had intellectual disability. The male-to-female ratio of children with ASD was 2.1:1 (95% CI=1.2:1-3.5:1), lower than in the general population (4:1). ASD prevalence in the ELGAN cohort was four times higher than in the general population, and was strongly associated with gestational age, underscoring the need for enhanced ASD screening of children born preterm, and suggesting that some risk factors associated with preterm birth may also play a role in the etiology of autism. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bergmark R.W.,Office of Global SurgeryMassachusetts Eye and Ear InfirmaryBoston | Chambers K.,Office of Global SurgeryMassachusetts Eye and Ear InfirmaryBoston | Lin D.T.,Massachusetts | Deschler D.G.,Massachusetts
Head and Neck | Year: 2016

Background: Head and neck cancer constitutes a substantial portion of the burden of disease in South Asia, and there is an undersupply of surgical capacity in this region. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic welfare losses due to head and neck cancer in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh in 2010. Methods: We used publicly available estimates of head and neck cancer morbidity and mortality along with a concept termed the value of a statistical life to estimate economic welfare losses in the aforementioned countries in 2010. Results. Economic losses because of head and neck cancer in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh totaled $16.9 billion (2010 US dollars [USD]), equivalent to 0.26% of the region's economic output. Bangladesh, the poorest country, experienced the greatest proportional losses. Conclusion: The economic consequences of head and neck cancer in South Asia are significant, and building surgical capacity is essential to begin to address this burden. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yarlagadda B.B.,Massachusetts | Lin D.T.,Massachusetts
Head and Neck | Year: 2014

Lateral temporal bone reconstruction after ablative surgery for malignancy, chronic infection, osteoradionecrosis, or trauma presents a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. This complexity is due to the 3D nature of the region, potential dural exposure, and the possible need for external surface repair. Successful reconstruction therefore requires achieving separation of the dura, obliteration of volume defect, and external cutaneous repair. There is significant institutional bias on the best method of reconstruction of these defects. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of reconstructive options will be discussed as well as the potential pitfalls and complications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kandil E.,University of New Orleans | Mccaffrey J.C.,Florida | Orloff L.A.,Stanford University | Shaha A.,New York | And 2 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2014

Background: Invasive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is relatively frequent, yet there is a paucity of specific guidelines devoted to its management. The Endocrine Committee of the American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) convened a panel to provide clinical consensus statements based on review of the literature, synthesized with the expert opinion of the group. Methods: An expert panel, selected from membership of the AHNS, constructed the manuscript and recommendations for management of DTC with invasion of recurrent laryngeal nerve, trachea, esophagus, larynx, and major vessels based on current best evidence. A Modified Delphi survey was then constructed by another expert panelist utilizing 9 anchor points, 1=strongly disagree to 9=strongly agree. Results of the survey were utilized to determine which statements achieved consensus, near-consensus, or non-consensus. Results: After endorsement by the AHNS Endocrine Committee and Quality of Care Committee, it received final approval from the AHNS Council. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chambers K.J.,Massachusetts | Creighton F.,Massachusetts | Abdul-Aziz D.,Massachusetts | Cheney M.,Massachusetts
Laryngoscope | Year: 2014

Objectives/Hypothesis: Determine trends in global health-related publication in otolaryngology. Study Design: A review of research databases. Methods: A search of publications available on PubMed and nine additional databases was undertaken reviewing two time periods 10 years apart for the timeframes 1998 to 2002 (early time period) and 2008 to 2012 (recent time period) using specific search terms to identify global health-related publications in otolaryngology. Publications were examined for region of origin, subspecialty, type of publication, and evidence of international collaboration. χ and t test analyses were used to identify trends. Results: In the 1998 to 2002 time period, a total of 26 publications met inclusion criteria for the study, with a mean of 5.2±2.8 publications per year. In the 2008 to 2012 time period, a total of 61 publications met inclusion criteria, with a mean of 12.3±5.6 publications per year. The 235% increase in global health-related publications identified between the two study periods was statistically significant (P=.02). The absolute number of publications in which collaboration occurred between countries increased from three in the early time period to nine the recent time period. Conclusions: There has been a significant increase in the volume of global health-related publications in English language otolaryngology journals over the past decade, providing strong evidence of the increasing trend of global health as an academic pursuit within the field of otolaryngology. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

Kivekas I.,University of Tampere | Chao W.-C.,Chang Gung University | Faquin W.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Hollowell M.,Boston Childrens HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBoston | And 3 more authors.
Laryngoscope | Year: 2014

Objectives/Hypothesis: Surgical intervention of the Eustachian tube (ET) has become increasingly common in the past decade, and balloon dilation has shown promising results in recent studies. It is unclear how balloon dilation enhances ET function. Our aim was to evaluate histological changes in the ET's mucosal lumen comparing before balloon dilation, immediately after, and postoperatively. Study Design: Case series. Methods: Thirteen patients with bilateral ET dysfunction were enrolled. Biopsies of the ET mucosa were obtained just before balloon dilation; immediately after; and in three cases, 5 to 12 weeks postoperatively. Specimens were retrospectively examined under light microscopy by two pathologists blinded to the clinical information and whether specimens were pre- or postballoon dilation. Results: Preoperative biopsies were characterized by inflammatory changes within the epithelium and submucosal layer. Immediate response to balloon dilation was thinning of the mucosa, shearing of epithelium and crush injury to the submucosa, especially to lymphocytic infiltrates. Postoperative biopsies demonstrated healthy pseudocolumnar epithelium and replacement of lymphocytic infiltrate with a thinner layer of fibrous tissue. Conclusion: Reduction of inflammatory epithelial changes and submucosal inflammatory infiltrate appeared to be the principal result of balloon dilation. The balloon may shear or crush portions of inflamed epithelium but usually spared the basal layer, allowing for rapid healing. Additionally, it appeared to effectively crush lymphocytes and lymphocytic follicles that may become replaced with thinner fibrous scar. Histopathology of the ET undergoing balloon dilation demonstrated effects that could reduce the overall inflammatory burden and may contribute to clinical improvement in ET function. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

