Nyanza, Kenya

Maseno University

Nyanza, Kenya

Maseno University is a university based in Maseno, near Kisumu, in Kenya and was founded in 1991. It is one of the seven public universities in Kenya. Currently,Maseno University is ranked as the second best university in Kenya.It has over ten thousand students pursuing various programs offered in the University's campuses.The university is in Maseno Township along Kisumu-Busia road, some 25 km from Kisumu City and 400 km west of Nairobi. It has two campuses: the Kisumu and the main campus. The main campus is along Kisumu-Busia road, while the Kisumu campus is located in Kisumu City.The name "Maseno" was coined by Rev. J.J. Willis out of the name of a tree known in local dialects as "Oseno" or "Oluseno" that stood next to the spot where the first missionaries in the region erected their base. Wikipedia.

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Mwangi M.N.,Maseno University | Prentice A.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Verhoef H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2017

The World Health Organization recommends universal iron supplementation of 30-60 mg/day in pregnancy but coverage is low in most countries. Its efficacy is uncertain, however, and there has been a vigorous debate in the last decade about its safety, particularly in areas with a high burden of malaria and other infectious diseases. We reviewed the evidence on the safety and efficacy of antenatal iron supplementation in low-income countries. We found no evidence that daily supplementation at a dose of 60 mg leads to increased maternal Plasmodium infection risk. On the other hand, recent meta-analyses found that antenatal iron supplementation provides benefits for maternal health (severe anaemia at postpartum, blood transfusion). For neonates, there was a reduced prematurity risk, and only a small or no effect on birth weight. A recent trial showed, however, that benefits of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal and neonatal health vary by maternal iron status, with substantial benefits in iron-deficient women. The benefits of universal iron supplementation are likely to vary with the prevalence of iron deficiency. As a consequence, the balance between benefits and risks is probably more favourable in low-income countries than in high-income countries despite the higher exposure to infectious pathogens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Zhou X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhou X.,Hubei Key Laboratory for Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment | Bernardes M.A.D.S.,CRP Henri Tudor | Ochieng R.M.,Maseno University
Energy | Year: 2012

A model of correlating atmospheric cross flow and the fluid flow inside a solar updraft tower (SUT) was presented by assuming SUT inflow as a compressible flow. The influence of atmospheric cross flow on SUT inflow was studied using the model. Results showed that atmospheric cross flow had a large influence on SUT inflow, and the SUT inlet air velocity approximately equaled to 26% of cross flow velocity for collector air temperature rise Δ T= 0 °C. With an increase in atmospheric cross flow velocity, the fluid flow velocity inside SUT was found to increase. The enlargement effect of pressure potential and SUT inlet air velocity induced by atmospheric cross flow increased with higher SUT height, but decreased with higher temperature rise, which is proportional to collector area. The percentage enlargement for cross flow to the pressure potential was between 67% and 102% and that to the SUT inlet air velocity was between 33% and 48%, for H varying from 100 m to 3000 m and Δ T= 20 °C. The enlargement drastically decreased for Δ T varying from 0 °C to 80 °C for H= 900 m. The work would lay a good foundation for accurate predication of potential power production from SUT power plants by considering the effect of atmospheric cross flow. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kiage L.M.,Georgia State University | Obuoyo J.,Maseno University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2011

