Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Mashhad, Iran

Mashhad University of Medical science is a medical school in Iran. Located in Razavi Khorasan province in the city of Mashhad, it was established in 1949 with Ferdowsi University of Mashad and separated in 1986 from its parent institution by national legislation.The university is currently ranked as one of the best in the Middle East. In 2001, its department of Medicine was ranked first among the Iranian universities. The latest rankings put Mashhad University in 3rd place nationally.MUMS has 8 faculties, operates 32 hospitals plus 179 rural and 147 urban health care centers. Its faculty include 600 teaching staff, 1700 physicians, 140 dentists, 130 pharmacists, and 25,402 staff employees. In 2001, 7,000 students were enrolled full-time. Wikipedia.

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Hosseinzadeh H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Nassiri-Asl M.,Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2013

In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2014

Background: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been identified as a strong predictor and independent risk factor of CVD. Curcuminoids are multifunctional natural product with promising cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Curcuminoids have been suggested to lower circulating levels of CRP, but clinical findings have not been consistent. Objectives: To pool the published results of clinical trials on the impact of supplementation with curcuminoids on circulating levels of CRP. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched for clinical trials reporting circulating CRP changes in individuals receiving curcuminoids. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and I 2 tests. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using leave-one-out method. Results: Six trials comprising 172 subjects in the curcuminoids group and 170 subjects in the placebo group fulfilled the eligibility criteria and included in the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, supplementation with curcuminoids was associated with a significant reduction in circulating CRP levels (weighed mean difference: -6.44 mg/L; 95% CI: -10.77 - -2.11; p = 0.004). This significant effect was maintained in subgroups of trials that used bioavailability-improved preparations of curcuminoids and had supplementation duration of ≥4 weeks, but not in the subgroups without these characteristics. Conclusions: Supplementation with curcuminoids may reduce circulating CRP levels. This effect appears to depend on the bioavailability of curcuminoids preparations and also duration of supplementation. Future well-designed and long-term trials are warranted to verify this effect of curcuminoids. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ghorbani A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

Momtazi A.A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2016

Background: Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric, is a dietary phytochemical with a diversity of health benefits including strong anti-tumor effects. Curcumin undergoes a rapid metabolism resulting in a low oral bioavailability. 3, 4-difluorobenzylidene curcumin or (CDF) is a novel fluorinated curcumin analogue which has been shown to be about 3 times more bioavailable than curcumin. This review aimed to summarize the findings of studies related to pharmacokinetic and pharmacological characteristics of CDF. Methods: A systematic literature search was prformed in Scopus and Medline to identify all published articles dealing with CDF. Results: Biodistribution assays have revealed that curcumin is mostly distributed to the heart and lung tissues while CDF is preferentially accumulated in pancreas where its tissue concentrations reach two folds higher than that of curcumin. Moreover, CDF has been reported to possess stronger cytotoxic effects compared with CMN in both monolayer and spheroid cultures of different tumor cell lines including chemo-resistant ones. CDF can promote tumor suppression through multiple mechanisms including inhibition of self-renewal capacity of cancer stem/stem-like cells, clonogenicity invasiveness and angiogenesis of tumor cells, while increasing the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy. These effects are the results of the modulatory action of CDF on diverse targets, such as miRNAs (miR-21, miR-101, miR-210, miR34a and miR34c), PTEN, CD44, EGFR, EpCAM, EZH2, HIF-1α, and VEGF. Conclusion: This review presents an overview of the findings on metabolism and pharmacological activities of CDF, and also highlights potential opportunities to use this novel curcumin analogue in the treatment of cancer. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Curcumin is a polyphenolic natural compound with diverse and attractive biological activities. There has been in-vitro, preclinical and clinical evidence on the cardioprotective and lipid-lowering effects of curcumin. The present review aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze current clinical evidence on the effects of curcumin supplementation on blood lipids. Methods: A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Scopus, AMED, Cochrane and clinical trial registry databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of curcumin on any component of serum lipid profile including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Meta-analysis of eligible studies was conducted using a random-effects approach. Results: Five studies comprising 10 treatment arms (n=133 in the curcumin and 90 in the control group) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of findings did not indicate a significant effect of curcumin on any of the lipid parameters. The estimated pooled mean changes (95% confidence interval) following curcumin supplementation were 8.97 (95% CI:-4.56 to 22.51) mg/dL (for total cholesterol; p=0.19); 16.15 (-4.43 to 36.74) mg/dL (for LDL-C; p=0.12);-0.59 (-1.66 to 0.49) mg/dL (for HDL-C; p=0.28) and-1.29 (-9.05 to 6.48) mg/dL (for triglycerides; p=0.75). In the same manner, subgroup analysis of studies on patients at cardiovascular risk did not indicate any significant effect of curcumin on circulating lipid levels. There was a significant heterogeneity for the impact of curcumin on total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides but not HDL-C. Conclusions: In light of the present meta-analysis, curcumin supplementation has apparently no effect on serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and HDL-C levels when considering heterogeneous populations. However, further randomized controlled trials with longer supplementation duration, and bioavailability-improved formulations of curcumin are warranted to be conducted in dyslipidemic subjects for a more robust assessment of the lipid-modulating properties of this phytochemical. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
DNA and Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Genetic factors can substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A missense Pro12Ala substitution in the PPARγ2 gene (rs1801282) has been studied in relation with NAFLD risk in different ethnic groups, but findings have been inconclusive. The aim of this was to evaluate the association between rs1801282 and NAFLD through meta-analysis of all relevant published evidence. A systematic search to find eligible studies was performed in Medline, HuGE Navigator, and SCOPUS databases. The strength of association was evaluated using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained from a random effect approach and under additive, dominant, co-dominant, recessive, and allelic contrast models. Seven studies comprising 1474 cases and 2259 controls met the eligibility criteria and included in the meta-analysis. Combined results did not indicate any predisposing or protective effect for rs1801282 under any of the assessed modes of inheritance. The rate of heterogeneity was generally high due to the inter-study variations in terms of age, gender, and ethnicity. Evidence from the current meta-analysis indicated that rs1801282 variants are not associated with NAFLD risk. Future large-scale studies are required to substantiate the present findings. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.

Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2013

Dyslipidemia is a major coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. In spite of the proven efficacy of statin drugs in reducing CHD burden, there is still much room for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents to address the considerable residual cardiovascular risk that remains after treatment with currently available medications. In particular, there is an urgent demand for drugs capable of boosting the concentration and/or function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), thereby promoting reverse cholesterol transport. Phospholipids are naturally occurring fats that play indispensible role in human health via their structural, energy storage, signal transduction and metabolic functions. Supplementation with either purified or mixed preparations of bioactive phospholipids has been reported to ameliorate a range of nutritional and cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, several lines of evidence have supported the efficacy of dietary phospholipids in reducing serum and hepatic contents of cholesterol and triglycerides, while increasing HDL-C and apo A-I levels. These beneficial effects of phospholipids could be attributed to their ability in reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption, enhancing biliary cholesterol excretion and modulating the expression and activity of transcriptional factors and enzymes that are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Given their extreme safety and biocompatibility, dietary supplementation with phospholipid preparations, in particular phosphatidylinositol, appears as a novel and effective strategy that could be used as an alternative or adjunctive therapy to the current medications. The present review outlines the in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical findings on the anti-dyslipidemic effects of three most abundant phospholipids in the human body and diet namely phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the yellow-orange pigment of dried Curcuma longa L. rhizomes (turmeric). During the past two decades, there has been a large volume of published studies describing the biological and pharmacological properties of this phytochemical including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, memory enhancing, antiparkinsonism, antirheumatic, anti-infectious, antiaging, antipsoriatic, and anticonvulsant activities. In addition, curcumin has been shown to be extremely safe and interact with multiple molecular targets that are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Curcumin could favorably affect all leading components of metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL-C and hypertension, and prevent the deleterious complications of MetS including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin can also exert several pleiotropic effects and improve endothelial dysfunction, adipokine imbalances, and hyperuricemia which usually accompany MetS. Despite the potential tremendous benefit of this multifaceted phytopharmaceutical, no trial result has yet been publicized on this issue. This review seeks to briefly summarize the ample scientific evidence that supports the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin, at least as an adjunctive treatment, in patients with MetS. © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Sahebkar A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2013

A systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence was conducted to obtain a conclusive result on the lipid-modulating effects of resveratrol. Seven randomized controlled trials with a total of 282 subjects (141 in each group) met the eligibility criteria. Overall, resveratrol supplementation had no significant effect on any of the lipid parameters assessed: total cholesterol (weighted mean difference [WMD] -8.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -21.54-4.14; P=0.18), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD -3.22; 95% CI -12.56-6.12); P=0.50), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD -0.26; 95% CI -4.25-3.73; P=0.90), and triglycerides (WMD -4.30; 95% CI -20.22-11.63; P=0.60). These results were robust in sensitivity analysis and were not dependent on the resveratrol dose, the duration of supplementation, or the cardiovascular risk status of the population studied. While future large-scale, well-designed trials are warranted, the current evidence suggests that mechanisms other than hypolipidemic effects account for the established cardioprotective properties of resveratrol. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

Ghorbani A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2013

Diabetes is often associated with dyslipidemia, a main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. According to the traditional recommendations and experimental studies, numerous phytochemicals have been suggested for dyslipidemia. In most cases, however, limited evidence exists regarding their clinical usefulness. This review focuses on phytochemicals that have been investigated in clinical trials, particularly their hypolipidemic actions in diabetic patients. Proposed mechanisms for the hypolipidemic effects of such phytochemicals and their potential side effects are discussed. According to the evidence currently available, Allium sativum, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Psyllium, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia. These herbs have demonstrated hypolipidemic and in some cases hypoglycemic activity in diabetic patients. Therefore, their consumption may improve the management of dyslipidemia and reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

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