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Kakamega, Kenya

Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, formerly Western University College of Science and Technology, is a public university in Kenya. The university is named after Masinde Muliro, a beloved Kenyan politician who helped found the school. Muliro died in 1992. Wikipedia.

Ombori O.,Kenyatta University | Muoma J.V.O.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology | Machuka J.,Kenyatta University
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

The study was carried out to evaluate the amenability of tropical inbred and hybrid maize lines, using Agrobacterium mediated transformation technique. Agrobacteriumtumefaciens strains EHA101 harbouring a pTF102 binary vector, EHA101, AGL1, and LBA4404 harbouring pBECK2000. 4 plasmid, LBA4404, GV and EHA105 harbouring pCAMBIA2301 plasmid, and AGL1 harbouring the pSB223 plasmid were used. Delivery of transgenes into plant tissues was assessed using transient β-glucuronidase (gus) activity on the 3rd and 4th day of co-cultivation of the infected Immature Zygotic Embryos (IZEs) and embryogenic callus. Transient gus expression was influenced by the co-cultivation period, maize genotype and Agrobacterium strain. The expression was highest after the 3rd day of co-culture compared to the 4th day with intense blue staining was detected for IZEs which were infected with Agrobacterium strains EHA105 harbouring pCAMBIA2301 and EHA101 harbouring pTF102 vector. Putative transformants (To) were regenerated from bialaphos resistant callus. Differences were detected on the number of putative transformants regenerated among the maize lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) and gus gene confirmed the transfer of the transgenes into the maize cells. Southern blot hybridization confirmed stable integration of gus into PTL02 maize genome and segregation analysis confirmed the inheritance of the gus. A transformation efficiency of 1. 4 % was achieved. This transformation system can be used to introduce genes of interest into tropical maize lines for genetic improvement. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Dinda V.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Ethiopian journal of health sciences

In low income countries, surgical site infections (SSIs) are costly and impose a heavy and potentially preventable burden on both patients and healthcare providers. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of SSI, pathogens associated with SSI, the antibiogram of the causative pathogens and specific risk factors associated with SSI at the hospital. Two hundred and sixty-eight respondents admitted for general surgical procedures (other than neurological and cardiothoracic surgeries) at the Aga Khan University Hospital were eligible to take part in the study. Post-surgery patients were observed for symptoms of infection. Follow ups were done through the consulting clinics, breast clinic and casualty dressing clinic by a team of surgeons. In cases of infection, pus swabs were collected for culture. SSI incidence rate was 7.0%, pathogens isolated from SSI included gram negative enteric bacilli and S. aureus which was the most prevalent bacterial isolate. Only one isolate of MRSA was found and all staphylococci were susceptible to Vancomycin. Preoperative stay ≥ 2 days and wound class were the risk factors associated with SSI. The SSI incidence rates (7.0%) observed in this study were relatively lower than the ones documented in other studies in Kenya. S. aureus is the most prevalent pathogen associated with SSI. Similar to findings from other studies done in the region; prolonged hospital stay and dirty wounds were the risks associated with postsurgical sepsis at the hospital. Source

Garcia-Pardo C.,Technical University of Cartagena | Molina-Garcia-Pardo J.-M.,Technical University of Cartagena | Garrido-Cervantes A.,Technical University of Cartagena | Muhehe J.D.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology | Juan-Llacer L.,Technical University of Cartagena
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

The ultrawideband (UWB) propagation channel is analyzed by means of measurements carried out in the 2-5 GHz frequency band in an office environment for different scenarios. Measurements were performed for different polarizations on the transmitting and receiving arrays so the effect of the signal polarization can be also taken into account in the analysis. The main contribution of this paper is not only the analysis of path loss and RMS delay spread in a bandwidth of 3 GHz, but also the influence of frequency on such parameters. The relationship between the path loss for copolar configurations and the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD), both in space and frequency domain, is also addressed. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Dinda V.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology | Kimang'a A.,Kenyatta University
African Health Sciences

Introduction: Overwhelming evidence implicates Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as an etiologic agent of gastrointestinal diseases including gastric cancer. The mode of transmission of this pathogen remains poorly understood. Objective: This investigation is to establish the presence of H. pylori in the waters of the Nairobi river basin and the predictive value the presence of fecal indicator bacteria would have for H. pylori. Methodology: Physical, chemical and biological assessment of water quality of rivers in Nairobi were carried out using standard methods. H. pylori DNA in water was detected using highly specific primers of glmM gene (294pb). Results: There was high presence of faecal bacteria in the waters sampled. H. pylori DNA was detected in two domestic wells and one river. The wells were located in two different regions of the water basin but influenced by similar human activities. Conclusion: The high presence of faecal bacteria in the waters sampled did not parallel the H. pylori detection in the same waters. H. pylori was detected in the Nairobi river basin, but there was no relationship between the numerical levels of fecal bacteria and H. pylori. © 2016, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved. Source

Vestergren R.,University of Stockholm | Orata F.,University of Stockholm | Orata F.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology | Berger U.,University of Stockholm | Cousins I.T.,University of Stockholm
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg-1. Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMF < 1) in any of the investigated tissues. Biotransfer factors (BTFs; defined as the concentration in tissue divided by the total daily intake) were calculated for muscle and milk. Log BTFs ranged from -1.95 to -1.15 day kg-1 with the highest BTF observed for PFOS in muscle. Overall, the results of this study suggest that long-chain PFAAs have a relatively high potential for transfer to milk and beef from the diet of dairy cows. However, a low input of PFAAs to terrestrial systems via atmospheric deposition and low bioavailability of PFAAs in soil limits the amount of PFAAs that enter terrestrial agricultural food chains in background contaminated environments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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