This study evaluates the link between the occurrence of El Nino events in East Africa and water hyacinth blooms in Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria using remote sensing technology. A time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analyzed from data acquired by the multispectral Aqua/Terra sensors aboard the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite are used to monitor areal extent and density of the aquatic plants. We related the NDVI derived from MODIS imagery to data on El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO) events that were obtained from NOAA and rainfall data from the study site. Our results from the 11-year time-series data show a statistically significant positive correlation (R = 0.6, P = 0.021) between the occurrence of El Niño events and water hyacinth blooms in Winam Gulf. The proliferation of water hyacinth rafts in Winam Gulf may be a response to dramatic environmental and water quality changes in Lake Victoria. The patterns of impact of ENSO events and rainfall show spatial and temporal variation patterns in the region, depending on the time and space evolution of each individual ENSO event that could explain the differences in general patterns of water hyacinth cover in Lake Victoria during different El Niño events. Although the problems eutrophication and water hyacinth are severe in the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria some of the solutions to the problem are located several hundreds of kilometers away in the rich agricultural farmlands of the Lake Victoria catchment area. These include better land management practices and strategies aimed at limiting pollution and soil erosion within the lake's drainage basin. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Opondo D.O.,Maseno University
International Journal of Global Warming | Year: 2013

Periodic river floods have devastating social and economic impacts on poor households in the low-lying coastal and western regions of Kenya. This paper focuses on how households in Bunyala District coped with the impacts of flooding, and particularly the December 2011 River Nzoia flood. The data for the study was collected through a survey of 400 households, three focus group discussions, four in-depth interviews and six key informant interviews. Of the surveyed household-heads, 393 (98.4%) reported negative impacts of the flood on farming, livestock and/or property. Coping strategies at household level included temporary relocation and migration, reduced expenditure on household needs, engagement in extra income-generating activities, selling of property and reliance on support from public and private agencies. The findings reveal that many of the coping measures that people use are erosive, as they have negative long-term effects on household livelihood sustainability. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Langat N.T.,Maseno University
East African journal of public health | Year: 2012

To determine ARV drug adherence levels in children (aged 3 to 14 years) attending Kericho District Hospital (KDH), Kenya. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a random sample of caregivers of 230 children on ARVs for a study period of six months (i.e. 1st August 2010 to 31st January 2011). The study population comprised HIV infected children on ARVs and their caregivers. The caregivers whose children met the selection criteria were selected. A structured pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to interview the caregivers of the HIV infected children who were selected from among those who took the children for treatment. The interview was continued on the consecutive caregivers until the sample of 230 children was attained. The key variables examined were; demographic information of caregivers and children and drug adherence levels. Measures of adherence included; drug/pill counting and estimate of volumes of syrup remaining from the last prescription, caregiver reports (on keeping clinic appointments and timing of taking ARVs by the child), and drug refill data (from pharmacy records). Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. The adherence levels based on time of taking ARV drugs was 56.1%, keeping clinic appointments 45.7%, No ARVs returned (i.e. took all drugs assessed through pill counts) 27%, and pharmacy drug refill was 47.8%. The overall average adherence level was suboptimal at 44.2%. It was recommended that caregivers of the HIV infected children should be educated on importance of strict adherence to prescribed doses of ARVs to the children. Future research should explore using multiple measures of adherence and reasons for non-adherence among HIV infecting children. The drug adherence level was sub-optimal.

Zhou X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Wang F.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Fan J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Ochieng R.M.,Maseno University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is proposed to be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is abundant solar radiation, high direct solar radiation low atmospheric temperature, large diurnal temperature range, and lots of salt lakes working as heat storage system, which can help to improve the power output of SCPP. The plant is expected to power local railway traffic lines and act as a solar power base to supply power for national development. The performance of the SCPP that will be built in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is analyzed and power potential estimated by developing a simple mathematical model. It is found that SCPP if built in the plateau can produce twice more power than an SCPP built on the same latitude of other regions. The yearly power potential for SCPP in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is estimated to be 86.8 million TJ. When 10-20% of the plateau land is used for the SCPP, the yearly power output may reach 8.7 million TJ to 17.4 million TJ, accounting for 10.7-21.3% of China's energy consumption in 2008 which stood at 81.6 million TJ. It is found that the SCPP in the plateau can support local and national development together with other renewable energy resources such as hydroelectric power and wind power. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ojwach S.O.,Maseno University | Darkwa J.,University of Johannesburg
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Pyrazolyl ligands have been used to prepare metal complexes since the mid-1960s as nitrogen-donor ligands. However, unlike other nitrogen-donor ligands like imines and pyridines, their metal complexes have not been used extensively in catalysis. This review highlights the emergence of pyrazolyl metal complexes as nitrogen-donor catalysts, particularly in carbon-carbon coupling reactions. The focus is on olefin oligomerization and polymerization, acetylene oligomerization and polymerization, Heck and Suzuki coupling and ring opening polymerization of cyclic monomers. It highlights successes and problems of these catalysts, but draws attention to this burgeoning area so that other researchers can take advantage of these remarkable ligands. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ochieng R.M.,Maseno University
International Journal of Energy, Environment and Economics | Year: 2012

