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Kuster A.,University of Nantes | Kuster A.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Tea I.,University of Nantes | Ferchaud-Roucher V.,Mass Spectrometry Core Facility | And 9 more authors.

Background: Depletion of blood glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant, is known to occur in preterm infants. Objective: Our aim was to determine: 1) whether GSH depletion is present at the time of birth; and 2) whether it is associated with insufficient availability of cysteine (cys), the limiting GSH precursor, or a decreased capacity to synthesize GSH. Methodology: Sixteen mothers delivering very low birth weight infants (VLBW), and 16 mothers delivering healthy, full term neonates were enrolled. Immediately after birth, erythrocytes from umbilical vein, umbilical artery, and maternal blood were obtained to assess GSH [GSH] and cysteine [cys] concentrations, and the GSH synthesis rate was determined from the incorporation of labeled cysteine into GSH in isolated erythrocytes ex vivo, measured using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Principal Findings: Compared with mothers delivering at full term, mothers delivering prematurely had markedly lower erythrocyte [GSH] and [cys] and these were significantly depressed in VLBW infants, compared with term neonates. A strong correlation was found between maternal and fetal GSH and cysteine levels. The capacity to synthesize GSH was as high in VLBW as in term infants. Conclusion: The current data demonstrate that: 1) GSH depletion is present at the time of birth in VLBW infants; 2) As VLBW neonates possess a fully active capacity to synthesize glutathione, the depletion may arise from inadequate cysteine availability, potentially due to maternal depletion. Further studies would be needed to determine whether maternal-fetal cysteine transfer is decreased in preterm infants, and, if so, whether cysteine supplementation of mothers at risk of delivering prematurely would strengthen antioxidant defense in preterm neonates. © 2011 Küster et al. Source

Bruschi M.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Candiano G.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Ciana L.D.,Cyanagen | Petretto A.,Mass Spectrometry Core Facility | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potentially implicated in renal pathology. Direct evidence is available for animal models of glomerulonephritis but the demonstration of ROS implication in human diseases is only circumstantial and requires further experimental support. One problem limiting any evolution is the brief life of ROS (in terms of milliseconds) that makes it difficult their direct detection 'in vivo'. An alternative is to look at the products of oxidation of proteins that remain in blood as a signature of ROS activity. Recent data have shown the presence of oxidation products of albumin (sulfonic 34Cys albumin) in serum of patients with focal-glomerulosclerosis, that is a primary glomerular diseases causing nephrotic syndrome. Structural studies based on spectroscopy and calorimetry strengthened the relevance of oxidation of the unique free SH groups of 34Cys for conformation of albumin, in analogy with what already reported for other proteins. In this review, we present new developments on technologies for the detection of the oxido-redox potential of proteins that are based on the concept that oxidation is inversely correlated with their free content of sulphydryl groups. We describe, in particular, two new iodoacetamide-substituted cyanines that have been developed for labelling sulphydryl groups and can be utilized as stable dyes prior mono- and bi-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins with low binding with iodoacetamide-cyanines may be considered as surrogate biomarkers of ROS activity. Standardization of these techniques and their acquisition in more laboratories would enable clinicians to plan screening studies on ROS in human diseases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sano M.,University of Shiga Prefecture | Ferchaud-Roucher V.,Mass Spectrometry Core Facility | Kaeffer B.,University of Nantes | Poupeau G.,University of Nantes | And 2 more authors.
Amino Acids

l-Tryptophan (l-Trp) is a precursor for serotonin (5-HT) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis. Both 5-HT and NAD may impact energy metabolism during gestation given that recent studies have demonstrated that increased 5-HT production is crucial for increasing maternal insulin secretion, and that sirtuin, an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, regulates endocrine signaling. Infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at a higher risk of metabolic disease once they reach adulthood. IUGR is associated with altered maternal–fetal amino acid transfer. Whether IUGR affects l-Trp metabolism in mother and fetus has not been fully elucidated. Recently, we developed an analytical method using stable isotope-labeled l-Trp to explore the metabolism of l-Trp and its main metabolites, l-kynurenine (l-Kyn), 5-HT and quinolinic acid (QA). In this study, dams submitted to dietary protein restriction throughout gestation received intravenous infusions of stable isotope-labeled 15N2-l-Trp to determine whether l-Trp metabolism is affected by IUGR. Samples were obtained from maternal, fetal and umbilical vein plasma, as well as the amniotic fluid (AF), placenta and liver of the mother and the fetus after isotope infusion. We observed evidence for active l-Trp transfer from mother to fetus, as well as de novo synthesis of 5-HT in the fetus. Plasma 5-HT was decreased in undernourished mothers. In IUGR fetuses, maternal–fetal l-Trp transfer remained unaffected, but conversion to QA was impaired, implying that NAD production also decreased. Whether such alterations in tryptophan metabolism during gestation have adverse consequences and contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disease in IUGR remains to be explored. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Wien Source

Prunotto M.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Carnevali M.L.,Nephrology and Health science | Candiano G.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Murtas C.,Nephrology and Health science | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

Glomerular targets of autoimmunity in human membranous nephropathy are poorly understood. Here, we used a combined proteomic approach to identify specific antibodies against podocyte proteins in both serum and glomeruli of patients with membranous nephropathy (MN). We detected specific anti-aldose reductase (AR) and anti-manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) IgG4 in sera of patients with MN. We also eluted high titers of anti-AR and anti-SOD2 IgG4 from microdissected glomeruli of three biopsies of MN kidneys but not from biopsies of other glomerulonephritides characterized by IgG deposition (five lupus nephritis and two membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis). We identified both antigens in MN biopsies but not in other renal pathologies or normal kidney. Confocal and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) showed co-localization of anti-AR and anti-SOD2 with IgG4 and C5b-9 in electron-dense podocyte immune deposits. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed an increase of SOD2 expression on podocyte plasma membrane after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. In conclusion, our data support AR and SOD2 as renal antigens of human MN and suggest that oxidative stress may drive glomerular SOD2 expression. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Santucci L.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Delluremia | Candiano G.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Delluremia | Petretto A.,Mass Spectrometry Core Facility | Pavone B.,IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia | And 8 more authors.
Molecular BioSystems

Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is a component of the high density lipoproteins (HDL) that regulates the transport of cholesterol between the liver and peripheral cells and modulates the removal of any excess of cholesterol from membranes. Any variation in apoA1 composition may modify the plasma lipid profile and be involved in atherogenesis. We investigated apoA1 composition in plasma of 6 children with nephrotic syndrome, a condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol in plasma and by a high risk to develop atherosclerosis. Non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis (Nat/SDS-PAGE), mass spectrometry, western blot and pull down experiments were done to characterize proteins and define putative interactions. ApoA1 was resolved in 12 variants, 6 of which had a slightly lower molecular weight (18-19 KDa) and migrated on the same axes of the β chain of haptoglobin (Hp). Low molecular weight apoA1 were observed in carriers of different Hp haplotypes (including one homozygous for the rare ββα1α1) ruling out any contaminant effect of co-migration of apoA1 with Hp α2 chain. Overall, apoA1 isoforms were much more present in plasma of nephrotic patients compared to a normal profile. These findings show that apoA1 plasma in nephrotic syndrome is heterogeneous in terms of molecular weight. Low molecular weight fragments lack internal structural domains and likely form macro-aggregates with Hp. Fragmentation and transport of apoA1 may be involved in the general disorder of lipid metabolism that characterizes nephrotic syndrome. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011. Source

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