Chambers K.J.,Massachusetts | Randolph G.W.,Massachusetts | Hartnick C.J.,Massachusetts | Song P.C.,Massachusetts
Laryngoscope | Year: 2016

Objectives/Hypothesis: The hypoglossal nerve (XII) has been used as a donor nerve in facial and laryngeal reinnervation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular changes that occur within the tongue following partial or complete transection of XII using a canine model. Study Design: Histopathological comparison of tongue denervation following two types of XII resection in a canine model. Methods: Ten adult canines underwent complete unilateral resection of XII or resection of only the medial terminal branch of the hypoglossal nerve (mXII). After 6 months of recovery, tongue specimens were analyzed histopathologically using whole cross-sections. Routine histologic sections were assessed by two neuropathologists blinded to the type of denervation. The cross-sectional area was calculated of both sides of the tongue, and the amount of myosin was quantified morphometrically using immunohistochemistry for myosin (antimyosin heavy chain, fast isotype). Statistical comparison between partial and complete denervation was performed using the Student t test. Results: Six months following XII transection, quantitative measures of the cross-sectional area of the tongue and content of myosin demonstrated severe muscle atrophy on the operated side of the tongue for both groups, compared to the nonoperated side. For partial transection involving only mXII, the degree of atrophy was less severe (P < .05). Conclusions: This study provides new histological information demonstrating that partial resection of the hypoglossal nerve, sacrificing only the proximal medial branch of the hypoglossal nerve (mXII), results in less severe atrophy of the tongue than complete transection of the entire hypoglossal nerve. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology., Massachusetts. and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Background. Five neuroinvasive Bacillus cereus infections (4 fatal) occurred in hospitalized patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) during a 9-month period, prompting an investigation by infection control and public health officials. Methods. Medical records of case-patients were reviewed and a matched case-control study was performed. Infection control practices were observed. Multiple environmental, food, and medication samples common to AML patients were cultured. Multilocus sequence typing was performed for case and environmental B cereus isolates. Results. All 5 case-patients received chemotherapy and had early-onset neutropenic fevers that resolved with empiric antibiotics. Fever recurred at a median of 17 days (range, 9-20) with headaches and abrupt neurological deterioration. Case-patients had B cereus identified in central nervous system (CNS) samples by (1) polymerase chain reaction or culture or (2) bacilli seen on CNS pathology stains with high-grade B cereus bacteremia. Two case-patients also had colonic ulcers with abundant bacilli on autopsy. No infection control breaches were observed. On case-control analysis, bananas were the only significant exposure shared by all 5 case-patients (odds ratio, 9.3; P = .04). Five environmental or food isolates tested positive for B cereus, including a homogenized banana peel isolate and the shelf of a kitchen cart where bananas were stored. Multilocus sequence typing confirmed that all case and environmental strains were genetically distinct. Multilocus sequence typing-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organisms clustered in 2 separate clades. Conclusions. The investigation of this neuroinvasive B cereus cluster did not identify a single point source but was suggestive of a possible dietary exposure. Our experience underscores the potential virulence of B cereus in immunocompromised hosts.

Jacobs J.,Tufts University | Schwartz A.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Mcdougle C.J.,Massachusetts | Skotko B.G.,Massachusetts General Hospital
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2016

A small percentage of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome experience a rapid and unexplained deterioration in cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning. Currently, there is no standardized work-up available to evaluate these patients or treat them. Their decline typically involves intellectual deterioration, a loss of skills of daily living, and prominent behavioral changes. Certain cases follow significant life events such as completion of secondary school with friends who proceed on to college or employment beyond the individual with DS. Others develop this condition seemingly unprovoked. Increased attention in the medical community to clinical deterioration in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome could provide a framework for improved diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. This report presents a young adult male with Down syndrome who experienced severe and unexplained clinical deterioration, highlighting specific challenges in the systematic evaluation and treatment of these patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Goyal N.,Penn State Milton rshey Medical Center | Emerick K.S.,Massachusetts | Deschler D.G.,Massachusetts | Lin D.T.,Massachusetts | And 3 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2016

Background: Surgical site infections can adversely affect flaps in head and neck reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of surgical site infections in supraclavicular artery island flap reconstructions. Methods: Records of patients undergoing head and neck surgery from 2011 to 2014 with supraclavicular artery island flap reconstruction at a single specialty hospital were reviewed; surgical site infections ≤30 days postoperatively were noted. Results: Of 64 patients, 86% underwent resection for malignancy, 55% previously received radiation. Sixty-three percent of surgeries were clean-contaminated. Seven patients (11%) developed recipient site surgical site infections, all in patients who underwent clean-contaminated surgery for malignancy. There was no complete flap loss. No significant differences in demographics or perioperative factors were noted. Oral cavity and laryngeal reconstructions (p = .014) and clean-contaminated surgery (p = .04) were factors associated with increased surgical site infection risk on univariate but not multivariate analysis. Patients with surgical site infections had longer hospitalizations (p = .003). Conclusion: The supraclavicular artery island flap can be used for head and neck reconstruction with a low rate of surgical site infection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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