Mashhad, Iran

Mashhad University of Medical science is a medical school in Iran. Located in Razavi Khorasan province in the city of Mashhad, it was established in 1949 with Ferdowsi University of Mashad and separated in 1986 from its parent institution by national legislation.The university is currently ranked as one of the best in the Middle East. In 2001, its department of Medicine was ranked first among the Iranian universities. The latest rankings put Mashhad University in 3rd place nationally.MUMS has 8 faculties, operates 32 hospitals plus 179 rural and 147 urban health care centers. Its faculty include 600 teaching staff, 1700 physicians, 140 dentists, 130 pharmacists, and 25,402 staff employees. In 2001, 7,000 students were enrolled full-time. Wikipedia.

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Ebrahimzadeh M.H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume | Year: 2013

The Iran-Iraq war (1980 to 1988) was one of the longest wars of the twentieth century. Few studies are available in the current literature evaluating the long-term results of proximal lower-extremity war-related amputations. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the current health-related quality of life and clinical musculoskeletal function of Iranian veterans with hip or hemipelvic amputation. Seventy-six patients from a cohort of eighty-four veterans with hip disarticulation and transpelvic amputation participated in this study. A Persian version of Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) was completed for all of the veterans. The average duration of follow-up was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age (and standard deviation) of the veterans was 44.1 ± 7.0 years. The average scores for the physical and mental health dimensions of the SF-36 were 45.85 ± 21.56 and 57.98 ± 25.19, respectively. These data indicate that the amputees were doing better in the mental domain than in the physical domain. Forty-five patients with a primary amputation (97.8%) and ten with a secondary amputation (33.3%) complained of pain in the amputation stump. Veterans with proximal lower-extremity amputation will need life-long care. Supervision starts with stump management and the application of appropriate surgical techniques at the time of the injury and continues with periodic examination throughout life.

Curcumin is a polyphenolic natural compound with diverse and attractive biological activities. There has been in-vitro, preclinical and clinical evidence on the cardioprotective and lipid-lowering effects of curcumin. The present review aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze current clinical evidence on the effects of curcumin supplementation on blood lipids. Methods: A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Scopus, AMED, Cochrane and clinical trial registry databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of curcumin on any component of serum lipid profile including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Meta-analysis of eligible studies was conducted using a random-effects approach. Results: Five studies comprising 10 treatment arms (n=133 in the curcumin and 90 in the control group) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of findings did not indicate a significant effect of curcumin on any of the lipid parameters. The estimated pooled mean changes (95% confidence interval) following curcumin supplementation were 8.97 (95% CI:-4.56 to 22.51) mg/dL (for total cholesterol; p=0.19); 16.15 (-4.43 to 36.74) mg/dL (for LDL-C; p=0.12);-0.59 (-1.66 to 0.49) mg/dL (for HDL-C; p=0.28) and-1.29 (-9.05 to 6.48) mg/dL (for triglycerides; p=0.75). In the same manner, subgroup analysis of studies on patients at cardiovascular risk did not indicate any significant effect of curcumin on circulating lipid levels. There was a significant heterogeneity for the impact of curcumin on total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides but not HDL-C. Conclusions: In light of the present meta-analysis, curcumin supplementation has apparently no effect on serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and HDL-C levels when considering heterogeneous populations. However, further randomized controlled trials with longer supplementation duration, and bioavailability-improved formulations of curcumin are warranted to be conducted in dyslipidemic subjects for a more robust assessment of the lipid-modulating properties of this phytochemical. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
DNA and Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Genetic factors can substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A missense Pro12Ala substitution in the PPARγ2 gene (rs1801282) has been studied in relation with NAFLD risk in different ethnic groups, but findings have been inconclusive. The aim of this was to evaluate the association between rs1801282 and NAFLD through meta-analysis of all relevant published evidence. A systematic search to find eligible studies was performed in Medline, HuGE Navigator, and SCOPUS databases. The strength of association was evaluated using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained from a random effect approach and under additive, dominant, co-dominant, recessive, and allelic contrast models. Seven studies comprising 1474 cases and 2259 controls met the eligibility criteria and included in the meta-analysis. Combined results did not indicate any predisposing or protective effect for rs1801282 under any of the assessed modes of inheritance. The rate of heterogeneity was generally high due to the inter-study variations in terms of age, gender, and ethnicity. Evidence from the current meta-analysis indicated that rs1801282 variants are not associated with NAFLD risk. Future large-scale studies are required to substantiate the present findings. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.

Azarpazhooh M.R.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
AIDS research and human retroviruses | Year: 2012

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is an important global health problem in the world mainly in the endemic areas of HTLV-I infection. It was previously reported that Mashhad, in northeastern Iran, is a new endemic region of HTLV-I. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-I in Sabzevar, located in the southeast of Mashhad. In this cross-sectional study 1445 individuals were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Serum samples were screened for anti-HTLV-I antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); all of the ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Long terminal repeat (LTR) sequencing was carried out to determine the type of HTLV-I in Sabzevar. In the primary screening by ELISA, 26/1445 (1.8%) of those sampled were reactive for HTLV-I antibody. Twenty-four out of 26 samples were confirmed HTLV-I infection by PCR (24/1445). The overall prevalence of HTLV-I infection in Sabzevar is 1.66%. The prevalence of the virus infection in men and women was 2.42% (11/455) and 1.31% (13/989), respectively. Seroprevalence was associated with age, increasing significantly among those older than 30 years (p=0.015), and a history of surgery (p=0.002), imprisonment (p=0.018), and hospitalization (p=0.005). Three out of 24 positive HTLV-I samples were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of LTR. The results showed that HTLV-I in Sabzevar belonged to the cosmopolitan subtype. The present study showed Sabzevar is a new endemic area for HTLV-I infection. Our study emphasizes that systemic HTLV-I screening of blood donors in Sabzevar and other cities in Khorasan province is important and should be taken into account.

Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2013

Dyslipidemia is a major coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. In spite of the proven efficacy of statin drugs in reducing CHD burden, there is still much room for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents to address the considerable residual cardiovascular risk that remains after treatment with currently available medications. In particular, there is an urgent demand for drugs capable of boosting the concentration and/or function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), thereby promoting reverse cholesterol transport. Phospholipids are naturally occurring fats that play indispensible role in human health via their structural, energy storage, signal transduction and metabolic functions. Supplementation with either purified or mixed preparations of bioactive phospholipids has been reported to ameliorate a range of nutritional and cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, several lines of evidence have supported the efficacy of dietary phospholipids in reducing serum and hepatic contents of cholesterol and triglycerides, while increasing HDL-C and apo A-I levels. These beneficial effects of phospholipids could be attributed to their ability in reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption, enhancing biliary cholesterol excretion and modulating the expression and activity of transcriptional factors and enzymes that are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Given their extreme safety and biocompatibility, dietary supplementation with phospholipid preparations, in particular phosphatidylinositol, appears as a novel and effective strategy that could be used as an alternative or adjunctive therapy to the current medications. The present review outlines the in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical findings on the anti-dyslipidemic effects of three most abundant phospholipids in the human body and diet namely phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the yellow-orange pigment of dried Curcuma longa L. rhizomes (turmeric). During the past two decades, there has been a large volume of published studies describing the biological and pharmacological properties of this phytochemical including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, memory enhancing, antiparkinsonism, antirheumatic, anti-infectious, antiaging, antipsoriatic, and anticonvulsant activities. In addition, curcumin has been shown to be extremely safe and interact with multiple molecular targets that are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Curcumin could favorably affect all leading components of metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL-C and hypertension, and prevent the deleterious complications of MetS including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin can also exert several pleiotropic effects and improve endothelial dysfunction, adipokine imbalances, and hyperuricemia which usually accompany MetS. Despite the potential tremendous benefit of this multifaceted phytopharmaceutical, no trial result has yet been publicized on this issue. This review seeks to briefly summarize the ample scientific evidence that supports the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin, at least as an adjunctive treatment, in patients with MetS. © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2013

A systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence was conducted to obtain a conclusive result on the lipid-modulating effects of resveratrol. Seven randomized controlled trials with a total of 282 subjects (141 in each group) met the eligibility criteria. Overall, resveratrol supplementation had no significant effect on any of the lipid parameters assessed: total cholesterol (weighted mean difference [WMD] -8.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -21.54-4.14; P=0.18), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD -3.22; 95% CI -12.56-6.12); P=0.50), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD -0.26; 95% CI -4.25-3.73; P=0.90), and triglycerides (WMD -4.30; 95% CI -20.22-11.63; P=0.60). These results were robust in sensitivity analysis and were not dependent on the resveratrol dose, the duration of supplementation, or the cardiovascular risk status of the population studied. While future large-scale, well-designed trials are warranted, the current evidence suggests that mechanisms other than hypolipidemic effects account for the established cardioprotective properties of resveratrol. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

Malaekeh-Nikouei B.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Current drug delivery | Year: 2013

In the present work a series of imprinted (MIPs) and non-imprinted (NIPs) hydrogels were prepared using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as a backbone monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker monomer, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and dorzolamide (DZD) as the template molecule. Different concentrations of MAA (0, 100, 200, 400 mM) were used for preparation of NIPs. Two DZD: MAA molar ratios (1:8 and 1:4) and 400 mM MAA were also applied in imprinting process. The hydrogels (0.4 mm thickness) were synthesized by thermal polymerization at 50°C in 24h in a polypropylene mould. Then, the swelling and binding properties of hydrogels were evaluated in water. Their loading and releasing properties were also studied in NaCl 0.9% and artificial lachrymal fluid. The results showed that using MAA as co-monomer and applying molecular imprinting technique increased loading capacity of hydrogels. The optimized imprinted hydrogel (MIP1:4), prepared with 400 mM MAA and DZD: MAA molar ratio of 1:4, had the highest affinity for DZD and the greatest ability to control the release process in aqueous media. Our data indicated that the use of suitable co-monomer and applying a molecular imprinting technique had important influence on loading and releasing properties of hydrogels.

Ghorbani A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2013

Diabetes is often associated with dyslipidemia, a main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. According to the traditional recommendations and experimental studies, numerous phytochemicals have been suggested for dyslipidemia. In most cases, however, limited evidence exists regarding their clinical usefulness. This review focuses on phytochemicals that have been investigated in clinical trials, particularly their hypolipidemic actions in diabetic patients. Proposed mechanisms for the hypolipidemic effects of such phytochemicals and their potential side effects are discussed. According to the evidence currently available, Allium sativum, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Psyllium, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia. These herbs have demonstrated hypolipidemic and in some cases hypoglycemic activity in diabetic patients. Therefore, their consumption may improve the management of dyslipidemia and reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Date: 2012-04-28

A drinking simulator provides for testing of dental samples under three different condition sets simultaneously. A first tank provides chilled liquid to testing chambers at a first temperature range, a second tank provides heated liquid to testing chambers at a second temperature range and a third tank provides heated liquid to testing chambers at a third temperature range. Shower heads in each of the tanks are provided to shower dental samples with the provided liquid. A human machine interface allows for user control of multiple showering modes and liquid temperatures and additionally displays testing conditions to the user.

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