This paper presents a matrix method approach to modeling of energy usage and financial planning for households, industries, institutions and communities. A discussion is then presented on how the model can be modified and implemented for national or global use. © Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Watsierah C.A.,Maseno University | Ouma C.,Maseno University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been adopted as the most effective treatment against malaria in many endemic countries like Kenya while quinine has remained the second line. The objective of the current study was to assess access to Kenya's policy recommended anti-malarials, ACT and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets in western Kenya. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using purposive sampling of 288 outlets (126 public, 96 private, 66 not-for-profit) was conducted in western Kenya in two regions with varying Plasmodium falciparum endemicities. Information on access (availability, price, affordability) on ACT and quinine was collected using the WHO and Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) standardized methodologies for availability, prices and affordability of drugs. From a Ministry of Health database, the following were included in the analyses: one (1) main public hospital, followed by random selection of five hospitals under this main facility. Eight other public outlets under each of the hospitals were selected, to a total of 96. Matching number of private outlets (n = 96), all (66) not-for-profit outlets and additional 30 public health facilities were sampled to get the required sample size of 288. Results: More public 111 (88.1%) and not-for-profit 27 (40.9%) outlets stocked subsidized ACT (artemether-lumefantrine, AL). Other artemisinin-based combinations were widely available for both children 93 (96.9%) and adults 82 (85.0%) in private outlets. Frequent stock-outs were in public in 106 (84%), reporting three times or more stock-outs in three months. Subsidized ACT (AL) was sold at median price of USD 0.94 and 0.75 in private and not-for-profit outlets respectively. The costs was higher than recommended price of USD 0.5 and requiring up to 0.20-0.25 days of disposable income for households in lowest economic status. Conclusion: There is low availability of subsidized ACT (AL) and higher frequency of stock-outs in government facilities, while private sector sells AL at higher prices, thus making it less affordable to many households. These factors determine the adherence to the dosing schedules during the treatment course and thus the evaluation of the subsidy policy, its implementation and role in malaria burden in this region is compulsory. © 2014 Watsierah and Ouma; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Owuor P.O.,Maseno University | Wachira F.N.,Egerton University | Ng'etich W.K.,Moi University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Tea is grown in diverse regions with varying climates. Growers seek high-yielding and superior quality cultivars to improve profitability of the enterprise. A superior quality genotype in one location is assumed to replicate the same attributes when planted in different regions, especially when climatic variations are minimal. Assessment of 20 commercial genotypes under identical management in three locations within Kenya revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) plain tea quality differences, demonstrating the need to identify superior quality clones. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in the plain tea quality parameters with location of production. It is therefore not possible to produce tea of the same quality even from the same cultivars when the production location is varied. Regression coefficients (r2) of linear correlations of the same parameters at different sites revealed low values that cannot be used to predict quality. This suggests the extents of changes in the individual parameters were different for the same clone in different regions. There were no significant interactions between sites and genotypes in the different plain tea parameters assessed, further showing the changes were not systematic. The results demonstrate that a genotype selected in one site for high quality may not retain the relative quality over other genotypes in new areas. It is necessary to test genotypes in new areas of production to fully evaluate their relative quality potentials. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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